Review Book Worksheets

Review Book Worksheets
(Pages: 1-8 / Old Book 28-37 Early Peoples and River Civilizations)
Ancient Civilizations
1. When do scientist believe that humans first appeared?
Over 2 million years ago
2. First human survived how?
By hunting and gathering
3. Describe the life of Paleolithic peoples:
Nomadic- small groups traveled together
4. Describe the first tools used by man:
Made of stone, bone and wood- sticks for digging and spears
5. When was language developed and why was it developed?
Paleolithic Times, to communicate and cooperate during a hunt
6. Describe a Paleolithic religious ritual:
Burying the dead with care, buried tools and weapons with the dead
7. Where did the earliest people live?
East Africa
8. What did migration lead to?
Cultural Diffusion
9. What 2 important discoveries were made 10,000 years ago?
Plant seeds, domesticate animals
10. How did this change the way people lived their lives?
No longer had to wander
11. What is another name for Neolithic Revolution?
New Stone Age
12. List 3 ways humans’ lives changed due to the Agricultural Revolution: (define each)
* Permanent Settlements- settled in villages
* New Social Classes- Groups went to war for resources, warriors gained prestige
* New Technology- tools and skills, calendar and plow, wheel and metal tools
13. What helped early civilizations thrive?
Rich fertile soil
14. Why were governments developed?
Make sure enough food was produced and that the city was protected, to build infrastructure
15. Economies based primarily on farming were known as what?
Traditional economies
16. Belief in many gods?
17. What caused people to become ranked into classes according to their jobs?
Specialization of tasks (jobs) based on skill level
18. Where were written records kept?
In Temples
19. Describe Egypt:
 Geographic Setting: Nile River, water for drinking and crops. Floods soaked land left
rich deposits
 Religion:
 Government:
Pharaoh (Both god and King)..Dynasty
 Social Structure:
Classes- Pharaoh, Priests, Nobles, Crafts People and Merchants, Peasant farmers, Slaves
Science and Art- Mummification, Calendar, Hieroglyphics, Temples and Monuments,
Pyramids…Paintings and Carvings
20. Describe Sumerian Civilization:
 Geographic Setting:
Fertile Crescent, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, LACK of Natural Barriers allowed for
Frequent migrations and invasions= Diversity of people
 Religion:
Polytheistic- gods had humn like qualities. Each City State had own gods. Ziggurats
were temples that climbed to the gods.
 Government:
City States had a hereditary ruler. Enforced laws. Collected taxes, maintained city walls
and irrigation systems.
 Social Structure:
Ruling families, officials, and high priests of a city state formed the highest social class.
Small middle class and large lower class of peasant farmers
 Economy:
Rich from trade. Traveled far using rivers and across the desert.
First wheeled vehicles, irrigation systems, dikes, canals, CUNIFORM, Algebra and
21. Define empire:
Groups of states or territories governed by 1 ruler
22. By 600 BCE, who had conquered the entire Fertile Crescent?
23. Around 500 BCE, the people of the Middle East were united under what empire?
24. What is Hammurabi best known for?
Written laws
25. Describe these laws:
Laws that favored higher class over lower class and established standards of justice for all classes.
Punishment was harsh
26. The production of iron was used for what making what?
Making stronger plows and weapons
27. What is India dependant on for growth of crops?
28. Where did the first Indian civilization arise?
Indus River Valley
29. What were the two main cities of the Indian civilization?
Harappa and MohenjoDaro
30. Who conquered the Indus Valley in about 1500 BCE?
31. In what river valleys did the Chinese civilizations arise?
Huang He (Yellow) Yangzi
32. Describe Chinese Civilization:
Geographic Setting:
Mountains, deserts, jungles and oceans, isolated Chinese cultures more than it did many
other civilizations
Social Structure:
Class of noble warriors owned land. Merchants and crafts people earned a living in
cities. Most people were peasants
Prayed to many gods and nature spirits. Looked to dead ancestors to intercede with gods
and the living…..Balance of two forces held universe together (YIN YANG)
Writing system-Pictographs and ideographs.
