# CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

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Chapter Objectives
Chapter 13 – Properties of Solutions
Recognize examples of solutions
Know definition of solubility
Know definition of saturated solution
Know definition of supersaturated solution
Know definition of miscible / immiscible
Understand the dynamic nature of saturated solution
dissolution  crystallization
Understand the physical factors of solution formation
Intermolecular forces – ‘like dissolves like’
Enthalpy – enthalpy of solvation usually negative
- as charge density of ion increases, enthalpy of hydration increases
Entropy – disorder / in all systems, total entropy increases
Understand the factors affecting solubility
External Pressure
Temperature
– Careful: Factors are different for gas in liquids and solids in liquids
Know Henry’s Law and be able to do Henry’s Law problems: c  k  P
Know the five concentration units discussed
Mass Percent
Parts per million (billion)
Mole Fraction
Molarity
Molality
Be able to convert between concentration units
Know that colligative properties depend only on the number of solute particles
Be able to find the concentration of solute particles for ionic and molecular solutes
Understand physically Raoult’s Law: PA  x A  PA0
Be able to do problems using Raoult’s Law
Understand the relationship between vapor pressure and boiling point
Understand the relationship between Raoult’s Law and boiling point elevation
Be able to do boiling point elevation problems: Tb = Kb  m
Be able to do freezing point depression problems: Tf = Kf  m
Know what is a semipermeable membrane
Know what is osmosis
Know why semipermeable membranes are essential for osmosis
Know what is osmotic pressure
Know what is reverse osmosis and why it is important
Be able to solve problems with the osmotic pressure equation: V = nRT
Be solve problems using osmotic pressure to calculate the molar mass of a solute
Know the difference between an ideal and a nonideal solution
Interpret microscopically what positive and negative deviations from ideality for solutions
2
Know what a colloid is
Know difference between dissolution and dispersion
Know what the Tyndall effect is and its importance
Know the general structure of a soap or detergent molecule
Know how soaps and detergents work
Know what a micelle is and how they form
Know what an emulsion is
Chapter 14 – Chemical Kinetics
Understand the definition of reaction rate:  
 molesof B
t
Understand the factors which affect reaction rate
Concentration of reactants
Temperature of reaction
Catalysis
Surface Area
Be able to an average reaction rate from concentration versus time data
Understand what is meant by an instantaneous reaction rate
Understand how the stoichiometry of a reaction affects the rate of formation and rate of
disappearance of chemical species
Know the general form of a reaction rate law:  = k [A]m [B]n [C]p …
Be calculate rate orders and the rate constant of a reaction rate law given concentration versus rate data
Know what is meant by a first-order reaction
Be able to use the concentration versus time relationship for a first-order reaction to solve
problems: ln [A] - ln [A0] = - kt
Know the difference between common and natural logarithms
Know the algebraic rules for logarithms
ln (ab) = ln (a) + ln (b)
ln (a/b) = ln (a) – ln (b)
ln(ab) = b ln (a)
eln a = a
ln ea = a
Know how to use ln [A] - ln [A0] = - kt to plot concentration versus time data on a linear plot
Know how to read a linear first-order concentration versus time plot to find initial concentration
and the first-order rate constant
Know what is the half-life of a first-order reaction
Know how to use ln [A] - ln [A0] = - kt to calculate the half-life of a first-order reaction
Know what is meant by a second-order reaction
Be able to use the concentration versus time relationship for a second-order reaction to solve
1
1

 kt
problems
 A  A 0
1
1

 k  t to plot concentration versus time data on a linear plot
Know how to use
 A  A 0
Know how to read a linear second-order concentration versus time plot to find initial concentration
and the second-order rate constant
3
1
1

 k  t to calculate the half-life of a second-order reaction
 A  A 0
Compare the expressions for a first-order reaction with the expressions for a second-order reaction,
especially half-lives
Know what is meant by a zeroth-order reaction and know the consequences of zeroth-order
reaction.
