Creative industries - a summary of international research and

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Creative industries - a summary of international
research and comparisons
Abstract
The creative industries have been growing rapidly after the late of 1980s.
Nowadays, the world economy is in recession. The creative industries are
seen as an important factor to promote the recovery of economy. Many
countries in the world especially in the Europe emphasize the importance of
creative industries and take some measures to drive the research and study
on the creative industries.
There is no coherent definition about creative industries in the world now.
Many kinds of definitions on what are creative industries and which activities
should be included in the creative industries have been put forward by many
countries and international agencies. In the paper, we select four kinds of
classic creative industries model which have profound influences in the world
as cases to analyze. These four kinds of model include: UK DCMS Model;
WIPO Copyright Model; UNCTAD Economy Model; China Model.
The paper made review about them and analyzed the creative industries from
four aspects: the development of the creative industries; the introduction of
four classic definitions of creative industries; the comparisons about the four
classic creative industries models; and the analysis of development trend. At
last we get conclusion about .creative industries.
Keyword: Creative Industry; DCMS Model;WIPO Copyright Model;UNCTAD
Economy Model;China Model;
1
Content
Creative industries - a summary of international research and comparisons .................................... 1
Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Content ...................................................................................................................................... 2
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 4
1.1
Background ................................................................................................................... 4
1.1.1
The origin of creative industries ................................................................... 4
1.1.2
The development of creative industries ...................................................... 6
1.2
Definition of Creative Industries ................................................................................. 10
1.2.1
DCMS Model definition ................................................................................ 10
1.2.2
WIPO Copyright Model ................................................................................ 11
1.2.3
UNCTAD Model ............................................................................................ 12
1.2.4
Definition of Creative Industry in china...................................................... 12
1.2.5
Definition of the creative industries in Singapore .................................... 13
1.2.6
Definition of the creative industry in Norway ............................................ 13
1.2.7
Definition of the creative industry in Austria ............................................. 14
1.2.8
Concentric circles (Throsby, 1998 & 2001) .............................................. 15
1.2.9
Symbolic texts model ................................................................................... 16
1.2.10 Americans for the Arts model ..................................................................... 17
2 The introduction and assessment about the classic creative industry model ........................... 18
2.1
Why choose the DCMS Model, WIPO Model, UNCTAD Model and China Model as
cases to analyze. ...................................................................................................................... 18
2.2
DCMS Model .............................................................................................................. 20
2.2.1
The introduction to the DCMS Model ........................................................ 20
2.2.2
The Analysis to the UK creative industry with the DCMS MODEL ....... 28
2.2.3
The Limitation of the DCMS Model ............................................................ 29
2.3
WIPO Copyright model .............................................................................................. 32
2.3.1
The introduction to the WIPO Copyright MODEL .................................... 32
2.3.2
The Analysis to JAMAICA creative industries with the WIPO Copyright
MODEL 37
2.3.3
The limitation on the WIPO Copyright Model ........................................... 38
2.4
UNCTAD MODEL ..................................................................................................... 41
2.4.1
The introduction to the UNCTAD MODEL ................................................... 41
2.4.2
The Analysis to the creative industry with the UNCTAD Model ............ 44
2.4.3
The limitation ................................................................................................. 46
2.5
China creative Industries Model ................................................................................. 48
2.5.1
The introduction to the China Creative Industries Model ....................... 48
2.5.2
The Analysis to China Creative Industries with the China MODEL ...... 56
2.5.3
The limitation ................................................................................................. 57
3 The comparison about the four kinds of models ..................................................................... 62
3.1
Make comparisons about the content of these models ................................................ 62
3.2
The means of measuring creative industries ............................................................... 66
3.3
The common questions all the models faced .............................................................. 68
2
4
Looking into the Future of the Creative Industries ................................................................. 69
4.1
Convergence of classification ..................................................................................... 69
4.2
Internationalization ..................................................................................................... 69
4.3
Refining the Methodology for Measuring Intangible Assets ...................................... 70
5 conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 72
References ....................................................................................................................................... 74
Appendix ......................................................................................................................................... 81
Table1 LIKUSkreativ©-domains and categories...................................................... 81
Table 2 the content of America creative industries ................................................. 82
Table 3: Gross Value Added (GVA) of the Creative Industries, UK 2008 Data .. 83
Table 4: Creative Employment, Great Britain 2010 Data (July - September) ..... 84
Table 5: Number of business in the Creative Industries, UK 2010 Data ............. 85
Table 6 the content of America creative industries ................................................. 86
Table 7 the contribution to the GDP of creative industries in Jamaica in 2005 .. 87
Table 8 the contribution to the employment of creative industries in Jamaica in
2005................................................................................................................................ 88
3
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
Creative industries are the product of knowledge economy. After the 1980s,
creative industries developed rapidly and are becoming an important part of
knowledge-based modern economy. All the reports about the creative
industries released in the world showed that the creative industries are very
important to the development of economy. They not only have higher
economic growth rate than the GDP (Gross domestic product) growth rate and
also can create more job positions than other industries. They also can fully
utilize the cultural characters that play important roles to cultivate the cultural
diversity. Especially in some developing countries, there are no enough capital
to protect scenic spots and historical site. It can supply some money to protect
the scenic spots and historical sites through developing the creative industries,
such as tourism, travel and so on. The world economy entered into recession
since 2008. More workers are unemployed and more protests occurred in the
world. In terms of the function of Creative Industries to promote the
development of economy, many governments pay more attention to develop
the creative industries to recover the economy and the confidence of society.
They support it and provide consistent policies to the investors to promote the
development of creative industries. Compared to the developing countries, the
creative industries developed better and are treated as county strategies to
recover and develop the social economy in the most developed countries. With
the increase of international exchanges, the developing countries also realize
the importance of the creative industries. They learned the sophisticated
experience from developed countries to boost their creative industries. Many
countries have invested a lot of material and human resources to study the
creative industries. More and more countries and scholars are studying the
creative industries. The study on creative industries entered into a new stage.
1.1.1 The origin of creative industries
We can often see the “creative industries” in our daily life. They are referring to
many kinds of activities of our life, such as fashion, movie, design, art and so
4
on. And they are seen as an indispensable part in our life. It is the product of
knowledge economy and is related to the development of knowledge economy.
So in many countries, the creative industries also are called as the cultural
industries (especially in Europe) or the creative economy (such as the
UNACTAD Model).1
‘Creative industries’ is a relatively new term in the government policies and
academe. It firstly emerged in Australia in 1994 in the report ’Creative Nation’.2
The report is the first cultural policy in the history of Austria and it emphasized
the importance of the creative work and its contribution to the economy in
Austria, and thought the new technologies are very important to develop the
knowledge economy and enhance the competitiveness of Austria in the
international.3
Then the concept was adopted and developed further in UK. The UK is the first
country in the world beginning to study the creative industries and it gave a
deeper implication of the creative industry. The Britain government thought the
creative industries can boost the economy of UK and increased their National
strength. They emphasized the development of creative industries in the UK.
After many years of development, now the UK maybe has the largest creative
industries in the national economy in the EU, and the contribution to the GDP
maybe also is the largest in the world.4
The UK put forward the first formal concept about ‘creative industries’ in the
world. The formal definition of creative industries can be traced back to the
establishment of DCMS (Department of Culture, Media and Sport) in 1997.The
department was built to promote the development of creative industries
through setting down some policies. The earliest definition of creative
industries was put forward by the DCMS in the ‘Creative Industries Mapping
Document’ in 1998. They tried to reconstruct the cultural sector into a new and
broader industrial classification and unit all industries having creativity as a key
1
Wikipedia,URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_industry
(reading date: 06.03.2011)
2 UNCTAD, Creative Economy Report 2008(2009).
URL:http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf.
( reading date:08.03.2011)
3 Ana Carla Fonseca Reis(2008). Creative Economy as a development
strategy: a view of developing countries.
URL: http://www.garimpodesolucoes.com.br/downloads/ebook_en.pdf.
( reading date:08.03.2011)
4 The Work foundation (UK) staying ahead: the economic performance of the
UK’s creative industries.
URL:http://www.theworkfoundation.com/assets/docs/publications/176_staying
ahead.pdf ( reading date:09.03.2011)
5
element of their activities.5 In2002, the DCMS updates its definition of creative
industries according to the development of economy and the deeper
reorganization. Under the demonstration effect in the UK, the study on creative
industries becomes more and more popular.
1.1.2 The development of creative industries
The creative industries boost the Britain’s economy. On the influence of UK, a
number of governments and the international agencies around the world have
realized the importance of creative industries and started to study what is the
creative industries and what activities should be included. And they also
explore how to promote the development of creative industries and the
influence of policies to the creative industries. Most of them draw lessons from
the UK and put forward the definitions of creative industries of their own
according to their national industries layout and industry structure. The
national conditions are different in the different countries and face the different
problems, and the national culture is different. So the usage and
understanding to the term ‘creative industries’ is different in the different
countries. Creative industries have different names in different countries. I did
some research and found some different names in different countries.6We can
see it from the table 1.1:
Table 1.1 different names of ‘creative industries’
Countries
Name of the creative industries
England & Australia & Iceland
creative industries
USA
Entertainment & Media industries or
copyright industries
UNESCO, EU, OECD
Culture industries or culture sectors
China
Cultural and creative industry or creative
industry
Sweden
uppleveleseindustrin (experience industry)
Denmark
Kultur-og oplevelesesøkonomien (culture
and experience economy)
Norway
kulturbasert Næring eller kultur og
oplevelsesnæringer (culture based
5 A. Solidoro (2009), THE EVOLUTION OF THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIESAS
A MODEL OF INNOVATION. URL: http://www.woa2009.it/papers/Solidoro.pdf.
( reading date:15.03.2011)
6 Nordic innovation center(2007). Creative Industries Education in the Nordic
Countries.URL:http://www.nordicinnovation.net/_img/creative_industries_educ
ation_in_the_nordic_countries.pdf ( reading date:18.03.2011)
6
industries or culture and experience
industries)
kulttuuriteollisuus ,luovat toimialat
Finland:
(creative culture or creative industry)
Since the late of the 1990s, many countries carried out the study on the
creative industries, especially in some developed countries. The study about
the creative industries developed rapidly at international, national and regional
levels these three levels.7
The Finland has carried out the study of culture industry yet since 1970s. After
the ‘Creative Industries Mapping Document 1998’ was released by UK
government, Finland began to study their creative industries. The first political
discussions on creative industry took place in the late 1990s in the influence of
the report of the UK. The first two Finish reports described the “luovat toimialat”
in Finnish (Creative Industries). Now the "creative industries" has not been a
central concept in Finnish creative policies. The term of ‘creative industries’ in
Finland mainly focused on arts, heritage issues, cultural services, cultural
participation and consumption of culture.8 But the term “kulttuuriteollisuus”
(Culture Industries) also be used in Finland. The definition approach shows a
considerable accordance to the DCMS Model, whereas the fields of design
and the public sector are left out more or less.9
The other Nordic countries, such as Sweden, Denmark and Norway, their
interest in the creative industries were growing gradually. And they paid
considerable attention to the creative industries and thought the DCMS Model
is “archetype of definition” and learned much lessons from it. To increase the
cooperation in the study of the creative industries and share of the knowledge
and experience about the creative industries in the Nordic countries, the
Nordic governments established the Jenka network in 2002, Jenka project is a
new field about the creative industries. They tried to analyze the advantages
and disadvantages and threats they faced related to the creative industries in
the Nordic countries. They also tried to create a coherent definition of Creative
7 Simone Kimpeler,Peter Georgieff(2010). The roles of creative industries in
regional innovation and knowledge transfer-The Case of Austria.
URL:http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/creativity/report
/austria.pdf ( reading date:20.03.2011)
8 Cultural policies and trends in Europe.
URL:http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/finland.php?aid=423.
( reading date:21.03.2011)
9 Kerstin Hölz(2006)l. Creative Industries in Europe and Austria Definition and
potential.
URL:http://onlinefb.kmuforschung.ac.at/joomlaaa/images/stories/vortraege/20
06/Creative_Industries.pdf ( reading date:22.03.2011)
7
Industries, but up to now the network has not yet created.10
In Germany, some reports about Cultural Industries have been published for
individual; however, there is no any report about the analysis of the creative
industries in the whole Germany. And the term Cultural Industries in the
Germany is more popular than creative industries. So the approach to study
creative industries also is different from the approach taken by the DCMS
Model. The definition of creative industries in Germany is different from other
countries’ definition. It not only contains all businesses, but also contains ‘self
employed persons that render services or produce or sell products for
preparation, creation and protection of artistic production, procurement of
culture and/or medial promulgation’. At a more detailed level, a further
distinction can be made into five sub-markets: the audio-visual market, the
book, literature and press market, the art and design market (including
architecture and advertising), audio-visual-media, and performing arts and
entertainment.”11
In Spain, the creative industries are also called creative industries. The
Cultural Industries are also emphasized in Spain. The Spanish government
also pays attention to developing the Cultural Industries. The culture industries
were seen as ‘generator of wealth’. The report about the cultural industries
was released in Spain in 2004. And in the report they gave the definition of
their own. They thought the following parts should be included in the Cultural
Industries: “public libraries and archives, artistic and architectural cultural
properties, publishing, plastic arts, performing arts, music and audiovisual
arts.”12
The France has a long history and its culture is very famous in the world and it
is very important to French. Every year many tourists go to Paris to enjoy
French culture and it brings a lot of profit for France. So in France, the term
“Cultural Industries” prevails. There is a narrow definition in France for “culture
industries”; “only the audiovisual field, publishing, multimedia and the photo
market” are included.13
10 Nordic innovation center.(2011)
