1.1 Objectives of WUP-FIN phase II

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Progress Report No1
Mekong River Commission
Hydrological, Environmental and Socio-Economic Modelling
Tools for the Lower Mekong Basin Impact Assessment
Water Utilisation Programme
WUP-FIN Phase II
Working Paper No.4 – Cambodian Applications
April 2005
Juha Sarkkula, Jorma Koponen, Marko Keskinen, Matti Kummu, Mira Käkönen, Hannu
Lauri, Jussi Nikula, Olli Varis, Noora Veijalainen, and Markku Virtanen
Finnish Environment Institute
Mechelininkatu 34a
00260 Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358-9-403 000
Fax: +358-9-40300 390
www.environment.fi/syke
[email protected]
www.eia.fi/wup-fin
EIA Ltd.
Tekniikantie 21 B
02150 Espoo
Finland
Tel: +358-9-7001 8680
Fax: +358-9-7001 8682
www.eia.fi
[email protected]
Helsinki University of Technology
Water Resources Laboratory
Tietotie 1E
02150 Espoo, Finland
Tel: +358-9-451 3821
Fax: +358-9-451 3856
www.water.hut.fi/wr
[email protected]
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
The opinions and interpretations expressed within are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the Mekong River Commission.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................. 3
TABLE OF FIGURES AND TABLES ............................................................................. 3
1
PROJECT OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................ 4
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF WUP-FIN PHASE II...................................................................... 4
1.2 MAIN TASKS OF THE PROJECT ............................................................................... 5
2
BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................... 7
3
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ..................................................................... 9
4
DATA AND DATA COLLECTION......................................................................... 11
5
MODEL SETUP ..................................................................................................... 14
5.1 TONLE SAP LAKE AND FLOODPLAINS .................................................................... 14
5.2 CHAKTOMUK JUNCTION ...................................................................................... 17
5.3 CAMBODIAN FLOODPLAINS AND LOWER MEKONG BASIN ..................................... 19
6
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDIES AND PLANS ....................................................... 25
7
TRAINING (CORE TEAM, ON-THE-JOB, UNIVERSITY, RESEARCH SUPPORT)
............................................................................................................................... 28
APPENDIX A: PUBLICATIONS, REPORTS AND PRESENTATIONS ...................... 29
PUBLICATIONS ............................................................................................................. 29
REPORTS..................................................................................................................... 30
PRESENTATIONS .......................................................................................................... 30
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 32
TABLE OF FIGURES AND TABLES
Figure 1.
Cambodian floodplains and Tonle Sap Lake. ............................................. 8
Figure 2. The 3D model application for Tonle Sap Lake and its floodplain. ................. 15
Figure 3. Modelled net sedimentation in the Tonle Sap system.................................. 16
Figure 4.
3D EIA Model for Chaktomuk junction. ..................................................... 18
Figure 5.
2D/3D EIA Model for the Lower Mekong Basin floodplains
downstream from Kratie including Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodian
floodplains, Mekong Delta and coastal areas. Observe the nested
Plain of Reeds model in the Vietnamese Delta. ........................................ 21
Figure 6. Part of the 1 km LMB model grid around the Chatomuk Junction
formed by four rivers. Colour indicates ground elevation.......................... 22
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF WUP-FIN PHASE II
The Finnish Environment Institute, in consortium with the Environmental Impact
Assessment Centre of Finland and the Helsinki University of Technology, contracted
by the Mekong River Commission (MRC), is carrying out a project entitled Hydrological,
Environmental and Socio-Economic Modelling Tools for the Lower Mekong Basin
Impact Assessment. The project, also called the WUP-FIN Phase 2 Project, builds on
past work, WUP-FIN Phase 1, completed by the same Finnish research team. WUPFIN project is a complementary project for the MRC Water Utilization Programme
(WUP).
The WUP-FIN Phase 2 Project will provide additional modelling tools, data, and
training for the MRCS and the riparian National Mekong Committees (NMCs), line
agencies and universities.
This research will be useful for several related MRC Programmes which are identified
in the report. In addition, the research team strives to share data and conclusions with
other related projects and plans.
The main objectives of the WUP-FIN Phase 2 Project are:
1. To complement the MRC Decision Support Framework (DSF) with WUP-FIN
modelling tools to improve its hydrological, environmental and socio-economic
impact assessment capabilities.
2. To provide technical support to the MRC programme activities, in particular the
Basin Development Plan (BDP) and Rule Formulation, by using the WUP-FIN
modelling tools for:
o Negotiating flow rules and equitable water utilization among the
riparian countries (IBFM, WUP, EP)
o Estimating environmental and socio-economic consequences of
development scenarios (BDP), sustainable maintenance of fisheries
(FP) and navigational planning and impact assessment (NP)
3. To build capacity at the MRCS, the NMCs, related line agencies and other
institutions to achieve sustainable use of the WUP-FIN modelling and impact
assessment tools.
The project will focus on target areas in the following locations:
 Lao PDR—The project will develop an advanced modelling tool to analyze river
bank erosion processes and causes, focusing on the Vientiane area in Lao
PDR
 Thailand—The Nam Songkhram watershed for simulation of hydrological
processes and estimation of environmental and socio-economic impacts of
development scenarios
 Cambodia—Research will be undertaken to further understand processes in
the Tonle Sap Lake and its impact on the region as well as the vulnerability of
its ecosystem and biological productivity to developments in the upstream
basin. Specific model will be constructed for the Chaktomuk area and
Cambodian floodplains
 Vietnam—WUP-FIN models will be applied to the Mekong Delta to enhance
understanding of the complex hydrological, ecosystem and socio-economic
processes and understand how conflicting water needs can be met. Mekong
Delta model will be combined with the Cambodian floodplain and Tonle Sap
models
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1.2 MAIN TASKS OF THE PROJECT
Task 1.1: Creation of a field measurements database for modelling
Additional data collection strives to complement the flow, salinity, turbidity and
suspended sediments and dissolved oxygen databases in the target geographic areas.
The field measurement activities concentrate on three areas: Vientiane river bank
erosion, Tonle Sap sedimentation and Vietnamese Delta flow, sediments and salinity.
Task 1.2: Database harmonization with the MRCS Geodatabase and DSF
The activities include analysis of MRCS Geodatabase, DSF and WUP-JICA data and
tools, data interfacing and integration with the MRCS Geodatabase and guaranteeing
easy access to the WUP-FIN models for the users as well as provision of WUP-FIN
hydrological, water quality, ecological and socio-economic data import system to the
MRCS Geodatabase.
Task 1.3: Creation of a set of tools for impact assessment of the Lower Mekong
Activities include development of a hybrid 1D/2D/3D channel model integrating river
and irrigation channels and control structures (gates, dikes, reservoirs etc.) and
combination of the channel model with the 2D/3D model for floodplains, lakes,
reservoirs and the coast. Further developments include a small scale channel
hydrodynamics and storage model that is relevant especially for the Delta conditions
and integration of the Lower Mekong sub-models (Tonle Sap, Cambodian floodplains,
Delta).
Task 1.4: Development of Lower Mekong sediment model
The activities comprise implementation of sediment transport in the hybrid 1D/2D/3D
channel model, development of a bed load model as part of the hybrid model and
description of different sediment fractions. The main target area for the sediment
model development and application will be Vientiane, focusing on 3D river bank
erosion modelling. The transport/ sedimentation/ erosion model will be applied also in
Tonle Sap and Chaktomuk area and in the Vietnam delta
Task 2.1: Technical advice and support to the MRC programmes and projects
The project will provide technical assistance for the Integrated Basin Flow
Management (IBFM) by assisting in defining acceptable Tonle Sap reverse flow and
acceptable minimum and maximum flows (Article 6). It offers support in developing
holistic approach for assessing ecological, economic and social consequences of
particular flow regimes. The project provides technical assistance for the Basin
Development Plan (BDP) in sub-area analyses and forum process and in development
scenario impact assessment. Socio-economic field surveys as well as diagnosis and
policy recommendations studies will be performed in the Mekong Delta and other
possible hotspot areas. An approach will be developed to integrate socio-economic
data with hydrological and environmental information, applied in first place on Tonle
Sap area. Advanced Policy Models for the hotspot areas (Tonle Sap, Mekong Delta)
as well as for the entire Lower Mekong Basin will be set up.
Task 3.1: Establishing MRCS’ and riparian countries’ capacity to use and
maintain the modelling system
During this project MRCS, NMCs, national agencies, provincial departments and
universities experts will be trained for sustainable use and maintenance of the
modelling tools. Models will be established as everyday tools by cooperating closely
with the MRCS programmes and working groups.
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
The main training target groups are:
 The MRCS Modelling Team (Key Modellers and Associated Modellers) as the
principal beneficiaries in the training programme. Training is composed of an
introductory course, training for new developments and on-the-job training with
the WUP-FIN team
 Key National Trainees from the riparian countries and national model users
selected from the NMCs, line agencies and universities. Training will be
implemented by an introductory course and a National Training Workshops in
each country. Core teams will be selected in each country for convening
regularly and participating in model development as well as data acquisition
and review.
 University training will target an interdisciplinary group of university teachers
and students. Training will be arranged in intensive periods in each country.
The trainee group will be collected from relevant universities. The training will
be a lecture course with practical exercises in model use and application. It is
likely that some of the university trainees will join the national core teams for
more advanced model development and application.
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2 BACKGROUND
Tonle Sap has been targeted by MRCS/ Basin Development Plan (BDP) and
Environment Programme (EP) as a key wetland area in the Mekong Region. The
MRCS programmes have suggested that Tonle Sap be used as a pilot area for
environmental and socio-economic impact assessments in the region. The approaches
that prove successful could be implemented in other areas, specifically in the Mekong
Delta and the upstream wetland areas.
The WUP-Fin project Phase 1 focused on the Tonle Sap Lake and wetland. The
modelling tools developed make the corner stone for the extension of the tools and
their development and application to other areas in the Lower Mekong basin, as
defined in the Phase 2 strategy. They also provided basic material for the introductory
training delivered for the riparian institutions in the beginning of the Phase 2,
complemented with the new developments
An important development of the Tonle Sap model is its extension over the Cambodian
floodplains, including a new model for the junction of the Tonle Sap, Mekong and
Bassac (Chaktomuk model) and further down to the Vietnam delta. The flooding issues
at the Cambodian-Vietnam border have been subject to continuing discussion e.g. at
the National Consultations and will further addressed along with the development and
application of the new model
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
Figure 1.
8
Cambodian floodplains and Tonle Sap Lake.
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3 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Focal point and coordinator is Cambodian National Mekong Committee (CNMC)
Counterparts of the project are:

Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology / Department of Hydrology and
River Works

Ministry of Public Works and Transport / Department of Waterways

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries / Department of Fisheries,
Department of Agriculture

Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute (IFREDI)

Ministry of Rural Development

Royal University of Phnom Penh

Royal University of Agriculture

Institute of Technology of Cambodia
The core team of Cambodian collaborators is continuing its model application work,
resulting partly from their work during the project Phase 1. The core team consists
presently of
Mr. Yin Savuth
Hydrologist
MOWRAM
Mr. Tes Sopharit
Hydrologist
MOWRAM
Mr. Huon Rath
GIS expert
MPWT
Mr. Thong Sok Vongsa
Inspector
MoE
Mr. Ros Sobonn
BA Student
ITC
Further team members are Mr Chitt Kimhor (MPWT), Mr. Ben Bunnarin (MIME), Mr.
Yim Sambo (MRD) and Ms. Noy Pok (MAFF/DoF), presently not actively involved in
the project due to other obligations. The team is working on part time basis and
operates in the premises if the MPWT/Department of Waterways.
It is important that the Cambodian counterparts continue providing personnel for
training and development, application and maintenance of the modelling system. Also
field measurement activities need local support. The core team is supposed to be a
flexible unit and its members operate periodically within the project. The team will be
complemented upon need and resources available. Recruitment of students from the
universities is an important part of the national capacity building strategy in the project.
Expected inputs from the MRCS modelling team and Cambodian partners