Describe the meaning behind this symbol:
balance between the opposites in nature- kept the universe in balance (when in balance,
peace and prosperity would result)
34. Define Demography:
Study of human populations
35. What was the role of water to Ancient Civilization?
Rivers provided water for drinking and irrigation, highways of trade and to transport people and
36. Where were the Bantu people from?
Originally, West Africa, moved to south and wast in search of fertile land
37. Why did the Bantu peoples move?
Sahara region began to dry out
Review Book Worksheets
(Pages: 9-17/ OLD BOOK 38-48 Classical Civilizations)
Ancient Civilizations
1. Classical civilizations were influenced by what?
Geographic setting
2. What separated China from other areas of the world? What desert played a role in isolating
Long distances and physical barriers. High mountains and the Gobi Desert.
The Zhou set up their own dynasty, which lasted 800 years. The Zhou came up with what
concept, which was divine approval to rule?
Mandate of Heaven
In China, what system existed in which local lords controlled their own regions but owed military
service to the ruler?
List Zhou contributions:
* books
* Astronomers studies planet movement
* Calendar
* Silk
Who was Shi Huangdi and what did he accomplish?
Leader of the Qin people and built GREAT WALL
Describe the Han Dynasty: (206BCE-220CE):
Government/ Economy:
Civil Service strengthened…Strengthened economy and built canals and roads
Confucian values, Men superior to women, women kept from holding gov’t positions,
women who were religious recluses and noblewomen received and education
i. Technology:
Made paper out of wood pulp, invented wheelbarrow, fishing reel, rudder
ii. Science:
Acupuncture, herbal remedies and anesthesia, chemistry, zoology and botany
iii. Arts:
Jaded and ivory carvings, artisnas worked in bronze, ceramics and silk.
Describe India:
 Geography: (3 major geographic regions)
Northern Plain- fertile ad well watered by Indus and Ganges
Deccan Plateau- Dry and sparsely populated
Coastal Plains, flat land along the east and west coasts where farming, fishing
and trading occur
Who were the Indo –European warriors that moved into India from Europe and Asia?
10. How do we know what we know about the Aryans?
From the Vedas- collection of sacred writings
11. How did the Vedas portray the Aryans?
Fierce warriors who loved music and chariot racing
12. What dynasty ruled over the 1 st united Indian Empire, and who led this empire?
Chandragupta Maurya (Maurya Empire)
13. Define Bureaucracy and what it did:
A system of managing government through departments that are run by appointed officials.
(Collected taxes, oversaw the building of roads and harbors)
14. Who was Asoka?
Chandragupta’s grandson- He converted to Buddhism after experiencing intense violence.
Tolerant of other’s beliefs.
15. What did he turn to, in hopes of ruling by moral example?
16. What was a lasting contribution by the Maurya Dynasty?
Spreading of Buddhist religion by means of missionary activity.
17. Describe Ancient Greece (1750BCE-133BCE):
 Geographic Setting:
i. Southeastern Europe, made up of many mountains, valleys, small islands.
ii. Prevented Greeks from building large empire like that of Egypt…small city
iii. Aegean Sean and Mediterranean Seaimportant links to rest of the world.
Early Civilizations:
i. Who built the 1st Greek civilization on the island of Crete?
Rise of City-States:
i. Why was Greece made up of City-States?
Bc of mountains and valleys and scattered islands
ii. What 2 parts made up a polis?
Hilltop Acropolis and Main City below (market place and theater)
iii. Define Aristocracy:
Government ruled by Land holding elite
Describe Sparta:
i. Warrior Society, boys trained for lifetime in military.. At 7 boys were moved to
barracks. Girls also trained
Power declined as a result of its rigid ways and its inability to change.
Describe Athens:
i. Ruled by Pericles (460-429 bc)- Direct Democracy
Women seen as inferior to men and did not partake in Gov’t
Slaves- had neither political rights or any personal freedoms
Became Cultural Center of the Greece- Great thinkers, buildings and arts
Describe the rule of Alexander the Great:
i. Built empire that included Nile Valley, Persia, and parts of India
ii. Through conquests he spread Greek Culture
iii. Hellenistic- Blending of Greek, Persian, Egyptian and Indian Life
What 4 aspects of culture did Athens and Sparta share?
i. Common Language,
ii. Shared heroes
iii. Olympic Games
iv. Same gods and religious beliefs
GREEK and HELLENISTIC Contributions:
Greek Philosophers:
Developed Socratic MethodLearning through asking
questions, critical thinking
Government Killed him
Believed government should
control lives of people
Believed One Strong and good
leader should rule
Divided society into 3 classes,
workers, philosophers, and
Believed people learned through
 Literature:
Plays- Developed from religious festivals
Tragedies- plays that told stories of human conflict
Comedies- Stories that mocked the government
What did Greeks apply to their writing of history? Observation and logic
Who was Herodotus? Father of History- Greek historian
Art and Architecture:
i. What was reflected in Greek art?
