Oil Spills in Black Sea Ports

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REVIEW OF OIL AND WASTE STREAMS IN THE PORT OF BOURGAS
CHRISTO KARAGYOZOV 1, MARIANA KARAIVANOVA1, VENCISLAV IVANOV2
1
University “Prof. Dr A. Zlatarov” Bourgas,e-mail: [email protected]
2
Maritime Administration of Bourgas, Bulgaria
ABSTRACT
The present paper reviews the oil spillages in the Port of Bourgas and its water area. The possible
accidents during loading, discharging and other operations of oil tankers or oil product carriers are
analyzed, as well as the types of oil and oil product pollutants. Special treatment is given to the
operations in the “Rosenetz” oil terminal. The methods and equipment used to prevent pollution and
to clean the polluted water areas are described. The organization of collection and treatment of oil
spills and pollution from other sources is given in detail.
Keywords: Oil spillage, Ships, Garbage, Bilge waters.
1. INTRODUCTION
The Black Sea is an inner, almost closed sea, which is connected to the world ocean only by the
Bosphorus (see Figure1). The Bulgarian Black Sea coast is on the southwest of the sea. The Black
Sea is open to pollution coming from 17 countries situated on the border between Europe and Asia.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships MARPOL has classified
the Black Sea as a “special area” [MARPOL - 1973/1978]. The Convention treats as “special” those
areas where, “due to reasons related to their oceanographic and ecological conditions and the
specificity of the maritime transport, special and compulsory measures have to be taken in order to
prevent the sea from oil pollution”. This internationally acknowledged fact requires further
measures for the preservation of the ecological balance of the Black Sea. In view of the future
increase in the production of crude oil in the Black Sea region, the reconstruction of the old and the
building of new oil pipelines on Russian and Georgian territory leading to the sea coast, the possible
risk of large-scale pollution in the almost closed Black Sea has grown dramatically. Big amounts of
spilt oil could float to the Bulgarian coast and considerably endanger the international tourist
industry. Big rivers, like the Danube and the Dnieper, carry huge quantities of chemical pollutants,
such as phosphorus and nitro compounds, which have strong negative effects on the marine flora
and fauna. On the other hand, the intensive marine transport, including crude oil, oil and other
chemical products, additionally aggravate the ecological situation in the region [Bakan and
Buyukgungor, 2000].
The above-mentioned issue was the subject of the Odessa declaration of the ministers of the Black
Sea countries and the programme for ecological management and protection of the Black Sea.
123
Bourgas
Figure 1. Black Sea region [http://www.blackseaweb.net/].
In view of the above-mentioned agreements between the Black Sea countries, the present report is
particularly pertinent in terms of the possible serious pollution of the sea by oil during
transportation, loading and discharging operations and the storage of crude oil and oil products.
2. SOURCES OF POLLUTION OF THE WORLD OCEAN AND THEIR
CHARACTERISTICS
2.1. Basic sources of pollution with oil and oil products
The basic sources of pollution with oil and oil products are presented in Figure 2.
Sources of pollution of the marine environment
with oil products
37%
45%
Land based
Atmospheric
Natural
2%
7%
9%
Oil rigs
Shipping
Figure 2. Percentage distribution of the sources of pollution of the world ocean [Response to marine
oil spills, The international tanker owners pollution federation ltd, 1997].
According to their origin, they are classified as:
 Land based sources: industrial or communal, which comprise about 37% of the total amount
of oil products entering the marine environment;
 Atmospheric sources: they comprise about 9% of the total amount of oil products entering
the marine environment;
124



Natural sources: situated on the territory of the respective basin; they comprise about 7% of
the total amount of oil products entering the marine environment;
Oil rigs and exploration products: they comprise about 2% of the total amount of oil
products entering the marine environment;
Shipping: according to statistics the percentage of pollution due to shipping is about 45%
globally, 12% of which is due to tanker accidents and 33% to routine shipping operations.
2.2. Classification of oil spillage due to shipping
Depending on the amount of oil products spilt during shipping, spillages are classified as follows
[Response to marine oil spills, The international tanker owners pollution federation ltd, 1997]:
 Small: amounts of spilt oil products under 7 tonnes. Such spillage is mainly due to routine
operations, such as loading and discharging of tankers, bunkering, illegal discharge of bilge
waters, dry docking, etc;
 Medium: spillages of between 7 and 700 tonnes. The majority of these result from the
grounding and accidents of tankers;
 Large: these are spillages of oil and oil products exceeding 700 tonnes.