URL:http://www.nordicinnovation.net/prosjekt.cfm?Id=3-4415-42
( reading date:25.03.2011)
11 Cultural policies and trends in Europe.
URL:http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/germany.php?aid=423.
( reading date:25.03.2011)
12 Cultural policies and trends in Europe.
URL:http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/spain.php?aid=423
( reading date:25.03.2011)
13 Cultural policies and trends in Europe.
URL:http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/france.php?aid=423
( reading date:25.03.2011)
8
In Switzerland, the terms “Creative Industries “and “Cultural Industries” is the
same. Both of them are used. The definition in the Switzerland is quite narrow
and does not include the “modern” fields of multimedia, software and fashion.
The focus of study is “artistic production and cultural services from artists
(music, literature, art, film and performing arts)”.14 The Switzerland sets down
some laws to develop the creative industries. In 2009, the Swiss Parliament
has passed a Law on the Promotion of Culture; they will define the strategic
aims for the first time in Switzerland the creative industries from 2012 to 2016.
The recognition and emphasis to the creative industries is different in Eastern
Europe from the Western Europe. Study on the creative industries in the
Western Europe leads in the world. But the recognition and study on the
creative industries in Eastern Europe is in the primary stage. The reason
caused the difference is that the many countries in Eastern countries is
Socialist countries and their economy is planned economy. Everything was
arranged by the state. There is no strong demand for “cultural goods”. Such as
Hungary, there is a comprehensive strategy or policy in Hungary directed
towards the cultural industries as a whole. But they published the analysis of
the economic contribution of copyright-based industries in Hungary in 2002
and published in 2005. They made another survey in 2006 and published it in
2010. The two surveys adopted the broadest definition of copyright industry; all
the activities relating to the creation, distribution, communication to the public,
etc. of works protected under Copyright Law, or which constitute the technical
background necessary for the "consumption" of copyrighted creations, as well
as which serve them in any other manner were included.15
Some international agencies summarized the practical experience of countries,
released some reports about the creative industry and offer more creative
industries models to their member states. .
In 2004, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
set up the Multi-Agency Informal Dialogue Group on Creative Industries in the
context to prepare for the High-level Panel on Creative Industries and
Development. The mission of the Group is to drive the cooperation of
international to research and study on the creative industries so as to boost the
14 Cultural policies and trends in Europe,
URL: http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/switzerland.php?aid=423.
( reading date:25.03.2011)
15 Cultural policies and trends in Europe,
URL: http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/hungary.php?aid=423.
( reading date:27.03.2011)
9
contribution of the creative economy to development.16 UNCTAD released
separately the reports “Creative Economy Report” in 2008 and 2010. The two
reports put forward many constructive methods and concept about the creative
industry. It motivates the development of creative industry in the world.
The Creative Industries Division of the WIPO (World Intellectual Property
Organization) was set up in 2005. Its mission is to study the impact of the
intellectual property policies and practices on the creative industries. The
Division engages with creative industry stakeholders and carries out studies
on the creative potential of nations, quantifying the economic contribution of
creative activities, as well as developing practical tools for creative enterprises
and entrepreneurs, and assisting creators in benefiting from their intellectual
property assets.17 They gave the concept of creative industry at the basis of
the copyright. So in the WIPO Model, the creative industry also be called as
“the copyright based industry”
1.2 Definition of Creative Industries
A number of different definitions have been put forward over recent years to
provide a comprehensive understanding to the creative industries and reach
coherence to reduce the disputes on the creative industries. Many countries
gave their definition of creative industry, but there are many debates about the
definition and very difficulty to reach the consensus. The following paragraphs
review some definitions that have profound influence in the international. The
purpose of studying and the history and the national condition is different.
Each definition has a special rationale and everyone depends on underlying
assumptions. Those definitions of creative industry are listed as follows:
1.2.1 DCMS Model definition
The DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) is a department of the
UK government. One of aspect of its responsibilities is for the tourism, leisure
and creative industries. Its role in the creative industries is to assist the
16 The Creative Economy Report 2008:A Summary of Creativity, Culture and
Economic Development.
URL:http://www.cacci.org.tw/Journal/2010Volume1/page28-50.pdf. ( reading
date:28.03.2011)
17 Jamaika intellectual property office. Wipo Commissioned Study on the
Contribution of the Copyright –Based Industries to the Economy of Jamaica.
URL:http://www.jipo.gov.jm/?q=node/116 ( reading date:29.03.2011)
10
creative industries to raise their profile and help them to explore their potential
to develop the creative industries.18
The definition gave by the DCMS was the first formal concept about the
creative industries.
Those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent
and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation
and exploitation of intellectual property.19
The current DCMS definition includes thirteen creative sectors. They are:
Advertising;Architecture; Arts; Crafts;Design; Fashion; Film & video;interactive
leisure Software;Music;performing arts;Publishing;Television;Radio.20
1.2.2 WIPO Copyright Model
The WIPO guide (WIPO, 2003) gave the definition of creative industries. It
aims to provide a systematic way to isolate the effects produced by copyright
in the approximately sixty categories identified. 21 In the WIPO Model, the
creative industry also be called as “the copyright based industry”
Creative industries – industries that include the cultural industries plus all
cultural or artistic production whether live or produced as an individual unit.
The creative industries are those in which the product or service contains a
substantial element of artistic or creative endeavor.22
18 Wikipedia.
URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Department_for_Culture,_Media_and_Sport
( reading date:30.03.2011)
19 DCMS (1998).Creative Industries Mapping Document1998. URL:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.culture.gov.uk/referenc
e_library/publications/4740.aspx (reading date:01.04.2011)
20 DCMS(2002).Creative Industries Mapping Document2001.UK. URL:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.culture.gov.uk/global/p
ublications/archive_2001/ci_mapping_doc_2001.htm
(reading date:05.04.2011)
21British council (2008), GAUTENG’S CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: AN
ANALYSIS.URL:http://www.britishcouncil.org/files/Low%20resolution%20pdfs/
Methodology%20with%20all%20sectors/Methodology%20low%20all%20sect
ors%20spreads.pdf. (reading date:07.04.2011)
22 WIPO (2011),
URL:http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/
(reading date:09.04.2011)
11
The current WIPO definition recognizes eight creative sectors. They are:
Press and Literature; Music, Theatrical Productions and Opera; Motion Picture,
Video and Sound; Radio and Television; Photography, Visual and Graphic Arts,
Related Professional and Technical Services; Software, Databases and New
Media; Advertising Services; Copyright Collective Management Societies
1.2.3 UNCTAD Model
The UNCTAD XI Ministerial Conference was held in 2004, one of the important
landmarks was to put forward the concept of the “creative industries”. At the
Conference, the topic of creative industries was introduced into the
international economic and development agenda, drawing upon
recommendations made by a High-level Panel on Creative Industries and
Development.23
The creative industries:
■ are the cycles of creation, production and distribution of goods and services
that use creativity and intellectual capital as primary inputs;
■ constitute a set of knowledge-based activities, focused on but not limited to
arts, potentially generating revenues from trade and intellectual property rights;
■ comprise tangible products and intangible intellectual or artistic services with
creative content, economic value and market objectives;
■ are at the cross-road among the artisan, services and industrial sectors; And
constitute a new dynamic sector in world trade24
The current UNCTAD definition recognizes four creative sectors. They are: Art;
heritage; media; functional creations.
1.2.4 Definition of Creative Industry in china
In China, the study on creative industries develops not well. Many experts just
recognized the importance of the creative industries and introduced the term”
creative industries” to china and began to study creative industries in china
through drawing on the experience of other countries. So it has great
significance to study the “creative industries” from the international angel and it
can offer much experience to china to promote the study of creative industries
23 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development(2008).
Secretary-General’s high-level panel on the creative economy and industries
for development.URL:http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/tdxiibpd4_en.pdf.
(reading date:12.04.2011)
24 UNCTAD(2008), Creative Economy Report 2008, URL:
http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf, retrieved 2009-11-28.
(reading date:14.04.2011)
12
and boost the economy of China.
In china, the creative industries are also called as Cultural and creative
industries. It is defined as “to rely on the wisdom, skills and talents of creative
people, by means of high technology to create and promote cultural resources
through the development and use of intellectual property to produce high
value-added products and create the industries with the wealth and potential
employment.”25
The current China model definition recognizes nine creative sectors.26They are:
Culture and Arts; Press and Publication; Radio, television, film; software,
network and computer services; advertising exhibition; art trade; Design
Services; Travel and entertainment; and other support services.
1.2.5 Definition of the creative industries in Singapore
In Singapore, the definition of creative industries is from the UK DCMS Model.
They learned the lessons from “the Creative Industries Mapping Document
“released by the DCMS. The Creative Industries are defined as “industries
which are inspired by cultural and artistic creativity and have the potential to
create economic value through the generation and exploitation of intellectual
property”.27For the purpose of study, Singapore has categorized the creative
industries into three broad groups:
 Arts and Culture
Include: Performing arts, visual arts, literary arts, photography, crafts, libraries,
museums, galleries, archives, auctions, impresarios, heritage sites, performing
arts sites, festivals and arts supporting enterprises
 Design
Include: Advertising, architecture, web and software, graphics, industrial
product, fashion, communications, interior and environmental
 Media
Include: Broadcast (radio, television and cable), digital media (software and
computer services), film and video, recorded music and publishing
1.2.6 Definition of the creative industry in Norway
In Norway, definitions of creative and industries are still improving. Generally
25 Baidu. URL:http://baike.baidu.com/view/70810.htm.
(reading date:15.04.2011)
26 Beijing statistical information net (2011)
URL:http://www.bjstats.gov.cn/(reading date:18.04.2011)
27 Lam Yen Sze Elizabeth.(2010). Creative industries or cultural industries,
URL:http://rpe.nl.sg/Business/f263ae1e-1ad5-41ac-a452-7ff20486ab94.aspx
(reading date:20.04.2011)
13
speaking, the term “cultural industries” prevails in Norway. Norway has a long
history and its diverse culture attract many tourists to come to Norway to visit.
So the definition in the Norway emphasizes the culture and the scope is
narrow compared to the DCMS Model.
In Norway, the following sectors are defined as part of the cultural industries:
Computer-games; Design and fashion; Film and video; Publishing; Arts and
crafts; the Music industry; Sales of antiques and arts; Software and data
services; TV and radio; and Performing arts.
The creative industries have a great development in Norway. In 2002, the
output of creative industries is above 33 billion NOK, and crate many jobs for
the works. And it account for 3.4 per cent of all employees.28
1.2.7 Definition of the creative industry in Austria
The Austria is a country which emphasizes the study on the creative industries.
It is the first country to put forward the concept of “creative nation” and promote
the emergency of the concept of “creative industries”. To promote the
development of creative industries in Austria, The Austrian Institute for SME
Research tried to create a definition for Austria that oriented itself according to
their national conditions.
Before we talked about the definition of creative industries in Austria, we
should see the “tri-sector model’ first. The model about creative industries
called “tri-sector model” prevails in Europe. In the model, the creative
industries were divided into three parts. Different countries choose the different
parts as their creative industries. We can see the figure 1.1 as list.
Creative Industries
Private sector (market) =Culture industries
Intermediate sector = non-profit-organization
Public sector (state)
Figure 1.1 Tri-sectors model of creative industries
28.Norway cultural profile(2011).
URL:http://www.culturalprofiles.net/norway/Directories/Norway_Cultural_Profil
e/-2361.html (reading date:21.04.2011)
14
Austria modified the “tri-sector model” and adopt a content-oriented definition
in accordance with the so-called LIKUSkreativ©scheme. In this respect, the
following fields have been classified as appertaining to Austrian Creative
Industries, each with various sub-categories:29
 The public sector covers public cultural businesses like operas, museums
or theatres.
 The intermediate sector consists of non-profit organizations (e. g.
associations, foundations).
 The private sector covers private entities active in the production (and
distribution) of creative goods and services.
There is a subcategory in detail in the LIKUSkreativ©scheme. We can see it in
the appendix table 1.
1.2.8 Concentric circles (Throsby, 1998 & 2001)
The model was put forward at the basis that the character of “culture goods”
makes the “creative industries have the value”. Thus the more pronounced the
cultural content of a particular good or service, the stronger is the claim to
inclusion of the industry producing it (Throsby, 2001). The model divided all the
activities of creative industries into four parts: the core creative fields, cultural
industries, creative industries and activities and the rest of economy. They
think the core creative field is most important and all the creative ideas
originate in the core creative arts in the form of sound, text and image and that
these ideas and influences diffuse outwards through a series of layers or
‘concentric circles’, with the proportion of cultural to commercial content
decreasing as one moves further outwards from the centre. This model has
been the basis for classifying the creative industries in Europe in the recent
study prepared for the European Commission (KEA European Affairs,
2006:53‐ 57).30
The Work Foundation of UK created a stylized typology of model of the
creative industries; see Figure 1.231, which was borrowed from ‘The Economy
29 Rafael Boix Domenech, Luciana Lazzeretti, Francesco Capone(2010).
URL:http://www.uv.es/raboixdo/references/2010/10009.pdf
(reading date:21.04.2011)
30 EACEA(2008). Study on the Entrepreneurial dimension
of cultural and creative industries .
URL:http://cci.hku.nl/docs/Interim_Report_Final.pdf(reading date:22.04.2011)
31.Tom Fleming (2010),Learning the Language - Creative Industries & the Arts
URL:http://theatreforumconference2010.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/tfcc-the
atre-forum2.pdf (reading date:24.04.2011)
15
of Culture’ (EU, 2006). The creative industries are mapped as a series of
concentric circles radiating out from the ‘bulls-eye’ of core expressive value
creation.
Figure 1.2 the content of creative industries of concentric circles
1.2.9 Symbolic texts model
Symbolic texts model originate from the critical-cultural-studies tradition in
Europe and the UK. It is different from other definitions of creative industries. It
focuses attention on popular culture rather than the ‘high’ or ’serious’ arts
typically the concern of social and political establishments. This approach sees
the ’high’ or ’serious’ arts as the province of the social and political
establishment and therefore focuses attention instead on popular culture. The
processes by which the culture of a society is formed and transmitted are
portrayed in this model via the industrial production, dissemination and
consumption of symbolic texts or messages. They are transmitted by means of
various media such as film, music and the publication.32
32 European Affairs (2006), the Economy of Culture in Europe.
URL:http://www.keanet.eu/ecoculture/executive_summary_en.pdf.
16
1.2.10 Americans for the Arts model
In the US, the creative industries were also called as “Americans for the Arts”.
It adopted a very narrow approach to define the creative industries and only
include those industries which are related to the creation and distribution of the
arts. The creative industries were divided into seven parts in America. They
are: Museums & Collections, Performing Arts, Visual Arts & Photography, Film,
Radio, & TV, Design & Publishing, Arts Schools & Services. The subcategory
we can see it in the appendix table 2 in detail. In the Americans for the Arts
model, they try to avoid the overestimate of the creative industries compared
to other models of creative industries .So they excluded those industries such
as software, computer game and scientific research. They think although the
development of those industries requires creativity, they are not arts-centric
and don’t meet the U.S. understanding of the creative industries. 33 34 The
content of Americans for the Arts is showed in detail in the appendix table 2.
There still have many other definitions of creative industries defined by a
number of countries and international agencies. But here we only list a series
of definitions which have significant affect. There is no “right” or “wrong”
definitions of the creative industries. It is only the difference to the
understanding of the characteristics of creative industries. The attractiveness
