Lesson Plan - Colorado FFA

Colorado Agriscience Curriculum
Plant & Soil
Plant Science Technology
Lesson Title: Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Colorado Agricultural Education Standards:
AS 11/12.4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of physiological processes in
agriculturally important plants
HRT 11/12.2 The learner will understand and describe the anatomy of horticulture plants.
Colorado Science Standards:
SCI 3.1
Students know and understand the characteristics of living things, the diversity of life,
and how living things interact with each other and with the environment.
SCI 3.3.5
Using examples to explain the relationship of structure and function in organisms.
SCI 5.2
Analyzing how the introduction of a new technology has affected or could affect
human activity.
SCI 5.4
Explaining the use of technology in an occupation.
Student Learning Objectives (Enablers)
As a result of this lesson, the student will be able to: …
1. Explain the concept of genetic engineering.
2. Describe applications of biotechnology in agriscience.
3. State some safety and ethical concerns and safeguards in biotechnology
Time: Instruction time for this lesson: 50 minutes.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications Third Edition
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Tools, Equipment, and Supplies
pencil or pen
Agriscience magazine
Overhead projector
Index Cards and Markers
PSS PST 1 Assess – One per student
Key Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson and appear in bold italics:
recombinant DNA
improvement by selection
genetic engineering
selective breeding
nucleic acid
gene mapping
Bovine somatotropin (BST)
Porcine somatotropin
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
gene splicing
Interest Approach
The interest approach begins with a quick refresher from the prior lesson. Take 5 minutes to review
PowerPoint slides 2-7
Display and quickly recap Power Point Slides 2-7 from the prior day. You will end with the everyday
products that are a result of biotechnology. Use this to lead into the activity.
Use a Picasso E-Moment to have the students hypothesize about what they think the next new
common product of Bio Tech will be.
Discuss their innovative ideas and explain that scientists are already working on many of these and
more. But to get their they must understand the science! Today is all about digging into how
biotechnology works make our lives easier!
Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies
Objective 1. Explain the concept of genetic engineering.
Of the estimated 300,000 kinds of plants in the world, all are different in some ways. On the other
hand, plants and animals have certain similar characteristics that lend themselves to classification
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
and permit prediction of characteristics of offspring by viewing the parents.
That is the individual fertilized cell, called the embryo, and contains coded information that
determines what that cell and its successive cells will become. The coded material in a cell is called
DNA. Who can tell me from science class what DNA stands for? Accept student responses.
Scientists have a working knowledge of how genetic information is stored in a cell, duplicated, and
passed on from cell to cell as they divide and the organism forms.
The process of transmitting genetic codes from parents to offspring and from parent to clone is
common scientific knowledge.
A major breakthrough was made in the early 1980’s as scientists developed the process of genetic
Genetic engineering refers to the movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one
cell to another. Genes are comprised of DNA.
DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other and connected by chemicals called bases.
The pairs of DNA strands may be linked to the two sides of a wire ladder. And the bases may be
linked to the rungs of that wire ladder.
Display and discuss Power Point Slide 8
The different bases are 1) Adenine, 2) Guanine, 3) Cytosine, and 4) Thymine.
Display and discuss Power Point Slide 9
If one end of the ladder is held while the other end is twisted, the resulting shape would be called a
double helix. This is the shape of DNA strands in a cell. Two strands of DNA and the bases
between the strands compose a specific gene.
The order or sequence of the bases between the DNA strands is the code by which a gene controls a
specific trait.
There-fore, each rung with its accompanying side pieces of DNA constitutes a gene containing the
genetic code of a single trait. The genetic material in the cells of a given plant can be isolated and
observed. Furthermore, the trait or traits that a given gene determines can be identified and or the
combination of genes that influence a single trait can be determined.
As cells divide, the DNA strands separate from each other and create duplicate strands to go to the
new cells. Therefore, the genetic codes are duplicated and passed on from old cell to new cell as
growth occurs and individuals reproduce.
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Display and Discuss Power Point Slide 10
The process of identifying the location of a specific gene on a chromosome is called mapping.
Scientist can now remove individual genes carrying certain genetic information and replace them
with genes containing other genetic instructions. By doing so, a given characteristic or performance
can be altered in the microorganism or other plant or animals.
For instance, plants that are susceptible to being eaten by certain insects may be altered so they will
have resistance to that insect.