Collection and basic processing of existing data

Active participation in training, field measurements and modelling activities

Scenario modelling
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission

Participation in field measurement data and modelling results processing

Participation in reporting and publication of results

Availability of the ADCP current meter
Project resources for the specific local application are quite limited. Because of this,
applications must get strong local support in form of work force and data collection.
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4 DATA AND DATA COLLECTION
During the WUP-FIN first phase an extensive data base for Tonle Sap Lake was
created (see WUP-FIN, 2003). This data base includes both primary and secondary
data. During the WUP-FIN second phase the Tonle Sap data base has been updated
to be able to run the 3D EIA model until May 2004. Also, additional data sets especially
for Cambodian floodplains and Chaktomuk junction have been identified and partly
received. This data contain:

Water levels and discharges in main stream of Mekong (MRC)

Water levels and discharges in the floodplain of Cambodia (Tonle Sap
Vicinities project)

ADCP measurements in Chaktomuk junction (Chaktomuk project)

Bed material analysis for Mekong mainstream (Miazawa et al., 2004), Tonle
Sap River (Chanvibol, 2004), and Chaktomuk junction (Chaktomuk project)

Suspended sediment concentrations in Mekong mainstream (MRC and
Chaktomuk project)

SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) for the floodplain with 90 m horizontal
resolution (MRC)

Digitalized hydrographical atlas for the main stream of Mekong, Tonle Sap
River, and Bassac (MRC)

Cross sections for the flood plain and Mekong, Tonle Sap River and Bassac
from DSF (Decision Support Framework of MRC)

Bathymetry in Chaktomuk (Chaktomuk project)

Landuse map for the floodplains (JICA and MRC)

Road network for the floodplain (MRC)

Inundation mapping for the floodplain (MRC)
Field measurements
Flow and sediment transport measurements were carried out in the Tonle Sap River in
August at Prek Kdam, about 40 km from Phnom Penh. The aim of the measurement
was to monitor the variability of the turbidity (total suspended sediment concentration)
during the rising flood in time and over the selected cross section. Water samples were
taken three times in August in three verticals of the cross section. A current meter,
recording flow direction and velocity as well as temperature, conductivity, turbidity and
dissolved oxygen every half an hour was installed in the cross section. Water samples
were taken in the Mekong main stream and Tonle Sap River in Phnom Penh area as
well. The samples were analysed at the laboratory of the Ministry of Water Resources
and Meteorology in Phnom Penh.
Furthermore, the sediment samples were analysed at the Agricultural Research Centre
in Finland for testing the biological availability of the phosphorus bound to the sediment
particles. The test (Anion Exchange Resin Extraction) gives an estimate of the amount
of phosphorus associated with sediment particles that is available for the biological
organisms and productivity in the receiving waters. Phosphorus is a key element for
the productivity of the Tonle Sap system where the sediment bound Phosphorus
makes an important part. The results of the extraction analyses indicated that typically
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
30-50 % of the sediment bound phosphorus is available for the biological production of
the receiving waters. The transported amounts of suspended sediments and their
biological properties affected the basin developments (dams and reservoirs, land use
changes) and needs to be addressed in assessing their impacts. The measurements
will continue in flood season 2005.
Cooperation in water quality measurements in the Mekong.
Bassac and Tonle Sap river system and recordings has been established with the
Buffalo State University (USA). The university uses a number of water quality
recorders to observe the variation of several parameters (temperature, conductivity,
turbidity, dissolved oxygen), complemented with water quality sampling. The
recordings have started in summer 2004 and will continue for the whole 2005. The
results are available for WUP.FIN project and make an important addition to the water
quality data set. Part of the joint measurements are planned to be made in the Tonle
Sap floodplain during the coming flood season.
Chaktomuk field measurement plan
Additional data requests have been planned for supporting the modelling work and
enhance the understanding of the floodplain dynamics in Cambodian floodplains, and
bank erosion process and geomorphological changes in Chaktomuk junction. The field
work will be done partly in collaboration with Kim Irvine from Buffalo State University
and Mickey Sampson from Resource Development International.
The following activities have been planned for the field work covering the flood season
of 2005 (May 2005 – April 2006):




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Lateral (morphological) changes in river bank
o
Data: aerial photos (1950s, 1960s, 1992/3, 2003 and satellite images
(SPOT5 and ICONOS, 2004) for the Chaktomuk junction
o
Methods: compare the data from different years with GIS to map and
analyse the lateral changes in river bank
o
Output: maps and gis-layers of the river bank in different years,
mapping the changes in river bank
Bathymetry changes in Chaktomuk
o
Data: bathymetry surveys (1966, 1996, and 2000) + new data from the
field surveys which will be done by WUP-FIN together with Ministry of
Water Resources and Meteorology
o
Methods: compare the bathymetry changes in Chaktomuk junction
within the one flood season and between different years. The
bathymetry of the junction will be measured by ADCP or echo sounder
before, during and after the flood from selected areas.
o
Output: verification data for the 3D EIA model and enhanced
understanding of the bathymetry dynamics of the area
Sediment flux combined with the ADCP
o
Data: MRC & MoE WQ existing data + field campaign during the flood
season 2005 with MWRM
o
Methods: using the ADCP, turbidity and sediment sampling to
understand the sediment fluxes in Chaktomuk junction in different
seasons. Using the old data to analyse the changes between different
years.
Longitudinal changes
MRCS/WUP-FIN --- April 2005
Progress Report No1
o
Data will be collected with echo sounder or ADCP
o
Method: Comparing the changes in longitudinal sections in the
Chaktomuk junction will enhance the understanding of the longitudinal
changes over one flood season in the area. Intended months to do the
survey are


Material analysis in river bed and bank
o

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May, September, December, April
Data: existing data have to be collected and analysed (soil type, grain
size analysis, etc). Based on these the needed samples have to be
taken.
Bank profile and landuse
o
Slope profile/gradient
o
Landuse on river bank
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
5 MODEL SETUP
The 3D model applications in Cambodia consist of:

Tonle Sap Lake and its floodplains

Chaktomuk Junction

Cambodian floodplains as a part of Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) model.
5.1 TONLE SAP LAKE AND FLOODPLAINS
Model purpose and justification
The Tonle Sap Lake and floodplains in the heart of Cambodia contain the largest
continuous areas of natural wetland habitats remaining in the Mekong system, while
being the largest permanent freshwater body in Southeast Asia. Tonle Sap is a
crucially important source for food and living in Cambodia. More than one million
people live in the immediate surroundings of the Tonle Sap Lake and wetlands, being
the poorest ones in Cambodia, and highly dependent on agriculture and fisheries.
Tonle Sap fisheries provide 60 % of the animal protein in Cambodia. Tonle Sap acts
also as a natural reservoir for the Lower Mekong Basin.
Modelling of the Tonle Sap system aims at understanding of Tonle Sap functions,
identification of the threats to its environment and productivity and mitigation of harmful
effects caused by increased human pressure and upstream developments. The WUPFIN Phase I built a hydrological-hydrodynamic-water quality modelling system together
with an extensive measurement database and socio-economic study.
During the WUP-FIN Phase II Tonle Sap modelling system will be upgraded and used
for impact assessment. The system has already been used for the BDP scenario runs.
Model coverage
Model covers a 261 km x 196 km area. During the highest flood about 15’000 km2 of
this area is flooded. The model area includes the main tributaries and the Tonle Sap
River from Prek Dam to the lake (Figure 2).
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Figure 2. The 3D model application for Tonle Sap Lake and its floodplain.
Grid specifications
The basic grid size is 1 km and the number of grid cells in the horizontal plane 261 x
196 = 51’156. Often in the initial stages of model calibration and verification an
aggregate grid is used with 2 or 3 km grid size. In the vertical there are 14 layers which
are 1 m thick until 12 m depth. Below that grid thickness is 1.5 and 2.5 m. Near the
bottom the layer thickness varies depending on the total depth. Altogether there are
716’184 3D grid points.
Model parameters
The model parameters are:
1) flow related physical parameters (3D flow, water depth, flooding)
2) sediment concentration, sedimentation (Figure 3) and bed erosion
3) passive particle tracer indicating transport and dispersion of fish larvae, oil etc.
4) dissolved oxygen.
In addition BOD7 (biological oxygen demand) is one of the calculation parameters. It
has not been used so far because of the large time required for BOD load modelling.
Instead land use (vegetation type) dependent bottom sediment oxygen demand is
used.
Based on laboratory analysis the sediment concentrations and sedimentation can be
correlated to nutrient input into the system. A more detailed nutrient cycle – primary
productivity modelling is beyond scope of this study but would be needed in the long
run. The model should include the bio-geo-chemical nutrient processes and aquatic
and terrestrial production.
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
Figure 3. Modelled net sedimentation in the Tonle Sap system.
Input data
The floodplain topography is based on the Certeza survey from 1964. It includes first
and second order levelling around the lake, 1400 linear km’s of profile surveys and
photogrammetry. The data has been compared to other topographic data, satellite data
and recent surveys. The comparisons indicate that the Certeza data is accurate
enough for modelling purposes. The data has been further checked and supplement
with a WUP-FIN topographic survey data consisting of 22 survey lines totalling 470 km.
The lake proper and the Tonle Sap River topography is based on the MRCS
Hydrographic Atlas survey 1999. The data has been transformed to the same
reference system as the floodplain topography (Ha Thien MSL - Mean Sea Level).
The land use data is based on the JICA Reconnaissance Survey 1998. WUP-FIN has
conducted limited ground proofing of the data. Based on the fieldwork there exist some
obvious errors in the original classification which should corrected. The work is
however beyond the scope of the project. In the model the 59 original classes have
been aggregated to 8 model classes. For instance “shrubland” and “abandoned field
covered by shrub” are combined.
Lake wind measurements are used when possible. For instance WUP-FIN
measurements are available for the years 2001 and 2002. Otherwise Phnom Penh
airport winds have been used.
Discharges are provided on the model boundaries. In the majority of the model runs
measured or measurement based values have been used for the tributaries. The Tonle
Sap River and overland flow have been correlated to the available Mekong, Tonle Sap
River and Lake water levels and discharges (see WUP-FIN Phase I Data Report).
Oxygen and sediment measurements are used for the model boundary values and for
model calibration and validation. Flow measurements have proven to be difficult to use
because they are from areas with small scale channel networks. The model resolution
of 1 km is can’t model the sub-grid dynamics. Hopefully resources will be available in
the future for high resolution modelling of the floodplain and comparison between the
modelled and measured flow.
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Computational characteristics
The computation times for one flood cycle vary greatly depending on the hydrological
year, calculation mode, calculation variables and computer. The hydrological year
determines the extent and duration of flooding which affects the number of grid cells
active during the calculation. The calculation mode determines whether only water
quality or also flow calculation is conducted. In most of the cases flow is calculated and
stored to be used over and over again in the water quality simulations. Typically
combined water quality / flow calculation takes about 6 hours in a AMD 32 bit 1.7 MHz
computer. When using the stored flow field the calculation time drops to about 1 – 1.5
hours.
The number of calculated water quality parameters corresponds almost linearly to the
water quality calculation times. Other parameters such as fetch can also have an
appreciable effect on the simulation times.
The type of the computer has a great effect on the calculation times. The new 64
processors by AMD provide much faster execution times compared to the similar clock
cycle 32 processors. Probably this is because of the developed memory bus
architecture in the 64 processors. In the model tests it has been obvious that the
memory access tends to form worse bottleneck than the actual processor speed. The
execution speeds are almost twice as fast with the 64 processors.
In order to find out the potential of 64 operating systems with the 64 processors the 3D