of the various models may therefore be different, depending on the analytical
purpose and the history of the country. However, a standardized set of
definitions and a common classification system are needed as a basis for
designing a workable framework for dealing with the creative industries within
the larger standard industrial classification systems that apply across the
whole economy.
(reading date:25.04.2011)
33 America for arts creative industries 2008 the state report. URL:
http://www.americansforthearts.org/pdf/information_services/creative_industri
es/creative_industries2008_no_appendix_state_report.pdf.
(reading date:26.04.2011)
17
2 The introduction and assessment about the classic creative
industry model
2.1
Why choose the DCMS Model, WIPO Model, UNCTAD Model
and China Model as cases to analyze.
As we talked in the chapter 1, there are many kinds of definitions about the
creative industry in the world from government or academe. We can’t and have
no the necessary to list all the definitions to make comparisons. For the
purpose of study in the paper, we choose the UK DCMS Model, WIPO
Copyright Model, UNCTAD Model and China Model as cases to research. Why
we choose these four kinds of model to analyze? The reasons are as follows:
Firstly, The DCMS model is from the “Creative Industries Mapping Document
“released by DCMS in UK. It’s the first document about Creative Industries
published in November 1998 and gave the definition about the creative
industries. It was the first ever attempt to measure the economic contribution of
creative industries to the UK, and try to identify the opportunities and threats
they faced.35The Mapping Document also tries to set a guideline for action for
both Government and the industries. In the guide of the DCMS model, the UK
government set down many policies to support the development of creative
industries. They also often update the model according to the change of
economics. Now, the result of the attention placed on the creative industries by
the UK government can be seen in the development of the creative industry.
The UK maybe has the largest creative industries in the national economy in
the EU, and the contribution to the GDP maybe also is the largest in the world
now. The Creative Industries, excluding Crafts, accounted for 5.6% of Gross
Value Added (GVA) in 2008. In the summer quarter of 2010 (July – September),
creative employment totaled just under 2.3 million jobs. In 2010, there were an
estimated 182,100 enterprises in the Creative Industries; Exports of services
from the Creative Industries totaled £17.3 billion in 2008, equating to 4.1% of
all goods and services exported.36
35. Gottfried Wagner(2008). The Art of Difference From Europe as a cultural
project to EU policies for culture.
URL:http://www.artsmanagement.net/index.php?module=News&func=display
&sid=174(reading date:28.04.2011)
36 DCMS (2010).Creative Industries Economic Estimates. URL:
http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/research/CIEE_Full_Release_Dec2010.pdf.
18
The model has become mature in UK through the development of many years
despite there are still many disputes. In the influence of the DCMS model,
more and more countries began to study the creative industry and set down
the development strategy of creative industries. And many countries adopted
the definition from the DCMS model, such as Australia and Singapore. It has
been seen an archetype of creative industry in the world.
Secondly, the WIPO model and UNCTAD model is put forward by the
international agencies. They summarized the practical experience of other
countries and tried to design the creative industry model to guide member
states to develop the creative industry. They set down the guideline
respectively and get recognized in some Member States and also help some
developing countries to measure the development of creative industries. They
also renew the model according to the practice in their member states and help
them to study their creative industries. Such as WIPO guide the JAMAICA to
study on the contribution to the GDP of the copyright in 2005. Through the
study, they got the conclusion: the copyright sector contributed J$29 billion in
producer’s values at constant (1996) prices (US$464.7 million), or 4.8 % of
GDP. The sector also accounted for 3.03 % of employment. Of the total 4.8 %,
the core copyright industries accounted for J$10,363.8 million or 35.6 % of the
total.37
Thirdly, as we said, compared to the developed countries, creative industries
developed better than the developing countries. Most of developing countries
just began to study creative industries. They learned the experience of the
developed countries from UK and WIPO and UNCTAD and other countries and
put forward the definitions of creative industries to guide the development of
them. They make some changes according to the situation of their country.
China is the largest developing countries and is leading Asia in the
development of a creative economy. Its cultural sector records € 50.32 billion
of value added, contributes 2.45% of Chinese GDP, and accounts for 1.48% of
the total employed workforce.38 Following the reforms and opening up of China,
the cultural sector has gained weight in the Chinese GDP with a growing rate
of 6.4 points above the already impressive growth rates of the other sectors of
the economy. Its study about the creative is in the initiative stage.39It has some
37 WIPO(2007), WIPO Commisioned Study On The Contribution Of The
Copyright–Based Industries To The Economy Of JAMAICA
URL:http://www.jipo.gov.jm/sites/default/files/PDF_Files/wipo_study.pdf
(reading date:29.04.2011)
38 Chinese National Bureau of Statistics (2008), URL: http://www.stats.gov.cn/.
(reading date:30.04.2011)
39.Mapping the Cultural and Creative Sectorsin the EU and China,
URL:http://www.keanet.eu/report/china%20eu%20creative%20industries%20
19
characteristics of creative industries in developing countries. So we make
comparisons to the DCMS model and WIPO model and UNCTAD model. We
can know the gap between them and gave some suggestions to develop the
developing countries’ creative industries.
2.2 DCMS Model
2.2.1 The introduction to the DCMS Model
The United Kingdom was the first country to explore the concept of creative
industries. In the late 1980s, “The Economic Importance of the Arts in Great
Britain” was published, which refers to some characteristics of creative
industries. The UK borrowed from the Austria report “creative nation” and put
forward the concept of creative industries. The document “Mapping the
Creative Industries” was released by the DCMS in 1998. It was the first
document in the world to define the “creative industries “and choose the
indicators to measure the creative industries’ contribution to the social
economy and analyzed the opportunities and challenges faced to develop the
creative industries. The 1998 report was updated again in 2001.40
London government takes many measures to develop the creative industries.
Now maybe the creative industries developed best in the London. To develop
the regional creative industries in the UK, the Regional Issues Working Group
was set up by the DCMS in the early of 1999. The group released some
reports through many years study. They highlight that creative industries not
only can be developed well and do enormous contribution to the economy in
the big cities such as London, but they also can be developed in the town or
village according to the actual situation. Since then many studies about ‘how to
develop the creative industries in the regional, sub-regional and local levels’
have been carried out.
The DCMS model is from the Creative Industries Mapping Document. The first
edition was published in November 1998. It gave the definition of creative
industries.
The current DCMS definition includes thirteen sectors. They are:
Advertising;Architecture; Arts; Crafts;Design; Fashion; Film & video;interactive
mapping%20full.pdf (reading date:01.05.2011)
40. British council, mapping the creative industries: a toolkit.
URL:http://www.britishcouncil.org/mapping_the_creative_industries_a_toolkit_
2-2.pdf, (reading date:03.05.2011)
20
leisure Software;Music;performing arts;Publishing;Television;Radio. For the
DCMS definition consists of 13 sectors, so it also was called “DCMS 13”.
The DCMS 13 consists of 13 sectors. It lists all the activities that are related to
every sector from three aspects (core activities, related activities and related
industries). We can see it from the table 2.1 in detail. They made a detailed
classification, so the researchers can easily separate the creative industries
from the traditional industries and can find the data to measure the contrition of
the creative industries. they also can measure” the management of creativity
and innovation in complex knowledge flows; a cycle from the generation of
original ideas to their realization and consumption, whether as performances,
products or services”.41
The Mapping Document offered some indicators about how to measure the
contribution to the economy of the creative industries.
 Employment: the full time employment within the creative industries
according to the classifications;
 Firm activity: the number of firms and their turnover and the degree of
concentration of the creative industries.
 The contribution to the GDP. It was measured according to the national
input/output tables or specialist surveys;
 The value of Exports: The value of exports from the creative industries and
the data can be got from official product and service export statistics.42
Table 2.1 The Creative activities included in the DCMS MODEL43
Sector
Core activities
Related activities
Related industries
Advertising
Consumer research
and insights;
Management of client
Creative studios and
freelancers;
Editing facilities;
Public Relations;
Promotions;
41 Jeffcutt, P. (2000) 'Management and the Creative Industries', Studies in
Cultures, Organizations & Societies, 6, No.2, 123
42 Peter Higgs, Stuart Cunningham and Hasan Bakhshi(2008). Beyond the
creative industries: Mapping the creative economy in the United Kingdom.
URL:http://www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/beyond-creative-industries-rep
ort.pdf. (reading date:05.05.2011)
43 DCMS(2002).Creative Industries Mapping Document2001.UK. URL:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.culture.gov.uk/global/p
ublications/archive_2001/ci_mapping_doc_2001.htm
(reading date:05.05.2011)
21
marketing;
activity/communication
plans;
Identifying consumer
tastes and responses;
Creation of
advertisements,
promotions;
PR campaigns;
Media planning,
buying and evaluation;
Production of
advertising materials
Architecture
Building design,
planning approval;
production information
Brochures/publications;
Photography;
filming and digital
recording;
Digital content
generation;
Multimedia and internet
production; marketing
consultancy ;
exhibitions
Structural
environmental
landscape and other ;
Specialist and design;
Urban planning;
Construction cost
planning and control;
Heritage building
conservation ;
Brief writing ;
Feasibility studies;
Project management ;
Appraisal of tender;
Direct Marketing;
design-Television &
Radio_ Film;
Market Research
Construction;
Structural
engineering; Quantity
surveying; Building
services
Documentation;
Construction
monitoring;
Internet/e-commerce
Arts
Trade in art and
antiques, including
Paintings; sculpture;
works on paper; other
fine art(ex: tapestries)
collectibles (e.g._._
mass produced
ceramics and
glassware, dolls and
dollhouses
Fairs& exhibitions;
shipping; restoration;
printing;
photography;
insurance; banking;
law; tourism
22
advertising/packaging
etc.) couture, textiles
antiquities; arms and
armor; metalwork;
books, bindings,
signatures and maps
Retailing via auctions,
galleries, specialist
fairs, shops,
warehouses,
department stores and
the Internet
Creation, production &
exhibition of crafts
Craft
Textiles, ceramics;
jeweler/silver; metal;
glass
Design
Design consultancies
(services include: e.g.
brand identity,
corporate identity,
information design,
new product
development) ;
Design components of
industry ;
Interior and
environment design
Supply of materials;
Distribution;
Retail;
Online retail;
Packaging and display;
Craft fairs;
Craft magazines and
books;
Tools and machinery.
Fine art ;
Graphic design;
Fashion design;
Crafts (e.g. small-scale
furniture markers);
Multimedia, web site
and digital media
design;
Television graphics;
Interactive and digital
TV design;
Manufacturing industry
design ;
Research and
development with
industry ;
Modeling and
prototype making;
23
Design
Fashion
Art &antiques market
Merchandise
Tourism
Public relations and
management
consultancy;
Architecture;
Packaging;
Designer fashion;
Advertising;
Furniture and
furnishings;
Personal care
product;
Transportation;
Medicine;
Electronics;
Fashion/luxury
goods;
Finance;
Telecommunications;
Pharmaceuticals;
Public sector;
Food and drink;
Consumer goods;
Retail;
Fashion
Film & Video
Interactive
Leisure
Software
Clothing design;
Manufacture of clothes
for exhibition;
Consultancy and
diffusion lines;
Screenwriting;
Production;
Distribution;
Exhibition ;
Games development;
Publishing;
Distribution;
Retail;
Magazine publishing;
Design education;
Graphic design;
Product design;
Fashion photography;
Hair care and
cosmetics;
Accessories design;
Perfumes design;
Modeling
Textiles
Clothing;
manufacture;
High Street clothes
retailing;
Music soundtracks;
Promotion;
Set design building;
Catering;
Equipment
manufacture;
Photography;
Lighting;
Sound recording;
Costume design;
Selling film and video
distribution rights;
Film and tape delivery
and storage;
Videos on demand;
Digital film distribution ;
Film web sites;
Post-production/special
effects;
Computer games ;
Multimedia and digital
media;
Television;
TV film production;
Music;
Publishing;
Advertising;
Digital media ;
Performing arts;
Merchandising;
Training;
Video sequences
(using actors, directors,
crew);
Music soundtracks;
Digital TV gaming;
On-line gaming;
Gaming for mobile
phones;
Television;
Software;
Internet;
Film & video;
Music;
Retail;
Publishing;
Sports;
24
Computer
manufacture,
distribution and retail
Games console
manufacture
distribution and retail;
Merchandise, e.g.
clothes
Music
Performing
Arts
Production,
distribution and
retailing of sound
recordings;
Administration of
copyright in
composition and
recordings;
Live performance
(non-classical);
Management,
representation and
promotion;
Songwriting and
composition
Music press;
Multimedia content;
Digital media;
Retailing and
distribution of digital
music via internet;
Music for computer
games;
Art and creative
studios;
Production, distribution
and retailing of printed
music;
Production, retailing
and distribution of
musical instruments;
Jingle production;
Photography;
Education and training;
Internet/e-commerce;
Publishing;
Television & radio;
Film & video;
Advertising;
Performance arts
Interactive leisure
software;
Software & computer
services
Content origination;
Performance
production;
Live performance of
ballet;
Contemporary dance,
drama, Music Theater,
and opera;
Touring;
Costume design and
making;
Lighting
Tourism;
Pubs and restaurants;
Business sponsorship;
Festivals management;
Management of
venues–theatres, halls,
places of public
entertainment;
Education, community
music;
Merchandising;
Catering;
Sound tracks;
Program publishing
Music;
Television & radio;
Design;
Film & video;
Publishing;
Special effects;
25
Publishing
Software &
Computer
Services
Television &
Radio
Origination
Book publishing
Learned journal
publishing
Newspaper publishing
Magazine
Digital content
publishing
Internet and digital
media;
Disc based media
production;
Electronic storage;
Libraries and
education;
Market research;
Management
consulting;
Academic research;
Distribution
Printing
Paper and ink
manufacture
Exhibitions and
Conferences
Masthead
programming
Software development
Systems integration;
Systems analysis and
design;
Software architecture
and design;
Project Management;
Infrastructure design;
Facilities management;
Consulting and
training;
Supply of contract staff;
Office software and
equipment;
Software maintenance;
Hardware design,
manufacture and
maintenance;
Information supply and
distribution;
Communications
services;
Research and
development;
Production;
Program and
packaging (library,
sales, and channels);
Broadcasting
(scheduling and media
sales);
Internet and digital
radio;
Digital media
broadcasting;
Digital and interactive
television;
Computer games;
26
Television & radio;
Music;
Interactive leisure
software;
Software & computer
services;
Film & video;
Internet and digital
media;
Management
consultancy;
Telecommunications;
Internet and digital
media;
Interactive leisure
software;
Publishing;
Television & radio;
Music;
Film & video;
Design;
Advertising;
Architecture;
Advertising
Film & video
Performing arts
Software & computer
services
Publishing (including
music press)
Transmission;
Multimedia and digital
media;
Personal video
recorders ( PVRs, e.g.
TIVO);
Video on demand
Art and creative studios
PR companies
TV commercials
production
Photography
Manufacture of
hardware
Interactive leisure
software
Merchandising
Tourism
From the table 2.1, we can know that the DCMS model offers a detailed
classification to the creative industries and easily know which activities belong
to the creative industries and which activities are very important. And it also
offered some indicators to measure the development of creative industries in a
country or a region. Its method to measure the development of the creative
industries was adopted and learned by many countries and international
agencies to study the creative industries. But there are many debates. It was
now widely accepted within economic policy analysis. It needs a long time to
improve it and gets more wide welcome. Some critics think it emphasize the
economic value of art and culture at the expense of its social potential, and
some others saw it as a sleight of hand to boost the “unjustified claim of the
cultural sector as a key economic growth sector within the global economy”.44
The model highlights the importance and difficulties of measuring diverse
creative industries and develops rapidly evolving sector of the social economy,
but the innovation and importance of the model to the study of creative
industries should not be underestimated. It established a platform for the
creative industries to have a voice to governments at all levels. Their impact
was not confined to the UK as shown by the rapid undertaking of similar
studies in many countries.45
44 Garnham, N. (2005) 'From cultural to creative industries', URL:
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/588/1/cunningham_from.pdf (reading
date:07.05.2011)
45 Peter Higgs, Stuart Cunningham. Creative Industries Mapping: Where
have we come from and where are we going?
URL:http://portal2.ntua.edu.tw/~dc/files/F04_3.pdf (reading date:09.05.2011)
27
2.2.2 The Analysis to the UK creative industry with the DCMS MODEL
According to the DCMS Model, we study the contrition to the economy of
creative industries in UK through calculating Employment, Firm activity, the
contribution to the GDP and The value of Exports. The case cited in the paper
is from the report “Creative Industries Economic Estimates HEADLINE
FINDING. 9 December, 2010.” 46
A. Contribution to the economy – Gross Value Added( see the appendix table
3)
 The Creative Industries, excluding Crafts, accounted for 5.6% of Gross
Value Added (GVA) in 2008.