The process of removing and inserting genes in DNA is called gene splicing or recombinant DNA
technology. And the process of finding and recording the location of genes is called gene mapping.
Use a Go-With-the-Flow E- Moment to have the students create a graphic representation of the
process that you have just taken them through.
Objective 2:
Describe applications of biotechnology in agriscience.
Scientists have learned to improve plants by manipulating the genetic content of cells.
This procedure permits more choices for the researcher and more rapid observation of the results.
With the manipulation of cellular material, the scientist can now alter the characteristics of
microorganisms as well as those of larger plants. This new capability has some amazing
implications for human efforts to improve the quality of life.
In 1988, California scientists made the first outdoor tests of ice-minus. Ice-minus is bacteria that
were genetically altered to retard frost formation on plant leaves. Synthetic chemicals are now
available to protect fruit crops when temperatures fall 4 to 6 degrees below what would normally
damage the fruiting process.
Also in 1988, genetically altered bacteria were injected into elm trees in an effort to control the
deadly Dutch Elm disease.
It is also possible to alter the genetic material implants to improve them. For example, the Colorado
potato beetle is a highly destructive insect that can completely destroy the plants in a potato field. A
gene has been identified that causes plants to produce a substance that is toxic to the potato beetle.
New potato varieties were created by inserting this gene into the DNA of commercial potato
varieties. The new potato variety kills the beetles when they eat the leaves of the plants. No risk to
humans has been demonstrated.
It is now evident that genetic engineering and other forms of biotechnology hold great promise in
controlling diseases, insects, weeds, and other pests. The plants and animals that we nurture for
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
food, fiber, recreation, and preservation can benefit from biotechnology as well as humans. Further,
the environment will be enhanced by less use of chemical pesticides and greater use of biological
Display & Discuss Power Point Slide 11 & 12
Objective # 6 State some safety and ethical concerns and safeguards in biotechnology
Federal and state governments monitor biotechnology research and development very closely.
Much fear has been expressed about the dangers of genetically modified organisms. Therefore,
appropriate policies, procedures, and laws have had to be developed as biotechnology has evolved.
Research priorities and initiatives require discussion and interaction by scientist, government
agencies, and other authorities. Products are tested in laboratories, greenhouses, and other
enclosures being approved for testing outdoors and in other less controlled environments.
Even then, outdoor tests are first conducted on a small scale in remote places under careful
observation. Under these conditions, the efficiency, safety, control, and environmental impact of
new organisms are determined. If the new organism poses an unmanageable threat, it can be
Use a Go Get it Moment to have the students research ethics and safeguards in Biotechnology. They
could use their textbook or the internet to identify two-three key ideas to share with the class.
Discuss as a group the safety and ethical concerns.
Allow time for the students to work through the crossword puzzle to review the key terms and ideas
of this lesson.
Extended classroom activity:
Have students look for items in the news dealing with biotechnology and report to class.
Make a collage depicting some important discoveries, inventions, and developments in
FFA activity:
Organize a class debate on the ethical and moral issues regarding research and the use of
new discoveries in biotechnology.
SAE activity:
Have students review their SAE and determine if they have been or could be touched by some
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
form of biotechnology.
PSS PST 1 Assess and / or PSS PST 1 Crossword
Teacher’s keys for both are provided
PSS PST 1 Assess
bio –
improvement by selection –
selective breeding –
genetics –
heredity –
genes –
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
generation –
progeny –
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) –
Clone –
genetic engineering –
nucleic acid –
bases –
Adenine –
Guanine –
Cytosine –
Thymine –
mapping –
gene splicing –
recombinant DNA technology –
gene mapping –
ice-minus –
X-Gal –
Bovine somatotropin (BST) –
Porcine somatotropin (PST) –
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Insulin –
PSS PST 1 Assess Answers
bio – life or living
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
improvement by selection – picking the best plants or animals for producing the next
selective breeding – selection of parents to get desirable characteristics in the offspring
genetics – biology of heredity
heredity – transmission of characteristics from and organism to is offspring through
genes in reproductive cells
genes – components of cells which determine the individual characteristics of living
generation – refers to the offspring or progeny of common parents
progeny – offspring
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) – coded material in a cell
Clone – exact duplicate of something
genetic engineering – refers to the movement of genetic information in the form of
genes from one cell to another
nucleic acid – slightly acidic substance found in the nuclei of all cells
bases – chemical connecting strands of DNA
Adenine – a base
Guanine – a base
Cytosine – a base
Thymine – a base
mapping – process of identifying the location of a specific gene on chromosome
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
gene splicing – the process of removing and inserting genes into DNA
recombinant DNA technology – gene splicing
gene mapping – the process of finding an recording the location of genes
ice-minus – bacteria that were genetically altered to retard frost formation on plant
X-Gal – compound which turns a specific genetically engineered bacteria a shade of
Bovine somatotropin (BST) – increases milk production in cows
Porcine somatotropin (PST) – increases meat production in swine
Insulin – chemical used by people with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels
PSS PST 1 Crossword
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
3. A hormone (___________ somatotropin) in cattle that regulates growth and milk
production. It can also be produced artificially by genetic engineering and used
to increase milk yields.