This classification of oil spillage is illustrated in Figure 3. It shows the percentages of the different
types of spillage according to the statistics about the world ocean [Oil Transportation by Tankers,
1975].
Comparative analysis of the spillage from tankers as a result of routine
operations and accidents in the world ocean
large (>700t), %
loading and discharging
bunkering
medium (7-700t), %
collision
grounding
small (<7t), %
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
number of spillages, %
Figure 3. Comparative analysis of the spillage from tankers as a result of routine operations and
accidents in the world ocean.
3. OIL SPILLAGES IN THE BLACK SEA PORT OF BOURGAS
The transportation of crude oil in the Black Sea region is about 189 million tonnes per year (1995
data), the main sea routes being Novorossiysk – Costanta, Bourgas – Novorossiysk – Bourgas,
Constanta – Poti – Constanta, Bourgas – Poti, Varna – Tuapse. The major risk for oil pollution
accidents are the ports and the oil installations including oil terminals, pipelines, etc.
In the region under the jurisdiction of the State Maritime Administration, Bourgas, the largest risk
of oil pollution accidents comes from the Bourgas oil port, because it handles crude oil, petrol,
diesel oil, mono and diethylene glycol, benzene, acrylonitrile, styrene and other chemical products
[Official Site of Port Administration Agency, BG].
125
3.1. “Rosenetz” Oil Terminal
3.1.1. Sources of pollution with oil and oil products
The “Rosenetz” Oil terminal (also known as Bourgas oil port) is located on the southern coast of the
Bourgas bay 8 km away from the city. It is operated by “Luckoil Bourgas” and has its own
company procedure for dealing with accidents which result in the pollution of the marine
environment with oil and/or harmful chemical liquids. Currently, the company does not have its
own means and equipment to cope with pollution from spillage. The activities of limiting and
cleaning the polluted areas are performed by the marine waters cleaning directorate, Bourgas
branch. The inflow of sludge water in the “Rosenetz” Oil terminal is as follows:
 Contaminated ballast water from oil tankers;
 Washing water from the handling of oil and oil products tankers;
 Contaminated ballast water from tankers carrying chemical substances;
 Washing water from the handling of tankers carrying chemical substances.
The Oil port does not possess the necessary equipment for the storage and treatment of such waters
as required by the MARPOL [MARPOL - 1973/1978] convention. For this reason the Regional
Inspectorate for the Protection of the Environment disallowed the acceptance of such oily sludge as
of 1996. At present the situation is the following:
At the “Rosenetz” oil terminal, there is a network of installations for the partial treatment of sludge
water (sewage water, faecal matter, industrial water, etc.) (Figure 4).
It is evident from the diagram that the ballast water from piers 1A and 1B is collected in
underground tank 3 which has a capacity of 10 000 m3. The tank is made of steel and is buried
underground, which is a potential risk to the environment in the future. A separate tank 4 has been
planned and is being built, where the water contaminated with chemical substances from pier 1C
will be collected. The contaminated ballast water is passed through distribution shaft 6 to oil
separator 7. The latter has a capacity of 648 m3, 432 m3 of which working capacity, with the
following dimensions: length 36 m, width 6 m and depth 3 m. The actual state of the oil separator
does not allow for its efficient functioning. It could be said that, practically, it is useless. The
contaminated ballast water treated in the oil separator is passed through the second distribution shaft
8 into the so-called primary oxidation lakes 9 and 10 and oxidation lake 11. After the lakes the
water passes into a reedy water area, where it is finally cleaned and goes into the sea. Positions 2, 5
and 12 on the scheme present supporting tanks. It is clear from the above that the method and range
of equipment and installations used in the treatment of ballast and other wastes cannot guarantee the
safety of the environment because the treatment is incomplete. There is an urgent necessity to
construct a new network of installations and use a new method for the treatment and recycling of
contaminated ballast water, which according to “Luckoil – Neftochim” should have the following
capacity:
 ballast water contaminated with oil
- up to 50,000 m3 per annum;
 ballast water contaminated with chemicals
- up to 40,000 m3 per annum;
 sewage water contaminated with oil
- up to 86,000 m3 per annum;
 sewage water contaminated with chemicals
- up to 18,000 m3 per annum;
 contaminated rain water
- up to 40 m3/h.
The design capacity of the equipment for the treatment of all oil contaminated waters has to be 80
m3/h, and those contaminated by chemicals – up to 40 m3/h. During the exploitation of the
“Rosenetz” oil terminal there have been local leakages and spills of oil, oil products and chemicals
due to accidents, repairs and other activities, and as a result part of the soil on the site is polluted.