Software & Electronic Publishing accounts for the most GVA out of all
the Creative Industries (2.5% in 2008).
B. Employment (see the appendix table 4)
 In the summer quarter of 2010 (July – September), creative employment
totaled just under 2.3 million jobs.

The Software & Electronic Publishing sector had the highest number of
employees out of all the Creative Industries, with over 600,000. The Music
and Visual & Performing Arts sector had the highest numbers of
self-employed people, with over 200,000.
C. Numbers of businesses (see the appendix table 5)
 In 2010, there were an estimated 182,100 enterprises in the Creative
Industries on the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR), meaning
they make up 8.7% of all enterprises. Don’t include the Crafts enterprise.

Nearly two-thirds of the businesses in the Creative Industries are
contained within two sectors; Software and Electronic Publishing (81,700
companies) and Music and the Visual & Performing Arts (30,800
companies).
D. Exports
Exports of services from the Creative Industries totaled £17.3 billion in 2008,
equating to 4.1% of all goods and services exported.
46 DCMS (2010).Creative Industries Economic Estimates.
URL:http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/research/CIEE_Full_Release_Dec2010
.pdf (reading date:10.05.2011)
28
2.2.3 The Limitation of the DCMS Model
As we said before, the DCMS Model built a platform to study the creative
industries. But some limitations of itself hampered the development of DCMS
Model. There are three main limitations which makes the DCMS Model full of
disputes. The limitations include definition, comparability and the data
available
These three key limitations concerned segment definition (leading to
overreach, overlaps and gaps), data source and classification (inconsistencies
in measures, frequency and time periods). The three key limitations reduce the
use of the DCMS Model and were criticized by many academes. And reduce
the possibility to compare the performance of creative industries in a different
time as well as between different regions and countries.47
A. Definition limitations
As we analyzed in the chapter 2, we can see that the definition offered by the
DCMS has an obvious character which is the definition was given according to
the industry activity-based segment. It is an innovation in the studying of the
creative industries. But there are some disputes. Firstly, it is not consistent with
respect to the definition of creative industries; secondly, it is not consistent with
respect to the stage of the value chain. The reasons that those inconsistencies
appeared are the limitations in industrial classification systems. Consistency is
very important in the process of definition and value chain, because it is the
basis that makes comparisons for the Cross-sectoral and cross economy.
It is a difficulty question on how to select the industries as creative industries.
The DCMS Model offers a method to select the industries. It depends on the
sectors which were covered by the SNA (System of National Accounts). They
try to find the industries from the SNA as sectors of creative industries, other
than depending on a comprehensive approach to measure the creative
industries. This method is helpful to make compares with the traditional
industries, such as agriculture and industry. If we want to measure the creative
industries with the approach, we need a consistent framework to classify the
primary activities independent to measure the size of every sector and the
contribution to the economy of them. Beside, it can avoid the double counting
in this method. “The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2002”48 tried their
47 Peter Higgs, Stuart Cunningham. Creative Industries Mapping: Where
have we come from and where are we going?
URL:http://portal2.ntua.edu.tw/~dc/files/F04_3.pdf. (reading date:10.05.2011)
48
Creative London Commission (2002), Creativity: London’s Core Business,
29
best to design a Framework and addressed the need for consistency in the
model and details the industry activities and occupations for each stage of a
value chain for each segment:
1. Creation→2. Marking→3. Dissemination→ 4. Exhibition/Reception
→5.Archiving/Preservation → education/understanding
In this framework, they design a value chain in the creative industries and fix
the primary activities which are very important to the development of creative
industries. But there are some shortcomings. Such as pointed out by those
who developed the ‘Creative Chain’ from the Canadian Framework for Canada
Culture Statistics developed a creative chain in 2002, they pointed out that the
shortcomings existed in “The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2002”.
They thought some important activities, such as training, education should be
a part of the core value chain. But in fact, they are eliminated from the core
activities and they are only thought as some ordinary support activities. We
can see the following the figure 2.1.
Creation
Production
Manufacturing
Distribution
Culture
goods and
service
Support activities (such as training and
education)
Figure 2.1 the core value chain in the DCMS Model
In fact, we should try to design a framework to add those “support activities”
into the core value chain. If they are not included in the value chain, the
policy-maker may neglect them. They are very important to develop the
creative industries. We should design the value chain and included it to cause
the emphasis of people on it and promote the development of creative
industries.
B. Comparability limitations
If we want to make comparison with the different objects, they should meet the
following conditions: firstly, the industry sectors that included should be the
same. If the sectors that they included are different, we can’t get the right
City of London, London, URL:
http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/economic_unit/docs/create_inds_rep02.pdf
(reading date:11.05.2011)
30
conclusion even though we make comparisons to them; secondly, we should
get the available data and make the data believable.
The DCMS Model includes 13 sectors and many activities. Many government
departments are responsible for the different data and we should try to collect
the data we will use. In some situation, we want to measure some indicators in
a year, we can add the data together that we get from the different sources and
get the conclusions. It is the ideal situation. But sometime it is not so easy. The
different departments investigate the data to realize different target. They
survey the data according to the different principles. In this situation, they will
try to find some information which is useful to them but miss some information.
The information that they missed may be useful to the study of the creative
industries. How to avoid the loss is very important. For the different purpose of
survey, the different departments maybe get the different data even though
they investigate the same creative industry. such as we said, some department
maybe think the training and education as a core activities in the creative
industries and they will calculate the data ,but some other department maybe
think it is not an important part of the creative industries and neglect them. It is
a question which data we should adopt if we calculate the creative industries.
We should solve the questions and then we can design the next step tasks.
We face another difficulty when we make comparisons. As the technology
developed and society changes. The environment will change. The new
industry will appear. The new framework should be designed for the new
environment and serve for the new situation. Such as “The UK Mapping
documents 1998” and “The UK Mapping documents 2001”. Following the time
changes, the “Document 2001” adds some new content into the mapping
document and make some changes compared to the “Document 1998”. In this
situation, if we make comparison with the different methodologies, maybe we
will get the wrong conclusions.
The UK’s Annual Business Inquiry (ABI) is responsible for collecting data from
enterprises with employees and codes the number of employees with the
standard industry code. Unfortunately the ABI does not survey non-employing
enterprises so the significant number of sole-practitioner creative’s is not
counted. Also, the UK Labor Force Survey, according to the DCMS Evidence
Toolkit, needs to be used with caution when looking at sectors within the
creative industries as it is conducted as a survey of UK households with a
sample size of approximately one in 400 to provide the weighted results. As a
consequence it could be hard to determine reliably the detailed patterns of
employment within sub-segments. Data from a population census would be
much more suited for this but can quickly go out of date.
C. Classification limitations affecting data availability
31
The first iteration of the DCMS Model focused on the classification of the
creative industries and caused the problems that how to collect the data from
some specific firms which runs in specific segment. However Pratt (2004) and
Roodhouse (2006) have noted “that standard industrial classifications are
poorly suited to creative industries especially in the Design and Interactive
Media segments. This means that the direct economic impact of creative
industries has been substantially under estimated.”49 For instance, the
approach used by most analysts to measure the employment impact of the
Design segment is to count the people employed within firms in the specialist
design industries of Architectural Services and Photographic Services. The
analysis in the Britain instance has shown this leads to under-counting by
approximately 50 percent because of the high number of designers embedded
in other industries and poor statistical industry definition coverage.
Many specialist design consulting activities are lost within broad classifications
such as the Britain category of ‘Business Services’ or ‘Consultant Engineering
Services’ or even the several classifications related to clothing manufacturing.
Simon Roodhouse’s report on Fashion Design pointed to the special difficulties
of meaningfully defining sub-sectors in this sector: ‘The need to define the
sector is central to any attempt at collecting data and the importance of being
precise about the descriptors for sub-sectors. This is where judgments are
needed to reflect the extent of a sub-sector within the accepted national norms
such as SIC and SOC and avoids some of the problems of overlap or double
counting’ (Roodhouse 2003:4).
As we have noted, the DCMS Mapping studies used proportional estimates to
address this problem. The UK Design sector has no UK Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) code and therefore data for it could not be sourced from
national surveys. The Design Mapping Report therefore had to rely on industry
surveys and other estimates which create potential inconsistencies with the
data of other segments.
2.3 WIPO Copyright model
2.3.1 The introduction to the WIPO Copyright MODEL
In the WIPO Copyright Model, the creative industries included all the industries
49 Cultural and Creative Industry Promotion Team (2004), The Development
of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan and Its Significance for SMEs,
Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei, URL:http://eweb.moeasmea.gov.tw/public/
Attachment/65161430571.pdf. (reading date:14.05.2011)
32
involved in the creation, manufacture, production, broadcast and distribution
and consumption of copyrighted works.50
The WIPO Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the
Copyright-based Industries was published in 2003. Its mission is to provide a
new method to analyze the impacts that generated by copyright. Dimiter
Gantchev, who worked in the WIPO, thought that the industry structure and
copyright markets may vary; the copyright protection is different in the different
countries. And it maybe cause the industries structure and copyright markets
changed. The new approach being recommended is ‘focus on quantifiable and
measurable direct and indirect impact. It is not suggested to study multiplier
affects, tertiary or quaternary economic impact which are not tangible and
often non-quantifiable’ (Gantchev, 2004:8).51
In the WIPO Model, the main research object is the related to the copyright. So
the creative industries also were called as copyright-based industries. The
reason that the WIPO Model emphasized on the copyright is that creative
industries usually referred to the art, movie works, software, performance,
music and so on. These activities are closely related with people's lives and it
can generate the economy profit for the producer and can create more jobs
positions.
To study the economic contribution of copyright-based industries, the WIPO
organize its member states to publish “WIPO Guide on Surveying the
Economic Contribution of the Copyright-based Industries “the expressed by
Member States. In the guide , it recommend a method to try to get the data
which was related to the copyright and impact of the implement of the creative
industries to do positive analysis. “The findings of study are also to serve as
important inputs to promoting growth and development of the creative
industries in the country.”52
The purpose of the Guide is three aspects; first is to summarize experience
that the other countries develop the creative industries such as UK and Austria
and referred to copyright of the creative industries; second is to provide a
guidelines, recommendations and survey methods to the member states to
50 CREATIVE METROPOLES- Concepts and methodological approach,
URL:http://www.creativemetropoles.eu/uploads/files/cm_directory_of_ci_conc
epts.pdf (reading date:15.05.2011)
51 British council (2008), GAUTENG’S CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: AN
ANALYSIS.URL:http://www.britishcouncil.org/files/Low%20resolution%20pdfs/
Methodology%20with%20all%20sectors/Methodology%20low%20all%20sect
ors%20spreads.pdf. (reading date:15.05.2011)
52 WIPO. URL:http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/
(reading date:16.05.2011)
33
direct them to measure the development of their creative industries and know
how to promote the development of their creative industries; and third is to
offer a platform to study the creative industries and collect data to make
comparisons in the different countries.53
Creative enterprises, those engaged in the commercial exploitation of
intellectual property-based goods and services imbued with symbolic meaning
(i.e., books, software, movie), contribute significantly to the economic, social
and cultural development of nations. These enterprises form complex
networks in content-driven sectors, which in turn make up the creative
industries.54
Up to now, there are three edition of “National Studies on Assessing the
Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries” was released. It
presents the results of the first five national studies on assessing the economic
contribution of copyright-based industries. The first volume of national studies
was issued in 2004. Canada, Hungary, Latvia, Singapore and the United
States carry out the study on the creative industries on the basis of the
methodology contained in the WIPO Guide. A second volume of National
Studies was issued in the summer of 2008 and included surveys conducted in
the Philippines, Mexico, Jamaica, Bulgaria and Lebanon.A third volume of
National Studies was published in January 2010 and included surveys in
Colombia, Romania , Croatia , Russia and Ukraine.55
Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries in Selected
Countries-Table of General Comparisons56
53 WIPO.GUIDE ON SURVEYING THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF
THE COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES.
URL:http://www.wipo.int/copyright/en/publications/pdf/copyright_pub_893.pdf.
(reading date:16.05.2011)
54 WIPO. URL:http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/
(reading date:17.05.2011)
55 WIPO.WIPO Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the
Copyright-Based Industries
URL:http://www.wipo.int/sme/en/documents/guides/copyright_industries.htm(r
eading date:18.05.2011)
56
WIPO.
URL:http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/economic_contri
bution.html(reading date:18.05.2011)
34
Table 2.1: Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries Using WIPO
Methodology
Source:http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/ip-development/en/creative_industry/pdf/eco
_table.pdf
The scope of the Guide is to survey the economic contribution of the
copyright-based industries and provide quantifiable characteristics of this
contribution. They address three main indicators to measure the creative
industries-the value generated by them, their share in employment and their
contributions to foreign trade.57 It outlines the methodology of the survey,
justifies the choice of indicators, describes their characteristics and elaborates
on existing approaches to their measurement. At the same time the Guide
does not discuss fields where more research is needed on the national and
international levels, such as the economic impact of copyright law itself,
measuring the social effects of copyright, the valuation of copyright assets of
enterprises or the assessment of the effects of copyright piracy. These topics
would form the subject of possible future publications.
According to WIPO (2003), creative industries are classified into four kinds of
broad groups of copyright activities:
A. The core copyright industries. they are the industries that are wholly
57 WIPO.GUIDE ON SURVEYING THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF
THE COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES.
URL:http://www.wipo.int/copyright/en/publications/pdf/copyright_pub_893.pdf.
(reading date:16.05.2011)
35
engaged in creation, production and manufacturing, performance, broadcast,
communication and exhibition, or distribution and sales of works and other
protected subject matter it include the sectors as following(see table 2.2)
Table 2.2 the content of the core copyright industries
Sector
Press and literature
the various activities included

authors, writers, translators;

newspapers;

news and feature agencies;

magazines/periodicals;

book publishing,

cards and maps;

directories and other published materials;

pre-press, printing, and post-press of books, magazines,
newspapers, advertising materials;

wholesale and retail of press and literature (book stores,
news stands); and library

Composers, lyricists, arrangers, choreographers, directors,
performers and other personnel;
Music, theatrical
productions, operas

Printing and publishing of music;

Production/manufacturing of recorded music;

Wholesale and retail of recorded music (sale and rental);

Artistic and literary creation and interpretation; and

Performances and allied agencies (booking agencies, ticket
agencies).
Motion picture and video
Radio and television
Photography

Writers, directors, actors etc.;

Motion picture and video production and distribution;

Motion picture exhibition

Video rentals and sales including video on demand; and

Allied services.

National radio and television broadcasting companies;

Other radio and television broadcasters;

Independent producers;

Cable television (systems and channels);

Satellite television; and

Allied services.

Studios and commercial photography; and

Photo agencies and libraries (photo-finishing labs should
not be included).
Software and databases

Programming, development and design;
36

manufacturing, wholesale and retail prepackaged software
(business programs, video games, educational programs
etc.); and
Visual and graphic arts
Advertising services

Database processing and publishing.

Artists;

Art galleries and other wholesale and retail;

Picture framing and other allied services; and

Graphic design.