Beauty, balance and order in the universe.
ii. How was the human body portrayed?
Lifelike in the perfect form (naked)
iii. Most famous Greek building?
i. Aristarchus:
Astronomer discovered that the earth rotates on its axis and moves around
the sun.
ii. Archimedes:
Explored the principles of the lever and pulley
iii. Hippocrates:
Greek Physician, studies the causes of illness and looked for cures.
i. Pythagoras:
formula for measurement of Right Triangle
ii. Euclid:
Wrote a book that became the basis for modern geometry
18. Describe Ancient Rome (509 BCE-476 CE)
 Geographic Setting:
Peninsula, Mediterranean Sea. Helped people unite. Low mountains presented
fewer challenges. Fertile Plains,
i. Define Republic:
Government where officials were chosen by the people
ii. Senate:
Most powerful governing Body was the Senate. Landholding upper class
iii. Patricians:
Landholding upper class (Official who elected 2 consuls, who supervised the
business of government and commanded the armies
iv. Plebeians:
Farmers, Merchants, Artisians, abnd traders who made up most of the
population. Had little power
i. 48 BCE, Who was in control?
Julius Caesar
ii. Describe the accomplishments of Octavian (aka .Augustus)
a. Absolute ruler that brough Republic to an end…Began Roman
Began the Pax Romana- spread stability over a large area of
the world, including parts of Europe, North Africa and
Southwest Asia
Roman Contributions:
i. LAW: Applied to all in Rome’s Territories. Equality under the law, right of the
Used Greek style, Staues in homes and public buildings, Roman building were
mighty and grand,
WRITERS- Latin language which united the empire, poetry, historical and
philosophical works.
Roads, bridges, harbors, and aqueducts, arch and dome
19. What was the earliest trading empire of the Middle East?
20. What was their most important contribution?
Alphabet, record of business transactions
21. What Indian goods were in great demand?
Textiles, gems, spices
22. What route was opened by the Han dynasty?
Silk Road
23. What did this route link?
China with lands as far west as Mesopotamia
24. When did Roman trade flourish?
Review Book Worksheets
(Pages: 19-20 / OLD BOOK 49-52 Rise and Fall of Great Empires)
Ancient Civilizations
1. What 2 empire reached their height between 200 BCE and 200 CE?
Han and Roman
2. What oppressive rulers did the Han overthrow? What oppressive rulers did the Romans overthrow?
Qin in China- and Etruscans in Rome
3. Who was the most famous of the Han emperors?
4. Why was he considered famous?
Military used to secure lands, strengthened Chinese gov’t, removed harsh laws. Civil Service used
to choose wise officials., set up university to train scholars in Confucian teachings
What did Wudi remove from Chinese government?
Harsh Laws
6. What was set up to help him choose wise officials?
Civil Service Exam
7. How did Wudi improve the economy?
Adding canals, roads…storage areas for grain
8. What 2 natural resources were added income for China?
Iron and salt
9. Define monopoly:
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
10. Define Silk Road:
Caravan route stretching from the Chinese capital to the Mediterranean Sea
11. Why were the Romans able to conquer areas?
Had a strong, well-disciplined army
12. How did they treat people they conquered?
Well, allowed them to keep their own gov’t and customs
13. Ruler of Rome from 31 BCE to 14 CE?
14. What did Rome experience under him?
Stabilized Gov’t, civil service exam, PAX ROMANA….Peace and Prosperity
15. What served as a natural highway for trade?
Mediterranean Sea
16. What did the Romans build that will affect their wealth?
17. Where did the Han Empire expand to?
Eastern China to North (Manchuria and Korea) and then to the South(Vietnam) to West (Tibet and
Central Asia)
