Tshepo MONYAI 1
School / Department / Faculty, Affiliation / University, Email: Author 1
School / Department / Faculty, Affiliation / University, Email: Author 2
Keywords: Up to 5 keywords should be provided in alphabetical order separated by commas
Abstract (11 -point Arial, bold, flush left, 11-point line spacing, style name “Heading 1”)
A good abstract should give a brief overview of the paper including the purpose, the research design /
methodology, and the findings. It is also a good practice to explain how the findings from the research can
be useful in solving problems or closing gaps in the specific subject area. The abstract (10-point Arial, singlespaced) shall be within a 250 word limit. Do not indent the first line of any paragraph. The abstract should be
written in a single paragraph format.
1. Introduction (11-point Arial, bold, flush left, 11-point line spacing, style name “Heading 1”)
The introduction should provide a synopsis of the article as well as the background and context of the paper.
Starting from general to the specifics, this section should provide a rationale that substantiates the research.
This can be done by providing evidences of difficulties that needs solution and / or identified knowledge gap
in a specific domain, level, geographical location, society, and industry. As the response, a clear research
agenda can be described specifying research aim and objectives in order to clarify the purpose of
conducting the investigation.
Following this, the author needs to describe in general how the research can be or had been done to satisfy
the aim and objectives, i.e. a brief discussion on the research methodology. This should highlight the
research design, data collection methods and data analysis conducted or to be conducted in the research.
Research limitations should also be explained.
The findings of the research have to be outlined by emphasizing the originality and general contributions of
the investigation and preferably specific contributions of this paper. It is also a good practice to clarify who
exactly will or is expected to benefit from such investigation. This should be closely linked to the research
rationale, aim and objectives.
Follow the abstract with the Full Text of your paper (10-point Arial, flush left, 10-point line spacing, style
name “Body Text”). Insert one blank line (5-point line spacing) between paragraphs. (This space is
automatically inserted when you apply the style “Body Text” to the preceding paragraph.) Do not indent the
first line of any paragraph.
1.1 Publication (10-point Arial, bold, flush left, 11-point line spacing, style name “Heading 1+10pt”)
Authors shall not submit papers that have been or will be considered for publication by other organizations or
publishers. It is the author's responsibility to secure and transmit to the SASBE2015 Conference organizer
all necessary approvals for release of proprietary information and copyrighted materials appearing in the
manuscript prior to its submission.
When sending the full paper, the author must submit his or her consent, via the "Agreement for Permission
to Publish” document, which permits the SASBE2015 Conference organizer to include the full abstract in the
book of abstracts, post the abstracts on the SASBE2015 website, and include the full paper in the
Proceedings to be published on flash-disk or CD/DVD.
2. Literature Review
The literature review should flow from general to specific. There is no strict set of rules that prescribes the
numbers of references that should be presented. However, as a rule of thumbs, every claims or important
statement in the paper should be supported by at least one reference. References should be reasonably
recent, key references and seminal works relevant to the field of study should be included.
Even though it is called the literature review section, the actual title of the section 2 does not have to be
“Literature Review”. It can be other titles that might better represent the content of this section.
2.1 Using References
List references in the text according to the author-date method.
The referencing system used should be the Harvard system. There are several variances in styles that can
be adopted, however for consistency, the following style should be applied in writing an SASBE2015
Conference full paper: (Gibberd & Conradie, 2013), (Gibberd et al., 2013). Please notice that for more than
two authors, only the surname of the first author appears followed by “et al.” in italic, a comma, one space
and then the year of publication. In the case of more than one articles referenced, a semi colon (;) has to be
added in between followed by one space. If an author appears in the reference list with different publications
from the same year, the publication years may be modified as follows: 1990a, 1990b, etc.
When the author reference is a natural part of the sentence, you can indicate the reference as follows:
Motsatsi (1994) described a similar methodology for thermal comfort assessment in school classrooms.
3. Research Methodology
The research methodology should clearly discuss the approach and/or the research design, data collection,
and data analysis adapted or to be adapted in the research. One of the most important issues to be
discussed here is the appropriateness of the selected methodology, is the most appropriate choice
compared to other alternatives. This is the opportunity for the authors to demonstrate their awareness and
understanding (appropriate for the level of study) of the research tools commonly used in their field and how
this knowledge is used to inform them in constructing a robust methodology to tackle the research problems
/ questions.