126
3
5
4
T-1
T-19
(T- 3 , T-4* )
1A
1B
1C
6
8A
7
8
9
12
2
*
(T-1-T-19 )
11
10
The Black
sea
Legend:
1.A,B,C piers;
2.
tank for petroleum products;
3.
underground tank for sludge water
T-3 – 10 000 m3 underground steel and concrete tank for oil
contaminated water;
T-4* – 10 000 m3 underground steel and concrete tank for water
contaminated with chemical products;
*
in the future this type of sludge water is to be treated separately
4.
crude oil tank;
5.
6.
7.
8.
8A.
9.
10.
11.
12.
untreated materials storage;
distribution shaft;
oil separator;
distribution shaft;
level gauge;
primary oxidation lake;
primary oxidation lake;
oxidation lake and reed lake;
settling tank.
Figure 4. Diagram of the flow and treatment of sludge water in the Oil port.
3.1.2. Soil Contamination and Activities for its Re-cultivation
The contamination of the soil is due mainly to sewage leakages, overflow of sewer shafts, pipeline
punctures, cleaning of tanks, contamination of the soil and soil bank coating of tanks, as well as the
exploitation of the oxidation lake on the territory of the Oil terminal. These contaminations belong
to the so-called “old ecological damages” to deal with which “Luckoil – Neftochim Bourgas” has
endorsed a Recovery Measures Plan. The preparation of a detailed project for the elimination of the
old ecological damages has been assigned to “Niproruda” Ltd.
 The total area of soil contaminated with oil products is 66,495 m2;
 The amount of soil to be replaced is 26,598 m3;
 The amount of surface deposited sediments is 9,212 m3;
 The total amount of soil to be excavated is 35,810 m3.
The following activities have been planned for the recovery of the contaminated soil (according to
Niproruda’s Baseline project).
127



Survey and stabilization of the areas – by means of geodetic polarographic method survey;
Vertical levelling of the polluted areas in zones 8, 9 and 10. In combined zone 8,9,10 a
temporary depot for the storing of polluted soil substrates and construction rubbish is built.
The vertical levelling will aim to achieve a shape of relief of the polluted areas close to the
natural;
Establishing the amount of earth mass to be replaced. The site has been divided into two
sub-sites:
- Sub-site А – 14,084 m3 earth mass to be replaced;
- Sub-site B – 12,514 m3 earth mass to be replaced.
According to Ordinance No 26/1996 concerning the recovery of damaged terrains and the
improvement of low productive lands, removal and utilization of the humus layer, recovery has two
stages: technical and biological. Technical recovery comprises a system of technical activities
aiming to prepare the terrain, to facilitate and ensure the success of the biological recovery.
a) Technical recovery of the site
The main task of the technical recovery is to create the necessary conditions for the development of
vegetation and to reduce the risk of deep infiltration of pollutants. The technical recovery will have
the following stages:
 Removal of contaminated soils. Replacement of soil substrates with established
contamination over the allowable concentration. They will be removed from all zones
mentioned with a total area of F=66,495 m2 up to a depth of 0.4 m. The removed earth mass
will be transported to the first oxidation lake;
 Backfilling of the areas with suitable geological materials – gravel and concrete will be
used;
 Improvement of the quality of the soil substrate. This is done through the introduction of soil
ameliorators by using:
Peat (sphagnum): 2 m3/decare (рН= 3,5-4);
Manure: 4 t/decare.
b) Biological recovery
Biological recovery aims to stabilize the soil. It is carried out after the end of the technical recovery
at a time of the year which favours the development of vegetation, e.g. March in spring or
September or October in autumn. A mixture of perennial grasses suitable for the given conditions
will be used: unpretentious, with a strong root system and good soil stabilizing effect.
 Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis);
 Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perene);
 Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus).
If the technical and biological recoveries are carried out timely and properly, the following
ecological results can be expected:
 Limiting the effects of the pollution of the area with oil and oil products;
 Incorporation of the recovered areas in the natural landscape;
 Minimising the effect of the water and wind erosion processes;
 Providing conditions for the development of plant and animal life;
 Improvement of the local environment and living conditions.
128
3.2. Pollution of the Port of Bourgas with oil products
3.2.1. Rubbish Classification
The main flows of rubbish into the port of Bourgas are as follows [Vasilev at al. 1999]:
 Rubbish from the motor vessels permanently staying in the port and from those which visit
it;
 Rubbish from the routine port activities and from the other companies on its territory.