18. Where did the Roman Empire expand to?
From Italy through the Mediterranean, North to Europe, Spain and parts of Asia Minor
19. List the reasons for DECLINE of the HAN:
 Political : Leaders were unable to control powerful warlords
 Economic:Some rulers did not maintain the systems of canals and roads, which were
travel routes of commerce. High taxes oppressed the peasants
 Military: In 220 ADwarlords overthrew the last Han emperor. Invaders over ran the Great
Wall and set up their own kingdoms
20. List the Causes for DECLINE (weakening) of the ROMAN EMPIRE:
* Invaders, Roman army lacks training, Heavy Taxes
* Gov’t becomes too strict, people stop supporting gov’t
* Population declines bc of disease and war
21. What emperor divided Rome in two, to try and restore order?
22. What did the Easter Empire become known as?
Byzantine Empire
Review Book Worksheets
(Pages: 21-27 / OLD BOOK 53-61 Emergence and Spread of Belief Systems)
Ancient Civilizations
1. What is the major belief of ANIMISM?
All things living or nonliving have a spirit
Who did the people of early civilizations have reverence for?
People of China and Africa believed that spirits of the deceased could affect life, how?
In a + or – way. Praying to ancestors was a way to influence gods.
Oldest and most complex religion?
How did Hinduism come to be?
From diverse peoples that settled India
What is the unifying spirit called?
Who are the 3 most important Hindu gods?
* Brahma- The Creator
* Vishnu- The Preserver
* Shiva- The Destroyer
What is it called when there is a rebirth of a soul in a new body?
Define Karma:
Consists of all the deeds of a person’s life that affect his or her existence in the next life
Define Dharma:
Moral and religious DUTIES of ones caste (Gender, class, age and occupation all affect one’s
What are the social groups that Hindus are born into and can not move out of?
Collection of prayers:
Philosophical dialogues about Hindu beliefs?
What religion was formed from a former Hindu?
Who founded it and when?
Siddhartha Gautama, 550s BCE
What was he in search of?
Meaning of human suffereing
What is the basis of the 4 Noble Truths?
All life is suffering and is caused by desires…eliminate the desires you eliminate the suffering
How does one overcome desire?
Follow the 8 Fold Path
What of Hinduism, do Buddhists reject?
Many of the Hindu gods, ritual of priesthoods and the Caste System
Who was the most influential “thinker” of China?
How do we know about his teachings?
The Analects
What are 2 beliefs of Confucianism?
* 5 Relationships
* Filial Piety
23. What Chinese belief sought to help people live in harmony?
24. Who founded it?
25. What did Laozi reject?
The world and human government
26. Define Yin and Yang;
 Yin- Earth- darkeness, and female forces
 Yang- Heaven, light and male forces
27. Who were the Hebrews?
Nomadic groups who lived in the Fertile Cresent, became enslaved in Egypt, and God helped them
28. What happened to them in 1000 BCE?
In 1000BCE Hebrew set up kingdom of Israel…evolved into Judaism
29. What type of religion is Judaism?
30. Holy book of Judaism?
31. Rules sent by God that describe how people should behave toward God and each other?
10 Commandments
32. Where did Christianity begin?
33. Founder of Christianity?
34. When did Christianity become the official religion of the Roman Empire?
392 CE
35. What is the word for, savior sent by God?
36. Many Jews and Romans worried that Jesus was what?
37. What happened in 313 CE?
Emperor Constantine ended persecution of Christians
38. Who believed that Jesus was the son of God and savior?
His followers
39. Holy text of Christianity? How is divided?
Bible- Old Testament and New Testament
40. What happened in 622 CE in Arabia?
Islam arose
41. Who was the founder of Islam and where was he born?
Mohammed, Mecca
42. What was Muhammad’s occupation?
Caravan Merchant
43. What was the Turning Point for Islam? (explain)
Hijra- 622 Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for Medina. Muslim converts in Medina
welcomed Muhammad and the religion grew
44. What is a Muslim?
Followers of Islam
45. Define 5 Pillars and List them:
a) No God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet
b) Pray 5x a day towards Mecca
c) Give alms to the poor
d) Fast from sunrise to sun set during Ramadan
e) Visit Mecca at least 1 time in life
46. Holy book of Islam?
47. How did Buddhism Spread? (be clear)
* Missionaries- from India to many parts of Asia
*Asoka- converted to Buddhism and sent messengers to spread the word
48. How did Judaism spread?
* Roman expelled the Jews from Palestine (Diaspora)
49. How did Christianity spread?
* Missionaries
*Poor and oppressed found comfort in Jesus’ message of love and better life after death
* 313 CE Freedom of worship
50. How did Islam spread?
* Military Conquest
* Trade
*People converted because they were treated fairly