GEOL 101--Topics for First Exam

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GEOL 101--Topics for First Exam
The following list includes topics discussed either in class or in the text (chapters 1, 18, 19, 20). Concentrate your
studies on these items. Try to understand each, not just memorize terms. If you can describe and explain these
concepts in your own words, not mine nor the book's, then you should do well. Try to write multiple choice
questions centering on these topics, and you will often find that you will be harder on yourself than I would be.
Good luck!
Philosophy of Geology
Relationship between Geology and other Natural Sciences
Geology as Science
Reasoning Processes of Science
Inductive Logic
Deductive Logic
Relationship between technology and science
Facts and observations
Hypotheses, theories, laws, conclusions, and generalizations
Philosophical similarities with Biological Sciences
Philosophical differences with Physical Sciences
Mathematics as a tool in formulating conclusions in the earth, physical, and biological
sciences
Relationship of verifiability and geological conclusions to the other natural sciences
Use of other natural sciences in defining geological conclusions, e.g. astronomy, biology,
physics, chemistry
Factors that make geology a unique science
Differences in time perspectives, laboratory and data-gathering practices, etc.
Earth as a planet
Major Characteristics of the Solar System and their relationship to Earth
Major Characteristics of the Solar System and how they are used to support the Nebular
Hypothesis
Why the Nebular Hypothesis does not explain the current model of a density-stratified
planet.
Similarities and differences between Earth and the other inner planets
Similarities and differences between Earth and the outer planets
Density and its measurement
Characteristics of the major shells of our density-stratified planet (e.g. composition, relative
density, etc.)
Facts and observations that support conclusions of the stratified nature of Earth-e.g. How
do we know the Earth has a core, mantle, etc.
Accretionary theory and the origin of a density stratified planet.
Crustal differences in composition and thickness, and their relationship to topography
Shape of the Earth
Crustal topography, including mid ocean ridges; trenches; abyssal plains; continental
shelf, slope, and rise; lowlands, faulted and folded mts, etc.
Relationship of crustal topography to plate boundaries
Types of plate boundaries
Genetic classification of rocks and the ability to apply them (i.e. igneous, sedimentary,
metamorphic)
Properties of rocks
Properties of solids and their difference between fluid phases of matter
Seismic evidence for density stratification and discontinuities (e.g. Moho)
Magnetic evidence for Earth's Core
Shape of Earth and its relationship to accretionary theory
Relationship between meteoritic compositions and Earth's composition
Types of seismic waves
Sources of earthquakes
Relationship between earthquake energy, plate boundaries, and why it is located in the
Earth's lithosphere
Asthenospheric convection and lithospheric deformation
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