COUNSELING THEORIES Most of the Counseling theories are based on theories of psychotherapy. Such theories include: 1. Psychoanalytic therapy 2. Person-centered therapy 3. Rational Emotive Therapy 4. Adlerian therapy 5. Existential therapy 6. Gestalt therapy 7. Behavior therapy 8. Cognitive behavior therapy 9. Reality therapy In this topic let us briefly describe some of these theories Psychoanalytic theory (Ego- Psychology) Ego psychology refers to a school of psychoanalysis which is rooted in Sigmund Freud's id-ego-superego model of the mind. Psychoanalytic Theory The founder of this theory is Sigmund Freud (1856-1936). Freud came to see personality as having three aspects, which work together to produce all of our complex behaviours: the Id, the Ego and the Superego. All 3 components need to be well-balanced in order to have good amount of psychological energy available and to have reasonable mental health. THE ID (It): functions in the irrational and emotional part of the mind. At birth a baby’s mind is all Id - want want want. The Id is the primitive mind. It contains all the basic needs and feelings. The id is made up of innate biological instincts and urges. It is self-serving, irrational, impulsive, and totally unconscious. The id operates on the pleasure principle (a desire for immediate satisfaction of wishes, desires, and/or needs). THE EGO: (I): functions with the rational part of the mind. The Ego develops out of growing awareness that you can’t always get what you want. The Ego relates to the real world and operates via the reality principle. The Ego realises the need for compromise and negotiates between the Id and the Superego. The Ego's job is to get the Id's pleasures but to be reasonable and bear the long-term consequences in mind. The Ego denies both instant gratification and pious delaying of gratification. The ego is the system of thinking, planning, problem solving, and deciding. It is in conscious control of the personality The Superego is the last part of the mind to develop. It might be called the moral part of the mind. The Superego becomes an embodiment of parental and societal values. It stores and enforces rules. It constantly strives for perfection, even though this perfection ideal may be quite far from reality or possibility. Its power to enforce rules comes from its ability to create anxiety. THE SUPEREGO (Over-I): The Superego has two subsystems: Ego Ideal and Conscience. The Ego Ideal provides rules for good behaviour, and standards of excellence towards which the Ego must strive. The Ego ideal is basically what the child’s parents approve of or value. The Conscience is the rules about what constitutes bad behaviour. The Conscience is basically all those things that the child feels mum or dad will disapprove of or punish. Freud’s psychoanalytic view considers the source of our emotional problems to be in the unconscious part of the mind. According to Freud, there are three levels of consciousness: conscious (small): this is the part of the mind that holds what you re aware of. You can verablize about your conscious experience and you can think about it in a logical fashion. preconscious (small-medium): this is ordinary memory. So although things stored here arent in the conscious, they can be readily brought into conscious. unconscious (enormous): Freud felt that this part of the mind was not directly accessible to awareness. In part, he saw it as a dump box for urges, feelings and ideas that are tied to anxiety, conflict and pain. These feelings and thoughts have not disappeared and according to Freud, they are there, exerting influence on our actions and our conscious awareness. This is where most of the work of the Id, Ego, and Superego take place. Goals of Psychoanalytic Theory To make unconscious thoughts and memories conscious. To reconstruct the basic personality of a client To assist clients in reliving earlier experiences and working through repressed conflicts To achieve intellectual and emotional awareness Free Association – This technique encourages clients to speak their mind and say whatever they’re thinking regardless of how silly, unimportant, rude, or painful it may be. Generally this technique allows for some catharsis and the therapist keeps an ear open to repressed material that the client may not be fully exploring. The psychoanalyst will also interpret this material with a goal of leading the client toward better insights of the hidden dynamics. Dream Analysis – Sigmund Freud believed that dreams are the “road to the unconscious” because of the fact that so much repressed unconscious material arises within the context of dreams. The therapist works to uncover the disguised meanings that are in the dream through the study of the dream symbolism. Analysis of Resistance – Resistance occurs when a client becomes reluctant to bring unconscious or repressed thoughts to the surface and explore then. It is also identified as “any idea, attitude, feeling, or action (conscious or unconscious) that fosters the status quo and gets in the way of change.” The therapist of the psychoanalytic model will usually point out resistance when it occurs and then educate the client about how to better work with the unconscious material as opposed to resist it. Though there are other techniques, these are the three that counseling clients most often desire to know more about. Corey, G. (2009). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (8th ed). Belmont, CA: Books/Cole. Additionally, Freud and psychoanalysis believe that it is important to strengthen one’s ego so that behavior will be based more in reality and not so much on the instinctual cravings that the ID wants to express CLIENT CENTRED THERAPY Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was the American psychologist who developed person centered therapy. This type of humanistic counseling deals with the ways in which people perceive themselves consciously rather than having a counselor try to interpret unconscious thoughts or ideas. Under CCT Counseling is not only about looking at the past( as with Freued’s psychoanalysis), it is also about building a sustainable future that is spiritually, intellectually and emotionally fulfilling. This may require an exploration of the transpersonal as well as the attitudes, behaviours and feelings associated with everyday experience. In client-centered counseling, the focus is on the client's concerns and interests.