3.1 Headings
Limit headings to three levels and number them according to the decimal system when appropriate.
3.1.1 Main heading: 1. Heading Level 1 (11-point Arial, bold, flush left, 11-point line spacing, 10-mm
hanging indent, style name “Heading 1”). Capitalize the first letter of all major words.
3.1.2 Subheading: 1.1 Heading Level 2 (10-point Arial, bold, flush left, 10-point line spacing, 10-mm
hanging indent, style name “Heading 2”). Capitalize the first letter of all major words.
3.1.3 Third-level heading: 1.1.1 Heading level 3 (10-point Arial, flush left, 10-point line spacing, 10-mm
hanging indent, style name “Heading 3”). Capitalize the first letter of the first word.
Insert a single blank line (10-point line spacing) before all headings (the three heading styles provide this
space automatically). Insert a half-space blank line (5-point line spacing) between all headings and the text,
graphic or table that follows. Position heading numbers flush left, followed by a tab and the text indented 10
mm. To avoid leaving a heading stranded at the bottom of a page, force the heading to the top of the
following page by inserting a blank line.
4. Findings and Discussion
In this section, authors should discuss all the findings emerging from conducting the investigation so far.
Even for early stages of research (e.g. the paper may only aim to report an initial literature study), what have
been synthesized from the literature should be discussed. This may be done by highlighting the similarities
and/ or differences from a variety of literature sources on the issues being investigated and the contextual
nature of the similarities/ differences (such as geographical locations, culture or many other factors that may
influence the discussion in those different literature sources).
In the case of papers reporting further stages of research, findings from the investigation should be clearly
presented followed by an analytical discussion of the findings. This can be done, for instance, by critically
demonstrating how the findings relate to the current body of knowledge in or relevant to the field of
investigation. For papers reporting completed investigation (or very close to completion), recommendations
(for improvement) should be offered by the authors based on the data analysis and discussion of the findings.
By all means, this section represents one of the most important aspects of the discussion that presents main
contributions of the paper.
4.1 Fonts and Formatting
Place all text, figures, and tables within an area measuring 170 mm wide and 240 mm high. On A4-size
paper (210 mm x 297 mm), this is equivalent to left and right margins of 20 mm and top and bottom margins
of 25 mm.
Do not number the pages; the organizer will arrange the page numbering later. Use only the fonts
(typefaces), character point sizes, and line spacing specified in the subsections below. Do not use any font
other than Arial. Do not use characters from two-byte character sets such as Chinese, Japanese or Korean.
For special characters such as Greek letters, use symbol fonts.
For numerical expressions, we recommend that you use the Equation Editor tool included with Microsoft
Word or MathType (Design Science, Inc.). Unless indicated otherwise, use single line spacing (10-point) for
all paragraphs, noting the number of blank lines to be inserted between the main elements of the paper.
We suggest that you use this Microsoft Word template file. It contains pre-formatted styles for each of the
components of the paper. If you apply these styles to the respective components of your paper, it will be
formatted automatically according to these guidelines. The names of the styles to be applied to each
component of the paper are indicated in the formatting instructions below.
4.2 Graphics (Drawings and Photographs) and Tables
Insert graphs, line drawings, and photographs into the finished document as digital objects. Use a resolution
of at least 300 x 300 dpi (dots per inch) for photographs and drawings. Centre the figure on the page, placing
it as close as possible to the text in which it is mentioned; do not append figures at the end of your paper.
Actual heat loss
Energy regulation
Figure 1
Comparison between actual heat loss and maximum allowed heat loss in 8 Tshwapong houses.
Provide a figure number (in consecutive numbers) and caption below each figure and photograph. For the
captions of figures and tables, use 10-point Arial italic with 10-point line spacing (style name “Caption”). To
ensure legibility, do not use point sizes smaller than 8 points for text appearing within figures and tables. See
the sample layout at the end of this document.