Agencies, buying services (the price of advertising should
not be included).
Copyright Collective
Management Societies
(turnover should not be
included)
B. Interdependent Copyright Industries, which are engaged in the production,
manufacture and sale of equipment that facilitate copyright activity (WIPO,
2003: 33). Such equipment includes TV sets, radios, DVD players, electronic
game consoles, computers, musical instruments, photographic instruments,
blank recording material, and paper.
C. Partial Copyright Industries, whose main activities may not be copyright but
include a significant component of products and services that are based on
copyright. These include museums, jewelry, coins, architecture, engineering,
surveying, interior design, and furniture design.
D. Non-Dedicated Support Industries, which are the distribution industries that
facilitate broadcasting, communication, and distribution or sales of
copyright-based activities that are not classified as core copyright activities.
These industries serve to measure spillover effects of the core, interdependent
and partial copyright industries but are in themselves not normally thought of
as copyright activities. The industries include general wholesale and retail,
general transportation, and telephony and the Internet.
2.3.2 The Analysis to JAMAICA creative industries with the WIPO Copyright
MODEL
According to the WIPO model, we calculate the value generated by them, their
37
share in employment and their contributions to foreign trade.58 The case we
cited is from the “The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in
Jamaica final report”.
A. The contribution of copyright-based industries to GDP
In general, it is estimated that the copyright sector contributes about 4.8
percent to the GDP of Jamaica (J$605,030 million). The main contributions
come from the core copyright sector, with about 1.7 percent, and the
non-dedicated copyright support sectors, with a share of 1.9 percent. The
interdependent and partial copyright sector jointly contributes about 1.2
percent. A general lesson from the evidence is that the segments supported by
government tend to do substantially better than those that are neglected. In
terms of the internal structure of the copyright sector GDP, core copyright
contributes 35.7 percent, no dedicated support contributes 39.0 percent, and
interdependent and partial jointly contribute 25.3 percent. The contribution to
the GDP of creative industries in Jamaica in detail we can see the table 6 in the
appendix.
B. The Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries to Employment
The estimates of employment are based on the adjusted wage reported, along
with the relevant details of the factor that adjusts for deviation of the average of
the STATIN large establishment and supplementary case data from the overall
average as indicated by Census 2001 data. The estimates indicate that the
creative industries account for 3.03 percent of all employment in Jamaica,
which are approximately 32,032 persons. The employment share is based on
STATIN’s reported total economy-wide employment of 1,056,000 for 2005.
The detail of “The contribution to the employment of creative industries in
Jamaica in 2005” we can see the table 7 in the appendix.
2.3.3 The limitation on the WIPO Copyright Model
The WIPO Copyright Model tries to build a systematic structure to measure the
contrition to the economics of the creative industries and guide its member
states to carry out the study and promote the development of creative
industries. But there are three key limitations (limitations on rights, scope and
the data available) hamper the development of the model and cause many
disputes.
58 Vanus James. The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in
Jamaica. 28 August, 2007.
38
A. The limitations on Rights
The understanding is different in the different countries. So the protection to
the copyright is different in different countries. There are some limitations on
the copyrights. The first one is some categories of works were excluded from
the protection if they are not fixed in tangible form in some countries. Such as
the some dance. If the dance is not written down or recorded on videotape.
They will not be protected by the law. In some countries, such as china, the
texts of laws are treated as” public goods” and everyone can free use it.
The second category of limitations on the rights of is the “authorization”.
Generally speaking, if we use some particular research or knowledge, we need
get the authorization of the author or some organization. But now the speed of
the knowledge diffusion becomes faster and faster, especially the use of the
internet. People living in the world can share the knowledge. Some time we
can use the other people or organizations’ research freely and needn’t to
compensate the owner of rights.
B. Limitations of Scope
We
can analyze the limitation from three aspects: the limitation of the value
added approach; missing categories and Conceptual limitations
Firstly, we analyze the limitations of the value added approach
(a) We don’t know the value added approach of illegal activities to the creative
industries.
The illegal activities are the underground economy and every country has
illegal activities. They take huge negative impacts to the copyright-based
industries. In some countries, especially in the developing countries, the illegal
activities such as pirated copies prevail and the value of goods and services
can’t be realized. We can’t gather the data of pirated copies, so the reported
value added by the core copyright-based industries generally would not
include the value or economic size of illegal activities. Those report can’t really
reflects the value of the creative industries. Some demands of customers were
met by the pirated copies for they are very cheap and it will affect the sale of
the “production”. In this situation, people maybe get wrong conclusions and
underestimate the creative industries. It also will hit the enthusiasm for
innovation of business and personal.
(b) Analyzed the value added approach from the market aspect
For some reasons, some copyright-based industries don’t enter into market or
even they enter into market, but we can’t get the data about them. So we can’t
39
measure the value added of them, such as craft. The craft is very important to
a country in defense and technology. The data about it was not released and
not included in the national account. Most of them don’t enter into market, so it
is difficulty to compile the data on such activities as crafts. So we can’t fully
measure the contribution of the copyright-based industries to the economics.
Secondly, there are some categories missed.
Compared to the DCMS Model, there is a significant difference from the DCMS
Model; the DCMS model is the ’industry-based model’ and the WIPO Model is
the ‘copyright-based ‘model. The copyright is the principle to classification. So
there is a notable problem appeared is that some activities is blanks in national
statistics. Now most of the countries adopt the System of National Accounts.
All the industries were classified according to the SNA system. So some
activities can’t be found in the SNA system. How to solve the problems? There
are two method maybe can be adopted: one is the sample analysis, the other
one is estimation. We can use one of the methods according to the different
conditions. Or we can use both of them to make comparisons to improve the
accuracy rate. But all of them need to collect a lot of data to get a conclusion.
Even we get a lot of data, there will also generate error. How to reduce the
error is an important issue.
C. Limitations of the Organization of Statistics
(a) Management of data
In many cases, data is available but is not published or may be available on
searchable databases. Data gathering in national statistics offices tends to be
organized around types of businesses and industries. As copyright crosses
industries, not all data is available from single departments in statistics
bureaus. In a number of cases separate divisions in the statistical office may
not be fully aware of the information being gathered at other units in the office
and multiple contacts in the agencies entrusted with the collection and
processing of statistical data may be very helpful.
(b) Accounting rules and practices
Specific problems stem from accounting rules and practices. Often the import
and export figures are based on the actual physical tracking of goods through
customs and make sense mostly when you deal with physical goods. But if an
export is not physical then it would be entered in the country where the
financial transfer occurred and national accounting statistics would capture it in
the country where it becomes taxable. Accounting rules and practices must be
studied for the purpose of correct interpretation of statistical data.
Specific industry sources are often differently organized as compared to official
statistics. For example in some countries, the reported book export statistics
40
would not capture a book export if it is not organized as a shipment of 2000
books or more. So if there is a shipment of less than 2000 books this shipment
will not necessarily be recorded as a book shipment. This would require the
establishment of an appropriate factor.
(c) Industry organization
The copyright industry in some countries is going through a high phase of
vertical and horizontal integration and mergers and acquisitions. That may
result in major difficulties establishing the proportions between the
contributions of different copyright-based industries, for example between
book publishing and printing, video clips and film making etc., especially if
carried out within the same establishment.
Another related effect comes from the mobility of the copyright-based
industries. Industries may gradually move from one group to another as they
evolve or as the statistical treatment becomes more refined. This will affect the
results of the surveys for the different groups, but is not likely to affect the
overall copyright-based contribution.
(d) Double counting
A specific case where adjustments are crucial is the avoidance of double
counting. As mentioned, some of the copyright-based activities may be
accounted for only in employment statistics and should not be double counted
with industry statistics. For example, if the salary of a director is accounted for
in the employment statistics but it is actually paid by the film industry, it would
appear under the film industry and it should not be added to the value added
elsewhere. A general point that could be made here is that revenues are
accounted for in the country where they have been received and entered in the
national accounts. That has to be borne in mind at a stage when international
comparisons are made.
2.4 UNCTAD MODEL
2.4.1
The introduction to the UNCTAD MODEL
The UNCTAD Model learned experiences and cooperate them into together
from five international organizations: UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, WIPO and
ITC. They are endeavor to work to design a framework to build a
comprehensive system of creative industries and promote the development of
the creative industries in the world and drive the cooperation in the different
countries and learn the sophisticated experience from each other. But the
41
UNCTAD Model emphasizes the impact of the creative economy. And think
the “creative economy is producing new opportunities for both developed and
developing countries, but the challenges ahead should not be
underestimated.”59,but the creative industries is the basis of the creative
economy.
In the UNCTAD Model, the ‘Creative industries’ were treated as the product of
knowledge-based economy. They invest the materials which have the
characters with creativity and intellectual as input and produce the tangible
goods or intangible goods with intellectual. And then the flow of the product
forms a circle with creation, production and distribution of goods and services.
They will analyze impact to the economics of all the product of creative
industries produced.
Now, as the development of creative industries, more and more countries
began to study the creative industries and found that the structure of creative
industries is very complicated. In many developed countries, the creative
industries are treated as a strategic choice to promote the growth of economy
and improve the employment and accelerate the society stable. In the
UNCTAD Model, the creative industries comprise many fields and there are
complex relationships among them. The scope of creative activities is wide in
the UNCTAD Model and they refer to traditional arts and crafts, publishing,
music, and visual and performing arts to more technology-intensive and
services-oriented groups of activities such as film, television and radio
broadcasting, new media and design.
The UNCTAD approach to the creative industries relies on enlarging the
concept of “creativity” from activities having a strong artistic component to “any
economic activity producing symbolic products with a heavy reliance on
intellectual property and for as wide a market as possible”60 (UNCTAD, 2004).
There are many innovations about the creative industries in the creative
industries. firstly, they see all the creative industries as two parts: one is the
upstream activities, which including the traditional cultural activities such as
performing arts , the other one is ’downstream activities’, which is closer to the
market compared to the “upstream activities”, such as movie, software and
so on. And they think the downstream activities can realize reproduction at a
low coast and is more valuable. From the point, the UNCTAD thinks the
cultural industries are subsets of the creative industries. The UNCTAD
59 UNCTAD, Creative Economy Report 2008, UNCTAD,
URL:http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf, retrieved
2009-11-28.(reading date 19.05.2011)
60 UNCATAD. Creative Industries and Development. URL:
http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/tdxibpd13_en.pdf. (reading date 19.05.2011)
42
classification of creative industries is divided into four broad groups: heritage,
arts, media and functional creations. These groups are in turn divided into nine
subgroups, as presented in figure 2.2
Figure 2.2 the content of the UNCTAD Model
The reason that the UNCATAD adopts this kind of Model is to facilitate
understanding to the interactions of different industries. It is an innovation.
Now in the world, many countries define their creative industries and there are
many industries belong to the creative industries. But there are not many
countries or agencies try to divided all the industries into domains, groups and
sub-sectors. And this kind of classification could also be used to provide
consistency in quantitative and qualitative analysis.
The UNCTAD Model takes into account of the distinct characteristics of
creative industries and classifies the creative industries into four groups.
These groups include heritage, arts, media and functional creations and they
were divided into nine domains. As showed in the figure 2.1. We can see the
content of ‘creative industries’ of UNCTAD Model in detail.
A. Heritage.
Cultural heritage is identified as the origin of all forms of arts and the soul of
cultural and creative industries.
It is the starting point of this classification. It is heritage that brings together
cultural aspects from the historical, anthropological, ethnic, aesthetic and
societal viewpoints, influences creativity and is the origin of a number of
heritage goods and services as well as cultural activities. Associated with
heritage is the concept of ”traditional knowledge and cultural expressions”
embedded in the creation of arts and crafts as well as in folklore and traditional
43
cultural festivities. This group is therefore divided into two subgroups:
– Traditional cultural expressions: Arts and crafts, festivals and celebrations;
and
– Cultural sites: Archaeological sites, museums, libraries, exhibitions, etc.
B. Arts.
This group includes creative industries based purely on art and culture.
Artwork is inspired by heritage, identity values and symbolic meaning. This
group is divided into two large subgroups:
– Visual arts: Painting, sculpture, photography and antiques; and
– Performing arts: Live music, theatre, dance, opera, circus, puppetry, etc.
C. Media.
This group covers two subgroups of media that produce creative content with
the purpose of communicating with large audiences (“new media” is classified
separately):
– Publishing and printed media: Books, press and other publications; and
– Audiovisuals: film, television, radio and other broadcasting.
D. Functional creations.
This group comprises more demand-driven and services-oriented industries
creating goods and services with functional purposes. It is divided into the
following subgroups:
– Design: Interior, graphic, fashion, jeweler, toys;
– New media: Software, video games, and digitalized creative content; and
– Creative services: Architectural, advertising, cultural and recreational,
creative research and development (R&D), digital and other related creative
services.
In the UNCTAD model, there are four potential indicators to measure the
development of creative industries. They are employment, time use, trade and
value added and copyright and IPR (Intellectual Property Rights), public and
invest. In some extent, the indicators are different from other definitions. But
these indicators are not adequate to measures development of the creative
industries in either the developed or developing countries. We should explore
the more indicators.
2.4.2 The Analysis to the creative industry with the UNCTAD Model
According to the UNCTAD Model, we calculate the value generated by them,
their share in employment and their contributions to foreign trade. The case we
44
cited is from the “creativity economy report 2008”. In the report, the UNCTAD
choose or cite some countries’ data as cases to analyze.
A. The employment
In 2003, the creative industries accounted for about 2.5 percent of total
employment in the United States, with numbers being spread across the whole
range of industries. The largest concentration of creative workers occurred
among independent artists, writers and performers and in the publishing
industry. Details are given in table 2.3:
Table 2.3: Workers in creative industries in the United States, 2003
Creative industries
Number of workers
Proportion of workforce
(thousand)
(%)
0.3
Advertising
429
Applied design
428
0.3
Architecture
296
0.2
Broadcasting
320
0.2
Film and video
142
0.1
Music production
41
0.0
Performing arts
159
0.1
Publishing
700
0.5
Visual arts
122
0.1
Other (a)
611
0.5
Total-creative industries 3,250
2.5
Total-all industries
132,047
100.0
B. Trade
Now, creative industries are the most dynamic sectors in world trade. Over the
period 2000-2005, international trade in creative goods and services
experienced an unprecedented average annual growth rate of 8.7 per cent.
The value of world exports of creative goods and services reached $424.4
billion in 2005, representing 3.4 per cent of total world trade, according to
UNCTAD.
C. The contribution of creative industries to the GDP
The UNCTAD use this kind method to measure the contribution of creative
industries to the GDP in France. We can see table 2.4.
45
Table 2.4 estimates of the contribution of creative industries to GDP France 2003
Creative industries
Advertising
Architecture
Video, film and
photography
Music & the visual &
performing arts
Publishing/written media
of which: printing
Radio and TV
(broadcasting)
Art and antiques trade
Design (including
designer fashion)
Crafts
Total
Total economy( GDP)
Millions(€)
11,858*
2,524*
5,155*
GDP 100%)
0.80
0.20
0.40
3,425*
0.20
11,283*
0.80
4,851*
0.30
4,878*
413*
363*
na
39,899*
1,434,812
0.30
0.00
0.00
na
2.80
100.0
NOTE: France: Data are OECD estimates. They were derived from National Institute for
Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) turnover data, supplied by the French Ministry of