model was ported to the Linux. The results were disappointing compared to the 32 bit
Windows. The Linux execution takes almost twice the time compared to the Windows.
The reasons may be either in the operating system or in the compiler. In the test a
GNU compiler was used with a Fortran to C translator. In the future tests should be
conducted with a dedicated compiler such as Intel.
Status of the application and future work plan
During the WUP-FIN Phase II the model topography has been checked and
supplemented with the new topographic data. The description of the rivers has been
improved with more realistic cross sections. Data for the period January 2003 –
November 2004 has been added to the model dataset.
The Cambodian core team is involved in further testing and calibration of the model.
The model is currently being used for the BDP scenario runs. The model will support a
number of other studies such as fish larvae drift and effect of built structures on the
Tonle Sap fisheries.
5.2 CHAKTOMUK JUNCTION
Model purpose and justification
Chaktomuk Junction is formed by a confluence of 4 rivers. It influences the conditions
in the Tonle Sap Lake and downstream in the Cambodian floodplains and Delta. Bank
erosion and water quality issues are of local importance.
The modelling of the Chaktomuk Junction has a twofold purpose. First it is a test area
for sediment and erosion modelling. Previous Chaktomuk project has collected useful
data which is now supplemented with WUP-FIN measurements for the bank and river
bed development analysis. This data is useful in model development and validation.
Second modelling is justified because of the importance of the junction for a number of
cases. For instance upstream and local developments impact analysis on the fish
larvae drift to the Tonle Sap is conducted with the model. Scientists are using the
model for waste water and water quality studies. Model can be also used to support
bank protection planning and construction.
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
Model coverage
Model covers a 9.55 km x 10.15 km area around the Phnom Penh (Figure 4). Four
branches are included in the model:
 the Mekong upstream
 the Tonle Sap River
 the Bassac River
 the Mekong downstream.
Figure 4.
3D EIA Model for Chaktomuk junction.
Grid specifications
The basic grid size is 50 m. The number of grid cells in the horizontal plane 191 x 203
= 38’773. In the vertical there are 10 layers which are 1 - 2 m thick until 12 m depth.
The last layer depth varies according to the total depth. Altogether there are 387’730
3D grid points.
Model parameters
The model parameters are:
1) flow related physical parameters (3D flow, water depth, flooding)
2) sediment concentration, sedimentation and bed and bank erosion
3) passive particle tracer indicating transport and dispersion of fish larvae, oil etc.
4) passive concentration tracer for waste water transport and dispersion.
Input data
The floodplain topography is based on the MRCS Mekong Basin DEM. The river
channel topography is based on the MRCS Hydrographic Atlas survey 1999. The data
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has been transformed to the same reference system as the floodplain topography (Ha
Thien mean sea level). (Matti: in addition other data has been used? Tonle Sap
Vicinities Project data?)
The model boundary data is based on the MRCS discharge, water level and sediment
measurements. The data for the bed and bank erosion modelling is obtained from the
ongoing WUP-FIN surveys and previous Danish Hydraulic Institute Chaktomuk bank
erosion study.
Computational characteristics
The model execution times are to a large extent dependent on whether transport of
substances is included or not in the calculation. Without transport calculation time is 2
minutes for each day. When the transport is included the required computer time is 2 –
6 times longer depending on the calculation options and discharges. The transport is
calculated explicitly in the model and the shortest residency time determines the
transport time step. With small grid cell volumes and high throughflow the transport
time step is small. Implicit modelling of the transport would be possible but the
advanced transport schemes, special boundary conditions and model nestings would
be difficult, cumbersome and error-prone to realize in a general case.
Status of the application and future work plan
The Chaktomuk Junction model topography has been checked and upgraded with the
best available data. What remains to be done is application of the sediment model, and
model calibration and validation with the flow, water level, suspended solids and
topographic data. The data consists of MRCS, Chaktomuk Project and WUP-FIN
measurements. The Cambodian core team will participate in the data gathering,
processing and model calibration and validation. The WUP-FIN teams bears the main
responsibility in the sediment related model development, calibration and validation.
5.3 CAMBODIAN FLOODPLAINS AND LOWER MEKONG BASIN
Model purpose and justification
The Cambodian floodplains cover areas around the Tonle Sap River and Lake and the
Mekong. The flooding of the floodplains is dependent on the conditions of the
Vietnamese floodplains and Delta. Large part of the Cambodian fisheries and
agricultural productivity is dependent on the floodplains. On the other hand flooding
causes loss of human life and property.
The modelling of the floodplains is in the first phase connected with improved
description of the flooding. The 2D and 3D approaches enable flood description which
corresponds more closely to the real world phenomena. For instance conveyance of
the floodplains, water exchange between the floodplains and the river channels, effect
of topography and infrastructure on flooding and wind effects can be taken into
account in a more accurate and physically sound way.
In the long run the LMB model provides broad, versatile and physically sound platform
where almost any bio-geo-chemical process can be comprehensively modelled.
Model can be used both short and long term simulations. One year with the highest
resolution takes about 5 hours computer time. With grid integration (user defined
combination of grid cells) much faster computation times can be achieved.
Model coverage
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
The LMB (Lower Mekong Basin) model covers the Mekong Basin from Kratie on the
Lao-Cambodian border to the Sea including the coastal areas of the Vietnamese Delta
(Figure 5). The main parts of the model are Cambodian floodplains, Tonle Sap Lake
and Floodplain and Mekong Delta. The model covers 430 km x 570 km area of the
LMB.
Grid specifications
Model grid resolution is 1 km x 1 km (Figure 6). The rivers and channels are modelled
with higher resolution depending on their actual dimensions. The river and floodplain
models are coupled together (see working paper “Model Development”).