Provide a table number (in consecutive numbers) and caption centred above the table (10-point Arial,
centred, 10-point line spacing, style name “Table number”). Avoid vertical lines in tables where possible.
See the sample layout below. For ease of file transfer, use compact formats for images. The following table
has satisfactory resolution in jpeg format (137 KB).
Table 3 Results for Axial Load
Yield Line
Normal BM
Yield Line
Length (mm)
4.2.1 Heading Level 3
Use the equation editor (integrated within Microsoft Word) to insert equations as text wherever possible.
Alternatively, insert equations as images. When using the Windows platform, apply either Arial or Symbol
fonts in equations; when using the Macintosh platform, apply Times, Helvetica or Symbol fonts. Reference
each equation with a number in parentheses at the right margin of each equation. Insert one blank 10-point
line (style name “Body Text”) above and below each equation. See the sample layout below.
M  sin k h  x  x 
  1
Q  sin kh
h 
4.3 Units
Use SI units exclusively. Indicate decimal locations with a period; do not use a comma.
5. Conclusion and Further Research
In this section, the author / authors should summarise the whole discussion presented in the paper. This
should be done by concisely reminding the reader about the origin of the investigation and how the research
has been designed and conducted, followed by the findings so far and who can benefit from the results.
However, repetition from previous sections of the paper should be avoided. It is important that new materials
should not be introduced in this section, except for the further research as explained below.
The summary should be followed by flagging further research that could emerge from the investigation. For
on-going research, this may include the next stages of the research that will be conducted by the researcher
to complete the research, whilst for completed research this may include emerging new possibilities revealed
during the course of the research and / or potential for expansion based on the scope and limitation of the
research set earlier.
6. Acknowledgement
In some cases it is necessary for the author to acknowledge that this paper is a part of a larger research
project, acknowledging the funding contributed by a certain funding agencies, or simply acknowledging
contributions of other colleagues who are not included in the authorship of this paper. If no
acknowledgement is necessary, this section should be deleted from the paper.
7. References
Author1, A.B., Surname Author2, C.D. & Surname Author3, E.F. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of
book. Series, number, Edition if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.
Author1, A.B., Surname Author2, C.D. & Surname Author3, E.F. Year. Title of paper. In: Editor(s),
Title of Conference/ Proceeding, Date(s) of Conference, Place of publication, Publisher, pp. 21-30.
Author1, A.B., Surname Author2, C.D. & Surname Author3, E.F. Year. Title of journal article. Title
of Journal, Volume (Issue), pp. 11-25.
Author1, A.B., Surname Author2, C.D. & Surname Author3, E.F. Year. Title of book chapter. In:
Editor(s), Book Title: Subtitle of book, Series, number, Edition if not the first, Place of publication, Publisher,
pp. 40-50.
Appendix A. Submission Guidelines
You may submit your paper or poster via email to [email protected]
Submit your paper BOTH as a Portable Document Format (.pdf) file and as a Microsoft Word document..
Name your file “SASBE2015” followed by your name followed by the file extension “.pdf” and “.doc”. For
SASBE2015_Gibberd.pdf and SASBE2015_ Gibberd.doc
Please note the file size must not exceed 4 MB.
Please note paper must not exceed 10 pages
Please follow formats above exactly to avoid your paper being returned
With Adobe Photoshop it’s possible to reduce image file size without affecting quality through the “save for
web” utility (File menu). Save as JPEG (adjust the “quality” slider) for photos, and PNG-8 or GIF for graphs
(alternatively embed the original vector image). You are encouraged to retain the original image files,
although these files do not need to be included with your submission.
When creating your PDF file, please do not include any characters from two-byte character sets such as
Japanese, Korean, or Chinese. You may embed all fonts in your file. When using Acrobat Distiller, select
“Print Optimize” or “Print” in the job option. Check the status of the fonts with Acrobat or Acrobat Reader as
follows: Open the PDF file with
Acrobat and choose “File” –> ”Document Properties” –> “Fonts” to display the list of embedded fonts.
We recommend that you print your PDF file and review this to confirm the quality of the PDF conversion.
Format of reference to a book.
Format of reference to a paper in conference proceedings
Format of reference to a journal article
Format of reference to a book chapter
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