Culture and Communications, by applying value added to turnover ratios taken from
INSEE and OECD data. Total GVA has been taken from INSEE national accounts data.
The UNCTAD maybe can’t get the other indicators’ data and so they don’t
calculate the other indicators. I also can’t get the data. So we don’t discuss it
here.
2.4.3 The limitation
As we analyzed before, there are four potential means of measuring creative
industry activity. We will analyze the limitations about them.
A. Employment
We can analyze the limitation of employment from three aspects: occupation;
industry; cluster.
(a), Occupation
The department of statistics maybe can measure which creative industry is
most popular according to the occupations. Using classifications of occupation,
people are categorized as creative workers. There is a problem with this
method to measure how many workers are working in the creative industries,
because some workers will do some part time jobs. They are not counted by
46
the statistical agency. So the function of creative industry to create job
positions will be underestimated. It maybe leads some wrong policy.
(b). Co-location/cluster
The topic of co-location or cluster is a very important question and caused
many discussions about it. In some extent, it has relationship with the local and
regional economic development and regional competition. The industries
cluster can form scale economy and be full use resources. How to judge that
where there is a co-location or cluster or not? One of the methods is to
measures the employment .More workers were employed, it indicates that the
degree of concentration is higher. However, an important question with respect
to all forms of clustering, especially that of the creative economy, is the degree
of interaction between the various firms and activities in the cluster. In
traditional analyses of industrial agglomeration, a measure of inter-firm trade is
sought.
B. Time use
How to judge which creative industries activities is more important to people’s
life? One of the methods is to survey the time that the people spend on them.
In some extent, the activities are more important to people’s life, they will
spend more time on it. So through the time-use survey, we can know which
creative industries are very important and should emphasize to develop. In
some countries, they have tried to do some survey like this. Such as in Austria,
they investigate how much time people spend their time on some particular
activities to measure the development of creative industries. However, the
drawback is that such surveys are very labor intensive and exist in few
locations. A related set of measures is of participation or attendance data.
Traditionally, such data have been used to monitor attendance at events
organized or managed by the public sector where entry is either free or heavily
subsidized. In some cases, they are used as a measure of public service
performance. In most cases, these data are not collected since public
expenditure is not evaluated in this manner. Moreover, participation is not
measured for many informal events. Finally, commercial ventures may be
more interested in the takings/box office than in attendance numbers and they
may also be commercially sensitive. In recent years as services are
increasingly delivered by digital means, such monitoring has become easier,
but it is still at a very early stage. A more sophisticated sort of survey will not
only collect such data but also relate them to more general demographic data.
C. Trade and value added
The measurement of trade in relation to the creative economy is problematic in
47
practice. The existing information sources have been developed to capture the
transfer of physical goods. The ‘dematerialization’ of trade-most well
documented in relation to financial services-has had a particularly strong
impact on the creative economy. For historic reasons, parallel tools have been
developed to capture both physical and financial trade flows; while far from
perfect, they provide a significant insight into transfers. The case of the
creative economy is not so clear; much of the value in the creative economy
has been as a result of trade in physical products that are of relatively low
value as materials but those contain their real value in intellectual property.
Conventional trade measures focus on the flow of material goods, either
registering their (free-onboard) price or weight. It is impossible to disentangle
the IPR value from such data or even to recognize it. Moreover, digitization is
increasingly facilitating the transfer and trade in IPRs online, a means not
monitored. It is for these reasons that trade in the creative economy is
relatively invisible; we are left looking for traces or shadows of IPRs. Moreover,
with rapid technological change, the relationships between goods and value
shift week by week.
A traditional measure that is used in the evaluation of economic activity is
output, or turnover, usually represented as gross value added (GVA). This is
an important measure when one examines the performance of regional and
local economies and when one seeks to evaluate the performance of particular
linkages in a production or value chain. Constructing such an account requires
a great deal of data.
Moreover, there is some doubt as to whether such an account is reliable for
the creative economy.
2.5 China creative Industries Model
2.5.1 The introduction to the China Creative Industries Model
In Jan, 2011, the “Mapping the Cultural and Creative Sectors in the EU and
China: A Working Paper in support to the development of an EU-China
Cultural and Creative Industries' (CCIs) platform” was released by EU and
Chinese government. This publication”takes the form of a Working Paper
aimed at mapping the cultural and creative sectors (CCIs) in China and Europe,
as a first step in a process to help increase transactions in IP rights as a main
tool for commercial exchanges in these sectors. It is undertaken in the
framework of the ’EU-China Project on the Protection of Intellectual Property
Rights’ (IPR2), as part of its work on supporting the development and
48
enforcement of intellectual property rights of creative industries in China.”61
And this report adopts the definition of EU. In some extent, it is the DCMS
Model and is the industries-based model. They tried to promote the study of
creative industries and the protection of copyrights in china.
China is largest countries in the world and leading Asia in the development of a
creative economy. The report exhibits some research about china. it shows
that Its cultural sector records € 50.32 billion of value added, contributes
2.45% of Chinese GDP, and accounts for 1.48% of the total employed
workforce62. After the reforms and opening up of China, the culture and
creative industries developed rapidly. And from 1992, the cultural sector has
gained weight in the Chinese GDP with a growing rate of 6.4 points above the
already impressive growth rates of the other sectors of the economy63. China’s
top 500 creative industries’ companies64 generate an aggregate turnover
(revenue) of € 1.87 billion in Beijing and € 3.24 billion in Shanghai65. Cultural
employment has reached impressive levels in a few years. In the art sector
employment has increased by approximately 25% since 2006 (about 15,000
employees in total between public and private museums)66. The capital’s top
500 architectural firms now employ almost 120,000 people and around
173,000 are employed just in Shanghai67.
Following privatization reforms, although State-owned companies remain key
stakeholders, the private culture and creative industries develop rapidly. There
are so many people surf on the internet. And it makes the china's games
industries have the fastest growing in the world
“China’s economic transformation has had a profound impact on China itself –
its social structure, urban environments and creative pioneers, from designers
61 Philippe Kern,Yolanda Smits, Dana Wang. The Mapping the Cultural and
Creative Sectors in the EU and China: A Working Paper in support to the
development of an EU-China Cultural and Creative Industries' (CCIs) platform.
URL:www.ipr2.org. (reading date 19.05.2011)
62 Chinese National Bureau of Statistics (2008).URL: http://www.stats.gov.cn/
(reading date 19.05.2011)
64 Michael Keane, Created in China: The Great New Leap Forward,
Routledge, 2007.
65 Design, Architecture and the Creative Industries, Embassy of the Kingdom
of the Netherlands to China, 2009. URL:
http://www.artsfoundation.nl/archive/091105_Update_designarchitectuur_sep2
009.pdf (reading date 19.05.2011)
66 China Statistical Yearbook, 2008. URL: http://www.stats.gov.cn/
(reading date 20.05.2011)
67 Chinese National Bureau of Statistics (2008). URL: http://www.stats.gov.cn/
(reading date 20.05.2011)
49
and architects, to artists and film makers who are charting a course through
China’s cultural landscape. Chinese creative people are responding with vigor
to this moment of intense transformation” .Many of China’s creative industries
are experiencing rapid growth, fuelled by a combination of state-driven and
private sector investment in infrastructure and technology, a rise in the
digitization of information, a significant increase in personal communications
and a marked rise in consumer spending on media, culture and infotainment.
The past decade has seen dramatic development for creative industries in
China. It was in 2000 during a central committee conference, that the Chinese
central Government first declared cultural industries as a key strategic
development area. at that time, the concept of” creative industries” did not
exist in China. In 2003, the “cultural and creative industries” have started
booming. As evidenced by the trade figures presented in the annex, China
became the leading player in the world market for creative goods. This
development reflects a clear determination of the Government to fully explore
the potential of the creative industries as a development strategy, as
emphasized in the 11th Five-Year Plan. Moreover, the impressive economic
performance of China over the past several decades has made its
development experience rather distinct from those of many other economies.
China had the fastest economic growth in the world for more than 25 years and
recently has been attracting FDI (Foreigner Direct Investment) on the order of
$60 billion per year. As a result, in a relatively short period starting in 1990, its
exports of services increased eightfold, amounting to $70 billion in 2005.
Furthermore, technology has been paramount in the “catching-up” strategy of
China.68 Obviously, these conditions –particularly the combination of
investment, technology and creativity – have been conducive to harnessing
the creative economy in the country. Design, publishing and arts and crafts are
among its most competitive creative products.
Another important feature of China’s modernization, drive and the success of
its creative industries results from the multidisciplinary policies in place where
ministers of commerce, culture, science and technology, information and
education have been working in a concerted manner. The creative industries
were identified as one of the pillars of China’s future economic
development.69Structural reforms recognizing the growing role of culture and
creativity for economic development have been articulated with a view to
68 Keynote address by E. Dos Santos (UNCTAD) on the interface between
technology and culture at the Tenth China International High-Tech Expo
(CHITEC), Beijing, May 2007.
69 See opening speech by the Minister of Culture of China, First China Beijing
International Cultural and Creative Industry Forum & Expo, Beijing, December
2006 (see UNCTAD,Creative Economy and Industries Newsletter, No. 6,
2007).
50
enhancing creative industries, particularly those generating high-growth, value
added goods and services. In this respect, China is a concrete example of how
cross-cutting policies should be integrated in order to enhance the overall
impact of the creative economy for development gains. Recently, innovative
financing arrangements, including new private partnership, have been an
engine for the dynamism of its technology-intensive creative industries.70An
important shift in policy orientation from “made in China” towards “created in
China” is already noticeable.
With the efforts from different departments of Private, Corporation and
Government, the development of creative industry in China has entered into a
new era among different cities. Dozens of clusters are becoming the economic
growth stars of their own field.
But there are still many questions in the development of creative industries in
china. There is no uniform definition for “creative industries” in China. In the
Mainland China, two kinds of definitions are popular One is the ‘Beijing Model”,
the other one is “Shanghai Model”. The main differences are as list:
The name is different. In Beijing model, the creative industry was called
“cultural and creative industry”, but it was called “creative industry” in Shanghai
Model. The differences between them are the different of classification to the
creative industry. Because the Beijing is the capital of china, its policies can
affect the decision of the Central government. So we adopt the Beijing model
as a basis structure to analyze in the paper.
According to the “Beijing Model’, the “culture creative industries” were divided
into nine categories: Culture and Arts, Press and Publication, Radio, television,
film, software, network and computer services, advertising exhibition, art trade,
Design Services, Travel and entertainment, other support services. Every
category includes many kinds of activities. We can see it in the table2.5 in
detail.
Table 2.5The subcategory of culture and creative industries
Category
the culture and
the arts
71
the various activities included
1. Literary creation, performance, and performance venues
Creative and Performing Arts
- Art Creation Services
- Performing Arts Services
- Other Art Services
70 Technology and Creativity, address by E. Dos Santos, Chief, Creative
Economy and Industries Programme, UNCTAD, at the Creative Industry
Development Forum, Beijing, May 2007.
71 Beijing Cultural and Creative Industry Classification Standard. 30 June,
2008. URL:http://www.bjci.gov.cn/292/2007/06/26/[email protected] (reading
date: 21.05.2011)
51
the press and
publication
Performing arts venues
2. Cultural preservation and cultural facilities and
services
Protection of Heritage and Culture
- Conservation Services
- National Folk Heritage Protection Services
Museum
Memorial
Library
Archives
3. Mass culture services
Public cultural services
- The mass cultural venues
- Other mass cultural activities
Other arts and culture
4. Cultural research and cultural community service
Social and human science research and experimental
development
Professional bodies *
- Cultural and social groups
5. Cultural and arts agency services
Cultural brokerage
1. News Service
Journalism
2. Books, reports, publications published
(1) books, newspapers, publications published
Book Publishing
Newspaper publishing
Journal Publishing
Other published
(2) books, newspapers, TV production
Books, newspapers, publications printing
And other printed packaging and decoration *
(3) books, newspapers, publications issued
Wholesale Books
Book retail
Newspapers, wholesale
Newspaper Retail
3. Audiovisual and electronic publications published
(1) publication and production of audio-visual
products
Publishing audio and video products
Video Production
(2) publication and production of electronic
52
Radio, television,
film,
software, network
and computer
services
publications
Publication of electronic publications
- Publishing of Electronic Publications
- Production of electronic publications
(3) copy audio and video and electronic publications
Recording Media *
- Copy audio and video products
- Copy of electronic publications
(4) distribution of audiovisual and electronic
publications
Wholesale audio and video products and electronic
publications
Retail audio-visual products and electronic
publications
4. Rental of books and audio-visual products
Rental of books and audio-visual products
1. Radio and television services
Radio
- Radio
- Other broadcasting services
TV
- TV
- Other TV
2. Radio and television transmission
Cable radio and television transmission services
- Cable Radio and TV transmission network
service
- Cable Radio, TV reception
Wireless radio and television transmission services
- Radio, television transmitters, relay stations
- Radio, TV receiver
Satellite Transmission Services
3. Film Services
Film production and distribution
- Film Studio Services
- Film Production
- Cinema release
- Other movies released
Film Screenings
- Cinemas, theaters
- Other film screening
1. Software Services
Based software services
Application Service
53
advertising
exhibition
art trade
design services
tourism, leisure
and
entertainment
other support
services
Other software services
2. Network Services
Other telecommunications services
Internet Information Services
- Internet News Services
- Internet publishing services
- Internet electronic bulletin service
- Other Internet Information Services
3. Computer Services
Computer System Services
Other computer services
1. Advertising
Advertising
2. Exhibition Services
Convention and exhibition services
1. Art Auction
Trade Broker and Agent *
- Art, collectibles auction service
2. Handicraft sales
Jewelry, crafts and collectibles, wholesale
Retail arts and crafts and collectibles
1. Architectural Design
Engineering survey and design *
2. Urban Planning
Planning and Management
3. Other design
Other professional and technical services
1. Tourism Services
Travel
Scenic Area Management
Park Management
Other tour scenic spot management
Urban Landscape Management
Wildlife *
- Animal Watch Service
- Plant Watch Service
2. Recreation Services
Photography processing services
Indoor entertainment
Amusement Park
Leisure and fitness and recreation activities
Other entertainment activities
1. Cultural goods, equipment and related cultural products
(1) production of cultural goods
54
Stationery Manufacturing
Instrument Manufacturing
Toys
Recreation and entertainment goods manufacturing
equipment
Paperboard manufacturing *
Handmade paper manufacturing *
Information Chemical Products *
Camera and equipment manufacturing
(2) cultural equipment
Manufacture of printing equipment
Radio and television equipment manufacturing
Film Machinery
Home audio-visual equipment
Photocopying and offset printing equipment
Other cultural and office machinery manufacturing *
(3) related cultural products
Arts and crafts manufacturers
2. Cultural goods, equipment and related sales of cultural
products
(1) Stationery sales
Stationery wholesale
Stationery Retail
Wholesale of other cultures
Other cultural goods, retail
(2) Culture Equipment Sales
Communications and radio and television
equipment, wholesale *
Retail photographic equipment
Electrical Equipments *
Household Appliances Retail *
3. Cultural Business Services
IP Services
Other business services not listed *
- Model Services
- Actors, artists, brokerage services
-Cultural activities, organization, planning services
In fact, the model of “cultural and creative industries” in china takes lessons
from the other countries, especially the UK CDMS model. The cultural and
creative industries also were classified as the industries-based. And many
researches are from the other model. They use the same indicators as the
other model to measure the development of “cultural and creative industries”.
The main indicators include: The contribution to the GDP, employment, and
55
the trade.
2.5.2 The Analysis to China Creative Industries with the China MODEL
A. The value of the creative industry
China's cultural and creative industry was rising dramatically year by year. The
growth rate was significantly higher than the rate of growth in some emerging
industries. The value-added of cultural and creative industries in Beijing,
Shanghai, Guangdong, Hunan, Yunnan and some other provinces accounted
share of GDP has been above 5%. The cultural and creative industries have