7. The offspring of common parents
9. A nucleic acid molecule in the form of a twisted double strand (double helix)
that is the major component of chromosomes and carries genetic information.
10. Mapping identifying and recording the location of a specific gene on a
13. Acid any of various high-molecular-weight acids, for example, DNA and RNA,
consisting of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information and are found in
all living cells and viruses
14. Living
16. The basic unit capable of transmitting characteristics from one generation to
the next. It consists of a specific sequence of DNA or RNA that occupies a fixed
position (locus) on a chromosome.
1. An offspring of a person, animal, or plant
2. A component of nucleic acids that pairs with guanine to carry hereditary
information in DNA and RNA in cells.
3.A chemical compound that can accept a proton or donate a pair of electrons to
form a covalent bond with an acid
4. _____________ Engineering - movement of genetic information in the form of
genes from one cell to another
5. The passing on of genetic factors such as the color of hair or eyes from one
generation to the next, resulting in similarities between members of one family
or strain
6. A plant, animal, or other organism that is genetically identical to its
parent, having developed by vegetative reproduction, for example from a bulb or a
cutting, or experimentally from a single cell
8. A component of nucleic acid that pairs with adenine to carry hereditary
information in DNA in cells.
11. A component of nucleic acids, energy-carrying molecules such as ATP, and
certain coenzymes that carries hereditary information in DNA and RNA.
12. A component of nucleic acids that pairs with cytosine to carry hereditary
information in DNA and RNA in cells.
15. A branch of biology dealing with heredity and genetic variations
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
PSS PST 1 Crossword Answers
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
Capturing the news as it breaks helps your students review what they learn.
Brief Description
According to Eric Jensen, a leading translator of brain research for educators, students who talk
what they learn and do what they learn, learn it. This activity maximizes student conversation about
content. Here’s how you can use an Eye Witness News Moment.
The Process
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology
1. Establish the two roles each student will play. Explain that when the students are the expert they
stand tall and take on the air of an expert (a know-it-all with a pleasant personality). When they are
the interviewer students address an imaginary camera, with microphone (pen) in hand, and
the viewing audience to “Moments with Dr. (fill in the student’s name).” Then they pose
questions to the expert about the content just learned in class. For example: Facing the camera:
Welcome to our show. Today we are interviewing the world renowned expert in plate tectonics,
Dr. Seth Derner. Turning to the expert: Please tell us, Dr. Seth, what is so important about plate
tectonics? Point the microphone in the direction of the expert. Note: This activity works best when
students generate appropriate questions prior to the interview.
2. Establish the process. Explain that this activity is to aid in understanding and rehearsing today’s
topic. Share that the power lies in how well students can play the roles and use the information
they just learned. It is a timed event and they will switch roles midway through the event. Note:
The time allocated is dependent upon the amount of content students will be rehearsing. An
time limit is three to five minutes, switching roles midway through.
3. Begin Eye Witness Moment. Have students stand, pair up, and get ready to go “live” at your
4. Switch roles. Midway through, get everyone’s attention. Students now switch roles. Note: The
new expert usually picks up from where the other left off. If the first expert covered all the
then the new expert simply starts at the beginning.
5. Conclude the activity. After everyone has
played both roles at least once, students
acknowledge each other with “Thank you!”
You can now randomly select individuals to
The Eye Witness News Moment
enhances students’ linguistic and
tell what their expert said as a way to check
interpersonal intelligences.
for understanding and increasing individual
accountability to the content.
© 2004 National FFA Organization
It is illegal to reproduce copies of this material
without written permission from the National FFA Organization.
Unit 8, Lesson 2: DNA for Biotechnology