PICES Abstract Formatting Details (5 February 2003)

ENSO modulations by Freshwater Forcing and Ocean Biology-induced Heating in the
Tropical Pacific
Rong-Hua Zhang1, Chuan Gao1, Xianbiao Kang1 and Hai Zhi2
Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao,
PR China. E-mail: rzhang@qdio.ac.cn
College of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, PR China
Recent studies have identified clear climate feedbacks associated with interannual variations in
freshwater forcing (FWF) and ocean biology-induced heating (OBH) in the tropical Pacific. The
interrelationships among the related anomaly fields are analyzed using hybrid coupled model
(HCM) simulations to illustrate their combined roles in modulating the ENSO. The HCM-based
supporting experiments are performed to isolate the related feedbacks, with interannually
varying FWF and OBH being represented individually or collectively, which allows their effects
to be examined in a clear way. It is demonstrated that the interannual freshwater forcing
enhances ENSO variability and slightly prolongs the simulated ENSO period, while the
interannual OBH reduces ENSO variability and slightly shortens the ENSO period, with their
feedback effects tending to counteract each other.