become the economic strategic pillar industry and new growth of economy in
some region. Recent years, the average growth rate of the creative industries
is as much as 17% or more and it is more than about 10 percentage compared
to the GDP growth rate.
China's cultural and creative industries developed rapidly and the value scale
become bigger and bigger. We can see it from the following figures.
30000
26471
25000
20000
21.30%
16210
25.30% 22911
20313
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.50%
15.00%
15000
12.80%
10000
10.00%
5000
5.00%
0
系列2
系列1
0.00%
2006
2007
2008
2009
Figure 2.3 the value added and growth rate of creative industries in china
from 2006 to 2009
Note: the value added was 100 million CNY as a unit.
Source: CCID Consulting. 02.010.
B. The employment
The development of cultural and creative industries promotes employment
growth and tax revenues. In 2001, there are only about 1.45 million people
engaged in the creative industries and related industries. The figure has
increased to 12 million by 2008. Cultural and creative industries have also
contributed to the revenue. In 2005 , the revenue contributed by cultural
industry has already reached more than ¥50 billion.
56
C. Exports
The trade condition for creative industries improved and the quantity of export
has been growing. According to the “Creative Economy Report 2008 ", which
was issued by UNCTAD, the report shows that in 2005 the export value of
creative goods in china reaches $ 61.36 billion and become the first global
creative products Producer and exporter. In recent years, the growth rate of
exports of core cultural products are also much higher than the United States,
Britain, France, Japan, Korea and other States. The copyright trade deficit
situation has been gradually improved. According to the Frankfurt Book Fair
2009, the output copyright of China is up to 2417 in 2008.
2.5.3 The limitation
A. The copyright limitation
In the China Model, the government sets nine categories about the cultural
and creative industries. Most of them are related to the copyright. The
copyright law developed rapidly in china. The first Chinese copyright law was
set down in 1990 and came into effect in 1991 in the whole country. As the
development of economy and the need of society, the copyright law was
revised in 2001. In the new copyright law, much new content was added, such
as the protection to the works in the internet.72. Especially, after the accession
to WTO (2001), Chinese government increased their effort to protect the
copyright to achieve their commitment to the world. china has made efforts to
implement the IPR(Intellectual Property Rights)legislation and to improve the
IPR law enforcement system. Copyright protection in china is very similar to
what is in force in most of EU Member States. It protects written, oral, musical,
dramatic and choreographic works; works of fine arts and photographic works;
cinematographic; television and video graphic works; engineering designs and
product designs; graphic works; Computer software and internet content. The
effective period for copyright protection is the life of the author plus 50 years
(cinematographic, audiovisual and photographic works being protected 50
years after being public); moral rights are in perpetuity. However, the terms
depend on the type of work. For film, photographic, television and audiovisual
works- or if the author is a corporation-the term is 50 years from the first
publication. Works of foreigners first published in china enjoy copyright
protection in accordance with this law.
On 10 June 2008, China officially presented the National Strategic Plan73 to
72 Chinese Government. Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China
URL:http://en.cnci.gov.cn/Law/LawDetails.aspx?ID=6999&p=1(reading date:
21.05.2011)
73 National IP Strategy issue by the State Council of China on June 5, 2008:
57
improve IPR protection and increase penalties, notably criminal sanctions.
These laws are deemed essential to the functioning of the cultural industries.
Each of them safeguards rights holders’ abilities to exploit cultural content and
enables further investment.
The Chinese government pays attention to protecting the copyright, but the
phenomenon of pirate copies still is very serious and it has hampered the
development of creative industries. Customers only pay little money or even
don’t need to pay any money to get pirate books or software. The profit was
got by the illegal producer. They don’t put the money into the study and
research process and don’t take the risk of failure, but they can enjoy the profit
that the other firms invest a lot of money and human resource to develop the
new product. The company who invest much money to study the new product
and take a lot of risk can’t get the profit they should get. Gradually, they will
lose the interest to develop the new product. Then the cultural and creative
industry will recess. It can’t realize its function to create wealth and job
positions. Such as in the software industry, the phenomenon of piracy is very
serious. Most of the software (include property software) can be downloaded
from internet. It has taken a great loss to the china software industry. A
“China’s software piracy rate in 2010 survey” result was released on 12 May,
2011. The report showed that the piracy software caused the loss more than
100.99 billion CNY to the China software industry.74 The pirate software was
one of cases. In the film and music industries, the pirate phenomenon also is
serious. People don’t go to cinema or buy the CD or DVD to enjoy the movie or
music. They just download them from internet and needn’t to pay to the author.
All of them cause a lot of loss to the cultural and creative industries of china.
In this situation, the pirate industry is an underground economy and statistical
agencies can’t get the data about them. They only can gather the data from the
company who sell it and gather the output value of the film through the box
office returns. They don’t know how many people free download the software
or movie or music and don’t know how many jobs that the creative industries
can offer. In this situation, they maybe underestimate the impact of cultural and
creative industries. It will offer some wrong suggestions to the policymaking
and hinder the development of cultural and creative industries in china.
B. The conception misunderstanding
http://www.law-now.com/lawnow/sys/getpdf.htm?pdf=outlineofthenationalintell
ectualpropertystrategy1.pdf. (reading date: 23.05.2011)
74 URL:http://n1.81813.com/chanye/05122011/223539051.shtml (reading
date: 24.05.2011)
58
The concept of the “cultural and creative industries” was introduced into china
from abroad. The scholars leaned their experience and do some changes
according to the actual situation of china. They can avoid some wrongs
through learning from other countries and promote the study on the creative
industries in china. As we know, China is very large and very different in
different region, so there is no an agreed concept in the whole countries. In
different region, the concept is different. Such as in Beijing, it was called
“cultural and creative industry”, but it was called “creative industry” in Shanghai.
The different understanding to the concept causes many questions. In Beijing
model, the “cultural and creative industry” was classified nine categories and
the creative industry in Shanghai was classified five categories and they
included different industries. So it is very difficulty to make comparisons among
the different regions in china. We don’t know the development of “creative
industry in different cities. So I think the government should organize all the
experts from all over the country to study the “creative industry” to get an
agreed concept. Through it we can make comparisons among the different
regions.
There are not many scholars study the “creative industry”. Now we can’t
search
many
papers
about
“creative
industries”
from
CNKI(http://www.cnki.net/), which is the largest database about every kinds of
paper and journal. Most of the papers we found are the introduction about the
“creative industries” and there is not much practical function. The reason that
the phenomenon generated was that the government doesn’t pay attention to it
at the beginning. After it was introduced from abroad, some scholars began to
study it and write some article to introduce the development of “creative
industry in developed countries. In this stage, they emphasize the function that
the “creative industry to add the GDP and create the jobs position and promote
the trade or they try to use the methodology from abroad to study how to
evaluate the “creative industry in china. Not many scholars deeply study the
exact concept and how to develop the “creative industry. In 1999, then
President Jiang Zemin pointed out that innovation in science and technology
was a decisive factor in a country's progress. In January 2006, President Hu
Jintao officially put forward the target of constructing China into an innovative
country by 2020.75 In this situation, most of local government began to develop
the “creative industry”. For there is no cohesive concept, most of them don’t
know how to develop the creative industry. They don’t study the actual
situation of their region, but they see other regions. They look for the industries
which seems add the value of GDP quickly and then they will develop the
industries. In this situation, most of the regions in china have the same
industries in the different region. And the government only wants to develop
the industries can get more profit and be not willing to develop some industries
75 URL:http://www.en8848.com.cn/yingyu/04/n-98504.html. (reading date:
25.05.2011)
59
that can’t get so much money. It makes the industries development unbalance.
It caused a much of loss for some regions those have no the situation to
develop some industries.
The misunderstanding about the creative industries in China University
makes that they can’t offer the graduate needed by the creative industry. In
most of universities in china have no the creative professional. They don’t
know the implication of creative industries. So they don’t pay attention to it.
They don’t cultivate the students how to learn and how to make them have the
quality to prepare for the creative industries. In this situation, the creative
industry lack the talents that they need to promote the development of the
creative industries.
C. The limitation: data
In the China creative industry model, the creative industries were classified
into 9 categories and include 88 groups. All of them include most of the
creative industries. It faces the problems that how can they get the data to
analyze.
(a) As we analyzed before, in china, the copyright was not protected well.
There are many people are working on the pirate copies and do the illegal
activities. The pirate was an important part of the underground economy. The
government can’t get the data about it. They only can get the data that the
company who was registered in the industrial and commercial bureau. So they
will underestimate the value of cultural and creative industries if they analyze
the creative industries according to the data they get. So it is very important to
protect the copyright and encourage the innovation.
(b)The Statistics Department is very hard to get the exact data about the
creative industries. We should know the structure of the Statistics Department
first. We can see the following the figure 2.4 as list:
The county
Department
Central
statistics
Statistics
bureau
of
Municipal
Bureau
Statistics
The province Statistics
Department
Figure 2.4: The working process of collecting data in china
From the figure, we can know that the county Statistics Department is the
basic unit of statistics. They collect the data and then gather it to send them to
the higher statistics bureau. So the basic statistics bureau is the most
60
important. It is concerning the data whether it is right. But in fact, the basic
statistics department in china faces serious problems. For in the basic
statistics department, there are not many statisticians and have no enough
money to survey. Most of them only have few employees. The number of
employees is from 5 to 10. It is impossible to send them go to companies or
factories to survey to get the exact data. But they should finish the tasks that
the higher government asked. So they deliverer the questionnaire to the object
of survey and asked them to fill the it. It is very hard to get the true data from
the questionnaire. One hand is that the person who fills the questionnaire may
don’t understand how to fill it. On the other hand, they maybe offer the wrong
data and hide some information to escape the tax or get some loan from the
government. So it is very important to fix how to assure the reliability of data.
61
3 The comparison about the four kinds of models
In the chapter 2, we introduced these four classic models from the background
and their contents and the limitations existed in detail. Now in this chapter, we
will make comparison among them and try to find some useful information for
developing the creative industries further.
3.1 Make comparisons about the content of these models
Different definitions of creative industries have a different understanding on
what is creative industry and what content should be included. Now we list the
contents of those four classic models. We can see it from the table 3.1
Table3.1 classification systems for the creative industries derived from different models
UK DCMS model
Advertising
Architecture
Art and antiques
market
Crafts
Design
Fashion
Film and video
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Software
Television and
radio
Video and
computer games
WIPO copyright
model
Core copyright
industries
Advertising
Collecting
societies
Film and video
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Software
Television and
radio
Visual and
graphic art
Interdependent
copyright
industries
Blank recording
material
Consumer
electronics
Musical
instruments
Paper
Photocopiers,
62
UNCTAD
CHINA MODEL
■Heritage
– Traditional
cultural
expressions: Arts
and crafts,
festivals and
celebrations; and
– Cultural sites:
Archaeological
sites, museums,
libraries,
exhibitions, etc.
■ Arts.
– Visual arts:
Painting,
sculpture,
photography and
antiques; and
– Performing arts:
Live music,
theatre, dance,
opera, circus,
puppetry, etc.
■
Media.
– Publishing and
The culture and
the arts
The press and
publication
Radio, television,
film,
Software, network
and
computer
services
Advertising
exhibition
Art trade
Design services
Tourism, leisure
and
entertainment
Other
support
services
photographic
equipment
Partial copyright
industries
Architecture
Clothing,
footwear
Design
Fashion
Household goods
printed media:
Books, press and
other
publications; and
–
Audiovisuals:
film,
television,
radio and
other
broadcasting.
■ Functional
creations.
– Design: Interior,
graphic, fashion,
jeweler, toys;
– New media:
Software, video
games, and
digitalized
creative content;
and
Toys
–
Creative
services:
architectural,
advertising,
cultural and
recreational,
creative
research and
development
(R&D), digital
and other
related
creative
services.
The Table summarizes the industries included in the four models. It seems that
the contents of the four models are different. As we analyzed in the chapter 2,
the definition is different.
(a) From the table3.1 and table 2.4 in chapter 2, we can know that contents of
63
DCMS Model are the most compared to other three models. In fact, the DCMS
Model is “industries-based” Model. It wants to design a model include all the
activities which referred to the “creativity” and “innovation” and comprehensive
with the System of National Accounts. So they divided all the activities as three
groups according to the relationship with the 13 sectors. All of the activities
were divided into core activities and related activities and list the related
industries. It is good to tell the people which activities are should be
emphasized. It also lists all the industries which are related to the every sector
of creative industries. It is useful for the government and scholar to collect data
to study the creative industries for they have the clear objectives. But there are
some questions existed. They want to design a framework that includes all the
activities and industries that are related to the creative industries and don’t
want to miss anyone from the beginning. Although the contents are
comprehensive, it is difficulty to collect the data that need. And the data was
responsible for collecting by many departments. It is difficult to guarantee the
reliability of the data. Some people suggest the DCMS can set up a group to
collect the data about the creative industries to solve those problems. We
know that the job to collect data is an intensive work. It needs a lot of people
and costs a lot of money. We should compare the cost and the benefit we can
get.
(b)The WIPO copyright model is “copyright-based” model and has the distinct
characters compared with other models. Like its name, the definition and
classification surround the “copyright”. Copyright was the core of all the
content. And in the WIPO guide 2003, they classified all the activities
surrounded into four broad groups of copyright activities according to the
relationship to the copyright. They are core copyright industries and
independent industries and partial industries and non-dedicated support
Industries. The core copyright is the core activities in them. For the copyright is
protected, they want to design a framework to study the development of
creative industries. It is a breaking thought and innovation. It was accepted by
many countries. But they also face serious questions. They can’t calculate the
loss the pirate copies. Compared to the developing countries, the work for
protecting copyright is better in development countries. Every year, there is a
great loss caused by piracy. No any people or organization has ever collected
the data for the loss of piracy. But we can think it is an enormous number. We
take the film in the America as an example. In 2006, U.S. movie studios are
losing about $6.1 billion annually in global wholesale revenue to piracy, about
75% more than previous estimated losses of $3.5 billion in hard goods. On top
of that, losses are coming not only from lost ticket sales, but from DVD sales
that have been Hollywood's cash cow in recent years."76 And the software
industries, the rate of global software piracy climbed to 43 percent in 2009, and
76 New Piracy Loss Estimate
URL:http://slashdot.org/story/06/05/03/2245248/New-Piracy-Loss-Estimate
64
the data is about 41 percent in 2008. In some developing countries, the
software piracy rate is up to 70%77. So in this situation, the WIPO copyright
Model will miss a large part of creative industries. That means it will
underestimate the function of the creative industries. I think the method will be
accepted by more countries and less disputes if it the copyright can be
protected well in the world.
(c)The UNCTAD Model is the product of fuse of “industries-based” model and
“copyright-based” model. It realizes the important of the creative industries.
There are many kinds definition of the definitions of creative industries. And
many dispute existed. To promote the development of the creative industries,
The UNCTAD summarizes the research result from UNCTAD, UNDP,
UNESCO, WIPO and ITC and absorbs the advantages to design a framework
about creative activities. The UNCTAD enlarges the concept of creative
industries from activities having a strong artistic component to” any economic
activity producing symbolic products with a heavy reliance on intellectual
property and for as wide a market as possible”78.There are many innovations
about the creative industries in the creative industries. firstly, they see all the
creative industries as two parts: one is the upstream activities, which
including the traditional cultural activities such as performing arts , the other