The local applications can be embedded in the LMB model fully dynamically, that
means momentum and mass is exchanged on both directions on the model
boundaries. Figure 5 shows embedded Plain of Reeds high resolution model near the
Cambodian border.
The total number of grid points in the horizontal plain is 431*620 = 267’220. In the
vertical there are 9 layers which are 1 m thick and the tenth is of varying thickness
depending on the total water depth. The thickness of the bottom layer varies
depending on the total depth. Altogether there are 2’672’200 3D grid points.
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Figure 5.
2D/3D EIA Model for the Lower Mekong Basin floodplains downstream
from Kratie including Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodian floodplains, Mekong Delta and
coastal areas. Observe the nested Plain of Reeds model in the Vietnamese Delta.
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
Figure 6. Part of the 1 km LMB model grid around the Chatomuk Junction formed by
four rivers. Colour indicates ground elevation.
Model parameters
The LMB model parameters are:
a. water depth/ water surface elevation
b. both 2D and 3D water flow.
These characteristics provide the important flow related boundary values for the local
applications.
LBM-model is a general platform which can be expanded to calculation of practically
any variable. Useful future applications may include:
i.
flood management
ii.
sediment transport and sedimentation
iii.
water quality including oxygen, nutrients, algae, hygienic characteristics and
acidity
iv.
salinity intrusion
v.
fish habitat changes
vi.
fish larvae drift
vii.
oil- and chemical accidents
viii.
effect of the infrastructure (embankments, dikes, irrigation channels,
reservoirs etc.) development.
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Input data
The floodplain grid is based on the SRTM DEM of 100 m horizontal resolution. The
main channel cross-sections are obtained from the Hydrographic Atlas and the smaller
channels from the Vietnamese counterparts and MRCS, mostly from model
schematizations.
The boundary data consists of water levels and discharge upstream in Kratie, Tonle
Sap tributaries discharges and South China Sea levels. The discharge and water level
data is obtained either from MRCS measurements or model outputs (DSF) in case of
scenario runs. The sea levels are obtained from measurements and tidal charts. Mean
open sea salinity is used on the model sea borders.
The wind data is obtained from Vietnamese meteorological stations and from Phnom
Penh airport. On certain periods like 2001 - 2002 also Lake Tonle Sap weather
measurements are available.
The land use data is obtained from the Vietnamese counterpart institutes.
The resources of the project don’t allow detailed modelling of the complex channel and
infrastructure network of the Delta. Only the main features will be integrated in the
model. The area west of Mekong main stream will be largely described with main
channels and main topographic data. The description will be more precise on the
eastern part because all of the local applications are situated there.
Model will be calibrated and validated with discharge and water level observations. In
Cambodia mostly MRCS database information is used including the JICA Tonle Sap
Vicinities project results. In Vietnam the project counterparts have provided data from
several stations.
Computational characteristics
Calculation of the fully flooded LMB-basin takes about 40 minutes per month with a
ADM 64 bit 2 GHz processor. Assuming that the average wetted area over a flood
cycle is 50% the total calculation time over a flood cycle is 5 hours with the 1 km grid.
An Athlon XP 32 bit 1.73 GHz processor takes almost twice that time.
The increase of grid resolution is in principle possible. Halving the grid size would
increase the calculation time about 5 times. The number of grid-cells increases 4-fold
and the time steps in explicit methods decrease often linearly in respect tot the grid
size. This would mean that one flood cycle could be modelled in one day. However
experiments with 5 million grid cells (0.5 km resolution) create an executable that is too
big for a 32 bit operating system. (The 32 bit operating systems can allocate only 2 GB
of memory space for any particular process.) In order to avoid this problem the large
tables for the OpenGL graphics can be eliminated from the program. Also the model
was ported to 64 bit Linux (Fedora).
Experiments with a company (Pineering Ltd. in Helsinki, Finland) specializing in
advanced cluster processing have been initiated. If successful they would provide way
to utilize farm of cheap computers in parallel modelling and would enable very high
resolution modelling of large and complex systems.
It is easy to aggregate grid cells in the basic model. There is a model parameter which
tells how many are averaged. The grid aggregation feature can be used for fast
scoping and rough calibration. Later the final production runs can be finished with the
high resolution.
The grid is quite large by any standards. Despite the fact that the model process
requires over 1 GB of (virtual) memory, swapping to the hard disk is no problem even
with a machine with 500 MB of physical memory. The memory allocation scheme of
the compiler and operating system keep only the most active parts of the program in
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
the physical memory and thus eliminate largely the need for constant use of the very
slow hard disk based virtual memory.
Status of the application and future work plan
The floodplain, the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodian river channel and coastal area
topographic data has been processed and integrated in the model. The remaining
tasks are divided between the riparian and WUP-FIN teams. Both teams participate in
all activities, but the indicated partner bears the main responsibility and work load of
the indicated task. The tasks to be accomplished are:
 inclusion of the Delta river channel cross-section information (WUP-FIN)
 inclusion of the main infrastructures (WUP-FIN with strong core team support)
 inclusion of the main tidal and meteorological data (core team)
 processing of the discharge and surface water elevation data for both the
upstream boundary values and model calibration and validation (core team)
 model calibration and verification (core team).
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6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDIES AND PLANS
The WUP-FIN Socio-Economist Marko Keskinen was located at WUP-FIN Office in
Phnom Penh between May and June 2004. He has also visited the country several
times since that to plan and prepare for on-going work in the country. The work in
Cambodia has consisted of following main activities that are later in this chapter
presented under separate headings:

Meetings, workshops and trainings

Integration between socio-economic and hydrological information

Participatory village surveys & follow-up surveys

Socio-economic database analysis

Policy modelling
Meetings, workshops and trainings
During May-June 2004 the WUP-FIN Socio-Economic Team held several meetings
with the staff of the MRC as well as with different ministries and line agencies (Ministry
of Environment, IFReDI) to discuss about the activities of the WUP-FIN socioeconomic component. Regular meetings and trainings were also held with three WUPFIN socio-economic on-the-job-trainees and counterparts i.e. Mr Huon Rath from the
Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Mr Yim Sambo from the Ministry of Rural
Development, and Ms Noy Pok from the Department of Fisheries.
In September 2004, the WUP-FIN Socio-Economist attended together with two local
WUP-FIN Team members the Forum 2 of the Analysis Process of the Sub-Area 10C
(Cambodian Mekong Floodplains) that was organised by the BDP and CNMC. In
November 2004 the WUP-FIN Socio-Economist took part together with other team
members in the WUP-FIN Introductory Training at IFReDI, Phnom Penh.
At the beginning of February 2005, Dr Olli Varis arranged together with other WUP-FIN
team members an academic workshop in Phnom Penh, focusing on the concept of
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the Mekong Basin and
specifically in the Tonle Sap Area. The workshop brought together a highly
multidisciplinary group of researchers, planners and consults that all have profound
experience on the issues related to the IWRM in the Mekong Region. The workshop
acted as a discussion forum to prepare for special issue on the subject for the
International Journal of Water Resources Development, to be published at the
beginning of 2005.
Integration between socio-economic and hydrologic information
Developing an approach for integration between socio-economic and hydrologic
information in the Tonle Sap Area was initiated in May 2004 by the WUP-FIN SocioEconomist together with Master’s Student Jussi Nikula ([email protected]). It soon
became clear that in order to get information on these interconnections, better
understanding of area’s ecology and particularly of environmental functions such as
fish and rice production was needed as well. Consequently, information on these
functions has been gathered from various different sources and then combined with
already existing socio-economic and hydrological data.
Due to lack of firm quantitative data on the complex interconnections between socioeconomics, ecology and hydrology, the integration work has focused instead of pure
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
modelling and GIS analysis also on more qualitative ways to analyse these
interconnections. The first draft report from the integration work was finished in
February 2005, and the work continues to include in the report also different scenarios
developed for the Lower Mekong Basin within the BDP.
Participatory village surveys & follow-up surveys
During May and June 2004 the WUP-FIN Socio-Economist carried out together with
the WUP-FIN socio-economic trainees and counterparts Mr Yim Sambo and Ms Noy
Pok two participatory village surveys in two southern provinces of Cambodia, namely
Kandal and Prey Veng. The aim of the village surveys was to complement the village
surveys in Vietnamese side of the Mekong Delta and thus to take more comprehensive
view on the Mekong Delta. As surveys in both Cambodia and Vietnam follow some
structure and approach, also comparison of the most critical water-related issues
between Vietnam and Cambodia is possible.
Both village survey locations were selected to be close to border between Cambodia
and Vietnam in order to study also potential transboundary impacts between Vietnam
and Cambodia, and more specifically to look at the possible impacts that Vietnamese
water control structures may cause upstream i.e. to Cambodian side. This focus also
responds to the concerns and requests presented by Cambodians during the WUPFIN Inception workshop in Siem Reap in May 2004.
The draft reports from the village surveys were finished in both Khmer and English in
November 2004. According to the surveys the flooding in Cambodian side has been
significantly higher since 2000 and has resulted in Prey Veng’s survey commune in
severe losses of rice crop which has forced people to change radically their cropping
patterns. Increase in flooding coincides with the period that Vietnamese started to build
and upgrade the water structures along the border, but also with exceptionally high
and voluminous natural flooding of the Mekong. This makes analysis of transboundary
impacts more difficult and there thus is a need for more detailed study on the subject.
But even more importantly, there is a clear need for open and unprejudiced discussion
between Cambodia and Vietnam on the issue.
Follow-up surveys to both survey communes were carried out by the WUP-FIN SocioEconomic Team (socio-economist and Mr Sambo and Ms Pok) in November 2004.
The aim of the surveys was to report back the findings of the survey, to clarify some
unclear issues and facts, and to observe the situation in the survey areas just after the
wet season in order to get hold on seasonal variation.
Database analysis in GIS
During summer 2004, a GIS-based socio-economic database analysis was initiated by
the WUP-FIN counterpart Mr Huon Rath and the WUP-FIN Socio-Economist for the
MRC’s Sub-Area 10C i.e. for the Cambodian Mekong Floodplain from Kratie to the
Vietnamese border. The approach for the analysis is similar to the one carried out in
the Tonle Sap Area during the first phase of the WUP-FIN.
The aim is to arrange and analyse different socio-economic, land use and waterrelated factors into zones presenting different flood characteristics, instead of
administrative boundaries (provinces, districts) that are normally used in this kind of
analysis. This allows better understanding of the different kind of impacts that possible
changes in water regime will have to people living in zones with different flood
characteristics. The databases to be included in the analysis include e.g. Population
Census 1998, WFP’s Poverty Mapping 2002 and JICA’s Land Use Database.
Although this kind of database analysis is not included in the original work plan, it was
decided to be carried out as it provides strong support for modelling and social impact
analysis work in the Cambodian Floodplain as well as for the participatory village
surveys conducted in the area, and complements the same kind of work carried out in
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the Tonle Sap Area. The analysis work is carried out by Mr Huon Rath in close
cooperation with WUP-FIN team, and the draft report from the analysis work will be
ready in spring 2005.
Policy analysis
Policy analysis and recommendation component of the WUP-FIN in Cambodia
continues and complements the work carried out in the Tonle Sap Area during the first
phase of WUP-FIN. The WUP-FIN Policy Model for the area has been updated by Dr
Olli Varis ([email protected]) and Marko Keskinen, and the final model will be ready in
February or March 2005.
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
7 TRAINING (CORE TEAM, ON-THE-JOB, UNIVERSITY, RESEARCH SUPPORT)
The main training activity in Cambodia has been the “Workshop on training and
research cooperation” at IFReDI, Phnom Penh on 17-18 November 2004. Objectives
of the workshop were

coordination and strengthening WUP-FIN model uses and training activities in
Cambodia

strengthening cooperation on Tonle Sap monitoring, research and modelling
The on-the-job training started in WUP-FIN first phase has continued and training
sessions have been held in Phnom Penh during the following times:

18-20 of October, 2004

16 and 18 of November, 2004

27-28 and 31 of January, 2005

28 of February, 2005

25 and 28-29 of March, 2005
Other activity in Cambodia linking to the WUP-FIN training was workshop of the IWRM
on Tonle Sap Lake on 1-2 of February organised by Helsinki University of Technology
together with RUPP.
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APPENDIX A: PUBLICATIONS, REPORTS AND PRESENTATIONS
The following publications, reports and presentations done by the team members are
related to WUP-FIN project phase 2.
PUBLICATIONS
Keskinen, M., 2004. Participatory village surveys in water resources management case from Tonle Sap Lake, 30th WEDC International Conference on People-Centred
Approaches to Water and Environmental Sanitation in Vientiane, Laos, October 2004.
Keskinen, M., 2005. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of the Mekong Development
– Case Tonle Sap Lake, International Symposium of Role of water sciences in
Transboundary River Basin Management, March 2005. Ubon Ratchatani, Thailand.
Keskinen, M., Makkonen, K. and Varis, O., 2005. The Role of China and Cambodia in
the Mekong Region. In: L. Jansky and M. Nakayama (Editors), Endangered
International Waters: Lessons from Domestic Security Issues. UNU Press.
Keskinen, M., Koponen, J., Kummu, M., Nikula, J. and Sarkkula, J., 2005. Integration
of Socio-economic and Hydrological data in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. In: V.
Kachitvichyanukul, U. Purintrapiban and P. Utayopas (Editors), Proceedings of the
2005 International Conference on Simulation & Modeling, SimMod'05, Bangkok,
Thailand.
Koponen, J., Kummu, M. and Sarkkula, J., 2004. Modelling Tonle Sap Lake
Environmental Change, SIL XXIX International Congress of Limnology, Lahti, Finland.
Kummu, M., Koponen, J. and Sarkkula, J., 2004. Upstream impacts on Lower Mekong
Floodplains: Tonle Sap case study, Proceedings of the International Conference on
“Advances in Integrated Mekong River Management”, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Kummu, M., Koponen, J. and Sarkkula, J., 2005. Modelling Sediment Transportation in
Tonle Sap Lake for Impact Assessment. In: V. Kachitvichyanukul, U. Purintrapiban and
P. Utayopas (Editors), Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Simulation
& Modeling, SimMod'05, Bangkok, Thailand.
Kummu, M., Koponen, J., and Sarkkula, J. 2005. Assessing Impacts of the Mekong
development in the Tonle Sap Lake, International Symposium of Role of water
sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, March 2005. Ubon Ratchatani,
Thailand.
Sarkkula, J., Kiirikki, M., Koponen, J. and Kummu, M., 2003. Ecosystem processes of
the Tonle Sap Lake, Ecotone II - 1 workshop, Phnom Penh/Siem Reap, Cambodia.
Sarkkula, J., Baran, E., Chheng, P., Keskinen, M., Koponen, J. and Kummu, M., 2004.
Tonle Sap Pulsing System and Fisheries Productivity, SIL XXIX International Congress
of Limnology, Lahti, Finland.
Sarkkula, J., Koponen, J., Kummu, M., Keskinen, M. and Varis, O., 2005. Integrated
modelling for impact assessment in Mekong Delta and Cambodian floodplains,
International Conference on Deltas: Geological modelling and Management, Ho Chi
Minh City, Vietnam. January, 2005.
Sarkkula, J., Koponen, J. and Kummu, M., 2005. Assessing Impacts of the Mekong
development in the Tonle Sap Lake, International symposium on Role of Water
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand.
March, 2005.
van Zalinge, N., Loeung, D., Pengbun, N., Sarkkula, J. and Koponen, J., 2003.
Mekong flood levels and Tonle Sap fish catches, Second International Symposium on
the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 11-14
February 2003.
Varis, O. & Keskinen, M. 2005. A Bayesian net-work model for intersectorial policy
analysis in the Tonle Sap area, Cambodia. In: Kachitvichyanukul, V., Purintrapiban, U.
& Utayopas, P. (Eds.): Simulation and Modelling: Integrating Sciences and Technology
for Effective Resource Management: 280-288. International Conference on Simulation
and Modelling, January 17-19, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.
WUP-FIN, 2003. Modelling Tonle Sap for Environmental Impact Assessment and
Management Support. MRCS / WUP-FIN Project, Final Report, Mekong River
Commission, Phnom Penh.
REPORTS
Keskinen, M. and Varis, O., 2004. WUP-FIN Policy Model – Analysing the strategies of
the Tonle Sap Sub-Area Analysis Process. Draft Report, Mekong River Commission,
Water Utilisation Programme Component FIN, Phase 2. Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Keskinen, M., Sambo, Y., Pok, N. and Oeurn, S., 2004. In the bend of the Bassac
River – Participatory village survey in Chheu Khmau Commune, Cambodia. Draft
Report, Mekong River Commission, Water Utilisation Programme Component FIN,
Phase 2. Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Keskinen, M., Sambo, Y., Pok, N, Samon, C. and Kamara Y., 2004. Living in the
Mekong Floodplain – Participatory village survey in Preah Sdach Commune,
Cambodia. Draft Report, Mekong River Commission, Water Utilisation Programme
Component FIN, Phase 2. Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Nikula, J., 2005. Integration of hydrological and socio-economic information in the
Tonle Sap Lake. Draft Report, Mekong River Commission, Water Utilisation
Programme Component FIN, Phase 2. Vientiane, Lao PDR.
WUP-FIN. 2005. Hydrological, Environmental and Socio-Economic Modelling Tools for
the Lower Mekong Basin Impact Assessment: Inception report. Mekong River
Commission, Water Utilisation Programme Component FIN, phase 2. Vientiane, Lao
PDR.
PRESENTATIONS
At International Symposium on Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin
Management in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, March 2005. Socio-Economic Impact
Assessment of the Mekong Development – Case Tonle Sap Lake.
At International Symposium of Role of water sciences in Transboundary River Basin
Management, March 2005. Ubon Ratchatani, Thailand. Assessing Impacts of the
Mekong development in the Tonle Sap Lake.
At International Conference on Simulation & Modeling, SimMod'05, Bangkok, Thailand.
January 2005. A Bayesian net-work model for intersectorial policy analysis in the Tonle
Sap area, Cambodia.
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At International Conference on Simulation & Modeling, SimMod'05, Bangkok, Thailand.
January 2005. Integration of Socio-economic and Hydrological data in the Tonle Sap
Lake, Cambodia.
At International Conference on Simulation & Modeling, SimMod'05, Bangkok, Thailand.
January 2005. Modelling Sediment Transportation in Tonle Sap Lake for Impact
Assessment.
At International Conference on Deltas, Geological modelling and Management. Ho Chi
Minh City, Vietnam. January 2005. Integrated modelling for impact assessment in
Mekong Delta and Cambodian floodplains. Keynote speech.
At Geography seminar series 2004-2005 in Department of Geography, National
University of Singapore. December 2004.Sediment and ecosystem of the Tonle Sap
Lake.
At 30th WEDC International Conference on People-Centred Approaches to Water and
Environmental Sanitation in Vientiane, Laos, October 2004. Participatory village
surveys in water resources management - case from Tonle Sap Lake
At IAG 2nd Yangtze Fluvial Conference, Shanghai, China. June, 2004. Sedimentation
and Mekong Upstream Development: Impacts on the Lower Mekong Basin.
At Computational Earth Science seminar, Finnish IT Centre for Science (CSC), May
2004. Modelling sediment transportation in alluvial system.
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Lower Mekong Basin modelling project, Mekong River Commission
REFERENCES
WUP-FIN, 2003. Modelling Tonle Sap for Environmental Impact Assessment and
Management Support. MRCS / WUP-FIN Project, Final Report, Mekong River
Commission, Phnom Penh.
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