Know the collision theory of reactions
Understand how the collision theory of reactions helps to explain the factors that affect reaction rate
Know what is meant by activation energy
Know what is meant by activated complex
Be able to read and interpret a reaction energy diagram
Know how to use

Ea
Using the Arrhenius equation, k  A  e RT , understand the relationships between the rate constant
and the temperature or activation energy
Be able to calculate a rate constant given a temperature, activation energy and frequency factor
Be able to use a ratio of Arrhenius equations to calculate the activation energy given rate constants
at two different temperatures
Be able to rearrange Arrhenius equation to plot rate constant versus temperature on a linear plot
Know what is meant by catalysis
Understand the role of activation energy in catalysis
Know the difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis
Know what is meant by adsorption
Know what is meant by an elementary reaction
Know how to put together elementary reaction in a reaction mechanism to find an overall reaction
Know the reaction rate laws for elementary reactions
Know what is meant by an intermediate
Know how to identify an intermediate in a reaction mechanism
Know how to identify a catalyst in a reaction mechanism
Know how to write a reaction rate law given a simple reaction mechanism
Chapter 15 – Introduction to Equilibria
Understand relationship between equilibrium and reaction rates
Know examples of physical and chemical equililbria
Be able to write an equilibrium expression for a given equilibrium
Be able to calculate the value of the equilibrium constant given equilibrium concentrations or
pressures
Understand how the equilibrium constant value gives information about preferred chemical species
Know what is meant by homogeneous equilibria and heterogeneous equilibria
Know how to write an equilibrium expression for a heterogeneous equilibrium
Be able to solve for unknown equilibrium concentrations or pressures given an equilibrium and
initial concentrations or pressures
- Know when to approximate changes as small, i. e., when is ‘x’ small
- Know when to use quadratic equation and how to use it.
n
Know relationship between Kc and Kp: K p  K c  RT
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Know what is LeChâtelier’s principle
Know the factors that can be changed to disturb equilibria
Know how LeChâtelier’s principle predicts the response to the disturbance of equilibria
Know how value of reaction quotient predicts direction of reaction
Know how temperature affects exothermic and endothermic equilibria
Know how pressure affects gas phase equilibria
Know the effect of catalysis on equilibria
Chapter 16 – Acids and Bases
Know what is meant by an Arrhenius acid/base
Know what is meant by a Brønsted/Lowry acid or base
Know what is meant conjugate acid or conjugate base
Be able to identify conjugate acid/base pairs in an acid/base reaction
Know what is meant by a Lewis acid or base
Be able to compare and contrast the Arrhenius, Brønsted/Lowry and Lewis acid/base theories
Be able to identify an acid/base as strong or weak
Know what is meant by a neutralization reaction
Know what is meant by the autoionization of a solvent (especially water)
Know that Kw = 1.0  10-14 at 25 C
Know how calculate [H+] given [OH-] or calculate [OH-] given [H+]
Know the hydronium ion concept
Know the definition of pH and other “p” scales
Know the relationship between pH and pOH and pKw
Understand the relationship between the strength of an acid (base) the strength of its conjugate
base (acid)
Be able to calculate the pH of a solution of a mixture of strong acids
Be able to calculate the pH or pOH of a solution of a mixture of strong bases
Know how the chemical structure of a weak acid affects its strength
Be able to write an equilibrium expression for the dissociation of a weak acid
Be able to calculate the pH of a weak acid solution
Be able to calculate the Ka of a weak acid given its pH and concentration
Know the two common sources for weak bases: conjugate bases and nitrogen compounds
Be able to write an equilibrium expression for the dissociation of a weak base
Know the relationship between Ka and Kb
Be able to calculate the pH or pOH of a weak base solution
Be able to calculate the percent ionization of a weak acid or base
Know how percent ionization relates to acid/base dissociation constant
Know what is meant by a polyprotic acid
Understand the dissociation process in a polyprotic acid
Based on Ka values, be able to identify the stronger conjugate base
Based on Kb values, be able to identify the stronger conjugate acid
Know what is meant by hydrolysis
Know how anions and cations affect hydrolysis
Be able to estimate whether an ionic solution is acidic, basic or neutral
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Chapter 17 – Buffers/Titrations/Solubility Equilibria