one is“downstream activities”,which is closer to the market compared to the
“upstream activities”, such as movie, software and so on. And they think the
downstream activities can realize reproduction at a low coast and is more
valuable.
The UNCTAD model emphasizes to study the impact of creative industries. So
the classification of creative industries serves for the purpose. They divided all
the activities into four categories. We can see it from the chapter 2. From the
definition of the creative industries, it focuses on the creativity and knowledge
economy and constitutes a new dynamic sector in world trade. Almost all the
activities included in the UNCTAD Model are related to the copyright. It is
affected by the WIPO Copyright Model.
But there are some disputes about its content. It maybe misses some
important activities. As we talked before in the chapter 2, for example, they
don’t include sports. Many scholars thought the sports should be included. For
sports such as football has become a part of culture and it offers the recreation
to people. And also it offer training and it is related t o the creative. As time
went on, the understanding to the creative industries will deep.
77 Software Piracy Rates by country. URL:http://chartsbin.com/view/1186
78 UNCATAD, Creative Industries and Development.
URL:http://www.unctad.org/en/docs//tdxibpd13_en.pdf
65
(d)To some extent, China creative model looks similar with the DCMS model
and also is the “industries-based” model. China learned experience from the
DCMS model and made some changes according to the situation of the china.
First we can find that there are some classic characters of the definition in
china model. We know in china the creative industries were called “cultural and
creative industries”. Compared to other models, China model is not so serious
with them. It includes two parts: one is culture, and the other one is creative
industry. And it should have the copyright or can be consumed by the people.
For the different understanding to the cultural and creative industries, the china
Model includes some industries which seems not belongs to the creative
industries, such as toys, Stationery Retail, and urban planning. Some part of
them, such toy, may include some contents of creative industries, but most of
them don’t belong to the creative industries. In this situation, it will overvalue
the creative industries and offer some wrong information to the policy-maker.
And we need notice important information. “Culture” is an important part in the
china model, but as we know, the culture was developed under the
government. So its development may violate the law of market economy. It
can’t reflect the true value of the culture. So it is difficulty to make comparisons
with other countries. So I think the china model should be modified and further
subdivide the “cultural and creative industries” and remove the part that can’t
reflect the “innovation and culture” and protect the copyright and make the
culture industries walk to the truly market economy. At that time, the cultural
and creative industries will reflect the “culture and innovation” of “cultural and
creative industries”.
3.2 The means of measuring creative industries
The aim that we study the creative industries is to promote the development of
economy and improve the people’s life. How to measure the contribution to the
economy of creative industries and which parameters should be adopted?
Different models gave the different parameters. Here we will list all the key
indicators from the four models.
Table 3.2 the key indicators of the four models
UK DCMS model
WIPO copyright
model
Employment;
The levels of
employment;
Firm activity;
characteristics of
the firms in the
The contribution identified creative
to the GDP;
industries
(including their
UNCTAD
CHINA MODEL
Employment;
value added,
employment,
Time use
The trade.
Trade and value
added
Copyright and
66
The
value
Exports
of number, their
IPR
size, turnover and
profit margins);
and outputs,
the value of
exports;
estimates of
Gross Value
Added
From the table, we can know that UK DCMS Model, WIPO Copyright Model
AND China Model use the same means to measure the means to contribution
to the economy of creative industries. Compared to them, the UNCTAD Model
adopts more means to measure the contribution of the creative industries. The
UNCATAD MODEL also has the Employment; Firm activity; the contribution to
the GDP; The value of Exports these four parameters. Through those four
means, what conclusions what should we get?
(a) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and
the other being the employee.79 We can know that capacity that some creative
industry created job positions. It is helpful the policy-makers to do some
decisions which industries should be developed to create jobs when the
economy recess.
(b) Firm activity. In this part, we should know the number of firms, their
turnover. The government can hold the information about development of
creative industries and the degree of concentration of the industry and induct
the capital flow through the information.
(c)Gross value adds to the economy that also means the contribution to the
GDP. Gross domestic product (GDP) refers to the market value of all final
goods and services produced within a country in a given period. It is often
considered an indicator of a country's standard of living.80 To some extent, it
can reflect the standing of living. The aim to develop the economy is to
improve the people’s life. So the indicator is most important. It can directly
reflect the contribution to the GDP.
(d) Exports. It measures the capacity to sell the product to abroad. It can reflect
its competitive capacity in the international market. It can help improve a
country’s status in the international.
79 Wikipedia. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment
80 Wikipedia. URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product
67
Besides these four indictors, the UNCTAD Model has some other indictors. We
can see it as the future study on the creative industries. It began to study the
value chain and the spillover.
“Time use” is a method originated from the Austria to measure the creative
industries. It survey the time that the people spend time on some special
activities to know which activities are important to people’s life. But there is a
drawback. It is hard to get the time that every people spend on some special
time. It is a labor intensive work and need a long time. After we get the data,
the data maybe have outdated.
“Copyright and IPR” is learned from the WIPO and measure the impact of
copyright-based creative industries on national economies. They pay more
attention to the copyright and the intellect protect right and study how to protect
the “copyright and IPR” to promote the creativity and innovation.
3.3 The common questions all the models faced
We have analyzed all the models and the limitations they had. Which common
questions all the models faced? We will list of them in detail.
Firstly, each definition has many disputes and can’t agree with each other. So
How to define the creative industries are the most important question. For the
definition determine the classification and it specifies which industries belong
to creative industries. Now, there are so many definitions of creative industries.
Different creative industries include different sectors. So it is hard to make
comparisons in different countries.
Secondly, how can they assure the data is reliable? They can get a right
conclusion only the data be used to analyze is reliable. If they can’t assure the
reliability of the data, they maybe get the wrong conclusion. Such as in a
society, the pirate movie is popular. In this situation, we may underestimate the
value of the movie industry, music industry and software industry and so on.
And they maybe also overestimate the function of some value. Such as in
china, the toys Urban Planning, Stationery Manufacturing, Instrument
Manufacturing were divided into culture and creative industries. In this paper,
we don’t think these industries belong to the creative industries or only some
jobs in these industries belong to the creative industries. If we think all of them
as creative industries, we will overestimate the value of creative industries.
68
4 Looking into the Future of the Creative Industries
The development of creative industries is a trend. It is the demand of time and
the product of knowledge economy. It is a new studying field and has a short
history. So there are many problems awaiting solution. According to the study
of the paper, we think the four key longer-terms trends will change the shape
and approach of the creative industries:
4.1 Convergence of classification
As we know, there are many kinds of definitions about creative industries in the
world and the classification is different. The different of classification makes it
is difficult to make comparisons among the different countries. But the creative
industries are very important to the development of a country. And only can be
compared, we can know the gap between the different countries. So how to
reach an agreement and reduce the difference on the definitions and
classification is an important question need to be solved. More countries want
to know the gap from other countries. To realize the trend, it needs more
corporations between different countries and international agencies. Especially
the international agencies, they can organize the member states to meet and
all the experts about creative industries to talk about it and reach an
agreement on the creative industry and realize the convergence of
classification.
4.2 Internationalization
More and more countries realize the important of the creative industries. The
countries study the creative industries from UK extent to Austria and other
countries, from the developed countries to the developing countries, and from
some countries’ behaviors become international behavior. The UK creative
industries boost the economy. It set up an example for other countries, so
more and more countries study the creative industries. Many other countries
are implementing explicit strategies for developing their creative industries,
and these may be considerably more serious competition by 2020. For
example, Taiwan recently announced a strategy to generate more than 20
percent growth in their creative industries, backed by a US$840M venture
capital fund dispersed by private venture capital firms to creative businesses
over the next four years.81 It has become the internalization.
81 A Creative Block? The Future of the UK Creative Industries
69
4.3
Refining the Methodology for Measuring Intangible Assets82
The methods how to measurements of intangible assets are not sufficiently
developed at national and international levels. Many Works are going on in the
field by many international agencies such as the UN Statistical Commission.
In 2001 at its annual meeting, the Inter-Secretariat Working Group on National
Accounts (ISWGNA) began to investigate the issue of intangible assets .The
group draws a distinction between: produced assets – outputs from production
processes, used in production (as fixed assets or inventories) or as stores of
value (valuables); and non-produced assets – natural resources or legal (or
accounting) constructs such as patented entities.
The Group considers issues related to fixed assets (tangible and non-tangible)
and non-produced assets (tangible and non-tangible) as indicated in Table
Table4.1 financial and non-financial assets83
Non-financial assets
Produced assets
Fixed assets
Tangible fixed
assets
Intangible fixed
assets
Inventories
Valuables
Non-produced
assets
Tangible non-produced assets
Intangible non-produced assets
Financial assets
Although there is no uniform definition on creative industries, most of creative
industries has relationship with copyright. A number of activities that comprise
the subject of a survey could be classified among the indicated categories and
in particular within the intangible non-produced and intangible fixed assets.
(a) Intangible non-produced assets
In SNA93, the Intangible non-produced assets were identified the four
categories identified-patented entities, leases and other transferable contracts,
purchased goodwill, other intangible non-produced assets. With regard to
some of the issues considered, it is worth noting that the starting point is the
recognition of the existing limitations of statistical methodology. For example
URL:http://www.theworkfoundation.com/assets/docs/publications/277_A%20c
reative%20block.pdf.
82 WIPO. GUIDE ON SURVEYING THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF
THE COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES.
URL: http://www.wipo.int/copyright/en/publications/pdf/copyright_pub_893.pdf
83 STD/NA (2002)35, OECD Meeting of National Accounts Experts, Paris,
October, 2002, p. 3.
70
within the category “purchased goodwill,” national accounts do not recognize
currently such important assets as brand names, trademarks, knowledge
capital and goodwill. But the accumulation of these important assets is not cost
free to business – a proportion of expenses relating to advertising, training and
customer service are related to the building up of these assets and could be
considered as partly capital in nature.200
(b) Intangible fixed assets
SNA 1993 has introduced three new items to the set of statistics known as
produced assets: mineral exploitation, computer software and entertainment,
literary or artistic originals. Licenses and legal constructs are often used in
conjunction with intangible assets. It is not clear whether licenses themselves
can not constitute an intangible asset or whether they can be dissociated from
the underlying asset. For software, a recommendation is being discussed that
software be broken down into originals and reproductions, the latter to include
licenses.
The intangible assets are important parts of creative industries. How to
measure the value of the intangible assets is very important. it is helpful to
assess the development of creative industry. so in future, more and more
experts will endeavor to study it.
71
5 conclusion
In the paper, we have analyzed the creative industries from four parts: the
development of the creative industries; the introduction for four classic
definitions of creative industries; the comparisons among the four classic
creative industries models; and the analysis of development trend.
As we analyzed in the paper, the creative industry is a new term and the
product of knowledge economy. More and more countries are interested in it
and devote much materials and human resource to study it. Many research
reports are published. Some international agencies learned the lessons from
the countries that study the creative industries and released some reports to
guide its member states. They promote the study of creative industries in the
developing countries. But there is no an agreed definition was reached for the
different national history and culture, the classification on creative industries is
different. So now there are many reports were released in the world by the
different countries, but most of them can’t make comparisons directly. Those
reports only are the basis to make policies for some countries. It is difficult to
reach an agreement in a short time in the international. Their guideline is
different from each other. The DCMS Model is with the “industries-based” as
the guideline; The WIPO Model is with the “copyright-based” as the guideline;
The DCMS model is with the fuse of “industries-based” and “copyright-based”
as the guideline; The China model learned from UK and with the
“industries-based” as the guideline;
The development of creative industries is unbalanced in the different countries.
Generally speaking, the research of creative industries is better in developed
countries than in developing countries. They study the creative industries
earlier. To know the different develop level in the developed countries and
developing countries and the research in the international, we choose four
classic creative industries models as examples to analyze: the UK DCMS
Model, WIPO Copyright Model;UNCTAD Model;China Model; The UK DCMS
Model is the first creative industries model in the world. The WIPO Copyright
mode and UNCTAD model are designed by international agencies and have
profound influence in the world. And the china is the largest developing country
and it can represent the level of development of developing countries in some
extent.
In the paper, we introduced these four kinds of models from their history,
definition, classification and application and appraisal. And we also make
comparisons among them and found that there are many aspects are different
between them. And we get different conclusions if we use the different model
to analyze the same country. There are many disputes existed.
72
However, the times are developing. And globalization is an irreversible trend.
Convergence, internationalization and the measure method development is
the trend of creative industries. We believe the creative industries will be better
in future and promote the development of the world economy.
73
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80
Appendix
Table1 LIKUSkreativ©-domains and categories
LIKUSkreativ©-domain
Cultural heritage
LIKUSkreativ©-category
Museums, archives, science
Historical monuments and sites
Folk arts, local history and customs
Libraries
Music
Theatre, opera, musicals, dance
Film, cinema, video
Radio, television
New media
Fine arts, photography
Architecture
Applied arts, graphic arts, design
Literature
Newspaper, periodicals
Initiatives, cultural centres
Training, further education
Adult education
International exchange
Large-scale events
Administration
Performing arts
Audio and audiovisual
Visual arts
Books and press
Interdisciplinary
Source: Mandl et al. 2006, 34
81
Table 2 the content of America creative industries
The category
Museums & Collection
Subcategory of the creative industries
Museums
Zoos and Botanical Gardens
Historical Societies
Planetariums
Music
Theater
Dance
Opera
Services & Facilities
Performers (not elsewhere classified)
Crafts
Visual Arts
Photography
Supplies & Services
− Retail stores
− Art dealers
− Antique art stores
− Services & supplies
Motion Pictures
Television
Radio
Architecture
Design
Publishing
Advertising
Arts Councils
School & Instruction
Agents
Performing Arts
Visual Arts & Photography
Visual Arts & Photography
Film, Radio, & TV
Design & Publishing
Arts Schools & Services
82
Table 3: Gross Value Added (GVA) of the Creative Industries, UK 2008 Data
Source: Annual Business Survey (ABS), Office for National Statistics
Notes
1. The data available did not allow us to measure GVA for the Crafts Industry
2. This figure is taken from the National Accounts Blue Book, and adjusted for
the fact that the ABS does not have complete coverage of the economy. For
further details please see the technical note.
83
Table 4: Creative Employment, Great Britain 2010 Data (July - September)
Source: Labor Force Survey (LFS), Office for National Statistics
Notes
1. Taken from Labor Market Statistics Bulletin, November 2010.
2. The coverage of this data is broader than that of the other bulletin tables,
since it is possible to count not only jobs in the Creative Industries, but also
creative occupations in businesses which are classed as being outside these
industries, e.g. graphic designers working in a manufacturing firm.
3. The data available did not allow us to measure employment for certain
categories. These have been left blank in the table above.
84
Table 5: Number of business in the Creative Industries, UK 2010 Data
Source: Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR), Office for National
Statistics
Notes: The data available did not allow us to measure the number of
enterprises in the Crafts Industry
85
Table 6 the content of America creative industries
86
Table 7 the contribution to the GDP of creative industries in Jamaica in 2005
87
Table 8 the contribution to the employment of creative industries in Jamaica in
2005
88