Ships’ rubbish can be of the following types [Vasilev at al. 1999]:
 Rubbish containing oil products, such as:
o used lubricating and machine oil;
o oil residues;
o bilge waters;
o contaminated ballast from oil tanks.
 Rubbish containing harmful liquids generated as a result of washing the tanks of chemical
products carriers;
 Ships’ garbage: These are domestic food waste, packaging, glass and plastic bottles, sanitary
waste, paper, cardboard, etc. To this category also belong garbage from the ship’s
maintenance – oily rags and cloth, garbage from the ship’s engine; and
 Mechanisms, damaged and replaced parts, packaging materials – paper, cardboard, metal,
ashes and fireproof materials, debris of old paint and rust. Of the same kind are cargo refuse
and garbage related to the cargo – cargo fastening materials such as timber, pallets, etc, as
well as fishing nets, ashes and slag from the ships’ incinerators.
The following types of rubbish are collected, transported and made harmless in the port of Bourgas
[Vasilev at al. 1999]:
 Oil containing refuse;
 Ships’ garbage.
3.2.2. Oil containing refuse
The processing of the oil containing refuse is done by a company authorized to perform such
activity as required by the Law for the restriction of the harmful influence of refuse on the
environment, after an order issued by the ship through its shipping agent [Vasilev at al. 1999]. It is
collected by oil-collecting barges and kept in mobile temporary stores or barrels. There are two such
barges with a capacity of 16 m3/h functioning in the port of Bourgas. They can only be used in
sheltered water area. Another vessel which is used for the same purpose is the “Rusalka”, a bilge
water collecting barge with a capacity of 140 m3/h and a separator on board to recycle the water. It
also has 1,000 m of oil booms. The “Rusalka” has good seafaring characteristics and can operate in
open waters. The collected oil containing waters are kept on a floating store. After that they are
loaded onto a tank truck and carried to the recycling plant in Varna. The approximate amount of oil
containing ship waters collected in the Port of Bourgas in 2002 is shown in Figure 5.
The diagram shows both ships sludge and bilge waters. In the Port of Bourgas the flows of hold
waters of the visiting ships are collected and treated by the Marine waters protection and cleaning
directorate. This company is directly responsible to the Ministry of Transport and has branches in
Varna and Bourgas. For example, in 1997 and 1998 the branch in Bourgas collected and treated the
hold waters of:
1997 – 340 ships;
1998 – 213 ships.
129
Ships refuse containing oil products
collected in the Port of Bourgas in 2002,
by month
m3 100
80
60
bilge waters
sludge
40
20
D
ec
e
m
be
r
er
t
ob
O
ct
ne
Ju
pr
il
A
ug
us
A
Fe
br
ua
ry
0
Figure 5. Ships oily refuse in the Port of Bourgas in 2002.
3.2.3. Handling and Cleaning of Oil Spills
The collection of hold waste waters is a slow process: for smaller ships – up to 16 m3/h. The water
is collected in two barges, each of which has a capacity of 1,000 m3. After the separation the
recycled oil products are sold to licensed companies and transported by rail or truck tanks. The oil
products are used for furnace fuel or are returned to the oil refinery. The fee for the collection of
hold waste waters is $70/h or $5/m3 collected oil contaminated water.
At present, the hold water contaminated with chemicals is not collected. A relatively high risk of
pollution is present in the water areas of the Ship repairing yard and the Bourgas Shipbuilding yard.
The two companies observe respectively the Ordinance for the way of working with rubbish from
ship repair and the Plan for fighting with pollution of the marine environment with oil and other
chemical substances.
During the whole year, the background pollution in the Port of Bourgas area is generally created
mainly by land based sources: the outflow of the city sewage – mainly through the “Vaya” overflow
canal and the sewage pipe at berth 5A in the “East” port terminal, especially after torrential rains;
other risky areas are the berths and the water areas in the ship repairing and Shipbuilding yards, as
well as berth 23 in the West terminal, which has often been drained after being flooded with rain
water. Figure. 6 presents a line diagram of the collection and treatment of contaminated hold water
from the handled ship.
For the handling and cleaning of oil spills, which were 8 in 1997 and 3 in 1998 in the central port
area with an amount of 8,5 m3, the company has 1,500 m of oil booms, which are insufficient in
length and quality – they are made of inflammable materials. Figure 7 shows a line diagram of the
handling of oil spills.