Know what is meant by the common-ion effect
Be able to relate the common-ion effect to LeChâtelier’s principle
Be able to calculate the pH of solution of mixtures of conjugate acid/base pairs
Know what is meant by a buffer
Know how the common-ion effect relates to buffers
Know why buffers are important
Know what is meant by buffer capacity
 [ base]
Know the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: pH  pK a  log

 [acid ] 
Know the applicability of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
Understand the equivalence of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and acid-dissociation
expression
Be able to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of solutions of mixtures of
conjugate acid/base pairs
Be able to design a buffer system using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and a table of aciddissociation constants
Know what is meant by a titration
Know what is meant by an indicator
Know the difference between endpoint and equivalence point
Be able to select an indicator for an acid/base titration
Know the difference between a deadstop titration and a potentiometric titration
Be able to read a titration curve
- Be able to properly label axes
- Identify if sample is strong or weak acid or base
- Identify if sample is polyprotic
- Identify equivalence points
- Identify pKa or pKb of weak acid and bases
- Identify buffer regions
Know how to identify what part of the titration curve a system is at based on the titration data
- Weak acid (or base) [Initial conditions]
- Buffer
- Weak base (or acid) [Equivalence point]
- Strong base (or acid) [Excess titrant]
Be able to calculate the pH of a titration at any point in the titration curve given titration data
Be able to write a solubility product expression for a given solubility equilibrium
Know the relationship between molar solubility and Ksp
Know the relationship between mass solubility and molar solubility
Be able to calculate solubility given Ksp
Be able to calculate Ksp given solubility
Understand how the common-ion effect affects solubility
Understand how the separation of ions occurs through selective precipitation
Be able to calculate concentrations of ions needed for selective precipitation
Be able to use a table of Ksp to design a separation of ions based on selective precipitation
Understand how pH may affect solubility
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Know what is meant by a coordination complex
Know how Lewis acid/base theory explains coordination complexes
Know the definition for the formation constant of complex ion
Understand how complexation may affect solubility
Know what is an amphoteric ion
Know how to judge which ions are amphoteric
Chapter 19 – Thermodynamics
Know what is meant by a spontaneous process
Be able to identify a process as spontaneous or nonspontaneous
Know what is meant by a reversible process
Be able to identify a process as reversible or irreversible
Know the first law of thermodynamics: E = q + w
Understand the significance of the first law of thermodynamics
Know the sign convention for heat and work
Know what is meant by entropy
Be able to compare qualitatively systems with different amounts of entropy
q rev
Know the thermodynamic definition of entropy: S 
T
Be able to use the thermodynamic definition of entropy to calculate entropy given heat and
temperature (especially for phase transitions)
Know the second law of thermodynamics: S univ  0
Understand the difference of system and surroundings
Be able to explain how the entropy of a system can decrease and not violate the 2nd law of
thermodynamics
Know the three types of molecular motion: translational, rotational, vibrational
Know what is meant by degree of freedom
For a given molecule, know the number of degrees of freedom for each mode of molecular motion
Know the third law of thermodynamics: The entropy of a perfect crystal is zero at absolute zero
Understand the consequences of the third law
Be able to calculate standard entropy changes of chemical reactions
Know what is meant by Gibbs free energy
Know the definition of Gibbs free energy
Know the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation: G = H – T S
Understand how the definition of Gibbs free energy relates to the second law of thermodynamics
Know how to decide the spontaneity of a process using Gibbs free energy
Know that the value of the Gibbs free energy yields the maximum work available for a reaction
Understand the significance of the magnitude of Gibbs free energy
Be able to calculate standard Gibbs free energy changes for chemical reactions
Understand the temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy
Be able to calculate the Gibbs free energy at a nonstandard temperature of a chemical reaction
using thermodynamic tables of standard enthalpy and standard entropy and the GibbsHelmholtz equation