130
RIEW
Figure 6. Line diagram of the treatment of hold waters; (MA - Maritime Administration; RIEW Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water).
RIEW
Figure 7. Line diagram of the handling of oil spills; (MA - Maritime Administration; RIEW Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water).
3.2.4. Ships’ Garbage
As for the solid garbage, the Port of Bourgas deals with the domestic, packaging materials, plastic
and glass bottles, paper and cardboard as presented in the following chart: For example line diagram
of solid garbage and the amounts collected food rubbish can be seen in Figures 8 and Figures 9
respectively.
Ship
Collection and
transportation
Disinfection
site
Deposition
Depot
Bratovo
in barrage or truck
Figure 8. Line diagram of solid garbage.
131
300
10
200
food rubbish
food rubbish, bags
Au
gu
st
Se
pte
mb
er
Oc
tob
er
No
ve
mb
er
De
ce
mb
er
Ju
ly
Ju
ne
M
arc
M
ay
0
Ap
ril
0
h
100
Ja
nu
ary
Fe
br
ua
ry
5
number of bags
3
m 15
Figure 9. Amounts of food rubbish collected in the Port of Bourgas in 2002, by month.
3.2.5. Handling of Refuse from Port Operations
Figure 10 presents a line diagram of the handling of refuse from port operations.
The waste industrial water from the port with amount of 19 240 m3 passes through an oil separator
with a capacity of 80 m3 per day and the flows into the city sewage system and is recycled in the
city waste water recycling plant.
For the whole period of exploitation of the Port of Bourgas, there has not been a record of oil or oil
products spillage in the port water area. This confirms the importance of coordination between all
offices and companies to prevent spills in the water area of the Bourgas oil port and the Bay of
Bourgas. In view of the unique ecosystem of the Black Sea and its hydrological characteristics (lack
of circulation of water masses, high level of hydrogen sulphide and low salinity), a large scale spill
will be devastating for the frail ecological balance in the Black Sea.
The results of the preliminary survey show that the present organization of the process of dealing
with rubbish flows is satisfactory:
 The metal scrap is collected daily, stored and carried away for recycling;
 The wood garbage is collected daily and carried to a distribution point, where they are
handled and after that used as burning wood;
 The oil products and fuel sludge are collected in a tanker at berth 20 and carried away for
recycling. The recycled materials are stored and sold to licensed companies;
 The rest types of refuse are collected in special containers and carried periodically to the
rubbish dumps in Bratovo or Marinka.
4. CONCLUSION
The present review of the possibilities for spillage of oil and oil products in the area of the Port of
Bourgas shows that the risk of accidents is not to be underestimated. The present organization
(institutions bearing the responsibility) for the prevention and dealing with the results of spillage
needs modernization. The equipment and manpower also need to be improved. Constant monitoring
132
for the presence of oil contamination needs to be ensured. The issue is important on an international
scale and its significance is increasing because the Black Sea is a sea route for the transportation of
large amounts of oil and oil products. The efforts of all Black Sea countries should be directed to
the establishment of an international organization for dealing with oil spills because the
consequences in this closed sea will be unpredictable.
Metals
Port of Burgas
Terminals
Directorate
Workshops
Technical
Departments:
Technological;
Administrative
and Social
Collection
separation and
transportation of
the difterent types
of refuse:
Burned for
heating
Rubber
Dump site
Construction
materials
Dump site
Paper
Luminiscent
Light bulbs
Communal
economy
Transport
Workers
Hospital
Administration
Wood
Recycled
Dump site
Permanent
storage
Ashes
Dump site
Oil separator
refuse
Dump site
Batteries
Recycled
Oil products
(used oil)
Recycled
Domestic
rubbish
Dump site
Hay
Dump site
Figure 10. Line diagram of the handling of refuse from the operations in the Port of Bourgas.
133
REFERENCES
Bakan G., H.Buyukgungor, Maritime Pollution Bulletin, Vol 41, 16, pp 2443, 2000.
MARPOL – 1973/1978.
Official Site of PAA, Port administration Agency, BG.
Oil Transportation by Tankers: An Analysis of Marine Pollution and Safety Measures. Congress of the
United States office of Technology Assessment, July 1975.
Response to marine oil spills by The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, Ltd, reprinted 1997.
Vasilev G., Popov L., Nikolova At., Todorov V., Cardinal investigation to prepare strategy for control
waste products in port Bourgas, Bourgas, Bulgaria, March 1999.
http://www.blackseaweb.net/
134
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