Know the difference between Gibbs free energy, G, and standard Gibbs free energy, G
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Know how to write and calculate the reaction quotient for gas phase and aqueous reactions
Know what is a reaction quotient
Know relationship between reaction quotient and Gibbs free energy: G  G 0  RT ln Q
Be able to calculate Gibbs free energy of a chemical reaction given concentrations or pressure and
standard Gibbs free energy and use the result to predict direction of reaction
Know the relationship between equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs free energy:
G = -RT ln K
Know the difference between reaction quotient and equilibrium expression
Be able to calculate the equilibrium constant given a standard Gibbs free energy of reaction
Be able to calculate the standard Gibbs free energy of reaction given an equilibrium constant
Chapter 20 – Electrochemistry
Be able to assign an oxidation number to an atom within a molecule
Know the definition of oxidation
Know the definition of reduction
Know what is meant by an oxidizing agent
Know what is meant by a reducing agent
Be able to identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in a redox reaction
Know what is meant by a half-reaction
Understand the complementary nature of oxidation and reduction and the conservation of charge
Be able to balance redox equations in acidic and basis solutions
Know what is meant by a voltaic cell
Know what is meant by an anode
Know what is meant by a cathode
Know what is meant by a salt bridge
Understand why salt bridges are necessary in voltaic cells
Be able to sketch and label the parts within a voltaic cell
Know what is meant by electromotive force (voltage)
Know the definition for the SI unit of EMF
Know what is meant by electrical current
Understand the relationship between electrical current and voltage
Know what is meant by a standard reduction potential
Be able to calculate the cell potential of a redox reaction at standard conditions using standard
reduction potentials
Know the reference potential for standard reduction potential and understand why it is necessary
Know how to judge the strength of oxidizing and reducing agents based on standard reduction
potentials
Understand the relationship between free energy and cell potential: G = -n F E
Know how to calculate the Gibbs free energy of a reaction given a balanced redox equation and a
cell potential
Know how to calculate the cell potential of a reaction given a balanced redox equation and the
Gibbs free energy
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Understand the relationship between the reaction quotient and the cell potential via the
Nernst equation: E  E 0 
RT
ln Q
nF
Be able to calculate the cell potential for a nonstandard cell given a standard cell potential and the
reaction quotient
Understand how a concentration gradient can drive an electrochemical reaction
Know what is meant by electrolysis
Be able to sketch and identify the parts of an electrolytic cell
Be able to compare and contrast voltaic cells and electrolytic cells
Understand the possible complications in the electrolytic of an aqueous solution
Know the relationship between current and charge
Be able to do problems involving electrolysis
Understand corrosion as an electrochemical process
Know what is meant by a sacrificial electrode and why they are important
Chapter 21 – Nuclear Chemistry
Know what is meant by radioactivity
Know the different forms of radioactivity: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, fission
Know what is meant by an alpha particle
Know the three forms of beta decay: electron emission, positron emission, electron capture
Know what is meant by a neutrino
Know what is meant by a positron
Know the difference between spontaneous fission and induced fission
Know what is meant by a chain reaction
Know the three forces in a nucleus
Be able to name the nuclear force that mediates each mode of radioactivity
Be draw a rough sketch of a table of nuclides
Know what is meant by a band of stability
Know the ‘even, odd’ rules of nuclear stability
Know what is meant by a magic number
Be able to predict nuclear stability based on ‘even, odd’ rules
Be able to predict route of radioactivity for an unstable nuclide
Be able to write a balanced nuclear reaction for a radioactive decay
Know what is meant by cross section
Be able to compare and contrast nuclear reaction and chemical reactions
Know that nuclear decay processes follow first-order kinetics
Be able to do problems associated with first-order kinetics
Know what is meant by activity
Know what is a Geiger counter and what it measures
Understand the significance of Einstein’s equation E = mc2
Be able to use Einstein’s equation to calculate energy changes in nuclear processes
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