1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) (i) To which plant family does clover belong?
(ii) Give two agriculturally important characteristics of clover.
(b) (i) Explain the term hybrid vigour.
(ii) Mention two plant or animal examples that show hybrid vigour.
(c) In relation to dairy cows state, in days, the length of each of the following:
(i) Gestation
(ii) Lactation
(iii) Oestrous.
(d) Give three reasons for low earthworm populations in certain soil conditions.
(e) Name three minerals present in igneous rocks.
(f) Explain the connection between shortening day length and the onset of oestrous in sheep.
(g) Give three reasons for the increasing use of artificial insemination (AI) in farm animals.
(h) Explain the functions of the following parts of the digestive system of poultry:
(i) The crop
(ii) The gizzard.
(i) Draw a labelled diagram of a transverse section of a monocot stem.
(j) Name any two plant species or varieties of herbage to be included in a grass-seed mixture
for the production of a permanent pasture.
(60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) Write notes on glycogen in the body of a mammal under the following headings:
(i) its site of production, (ii) its function.
(b) In the case of each of the following, name the part of the plant that is modified and give an
example of a plant with this modification;
(i) bulb, (ii) tuber.
(c) Explain why the growing of seed potatoes is situated predominantly in county Donegal.
(d) State one characteristic which would distinguish members of the family Compositae from
members of the family Cruciferae and name a plant from each family.
(e) Draw a labelled diagram to show the main features of a podzol soil.
(f) (i) Why are mineral and vitamin supplements used in the diet of farm animals?
(ii) How are these supplements supplied to farm animals?
(g) (i) Name the larval stage of each of the following; click beetle, crane fly.
(ii) Describe the damage done by each of these larvae.
(h) Give the approximate value of each of the following for pigs;
(i) weight at birth (kilograms),
(ii) age at puberty (months),
(iii) length of oestrus cycle (days),
(iv) length of gestation period (days),
(v) recommended temperature for farrowing unit (oC).
(i) Give reasons why calcium ammonium nitrate gives a more rapid crop response than urea.
(j) State the benefits of using hybrid ryegrasses over the use of Italian ryegrass on its own.
(60 marks)
2007 1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) To measure how intensively a farm is being managed, the term livestock unit per hectare is used.
Explain the term livestock unit and give an approximate value for the livestock unit per hectare for
an intensively managed dairy farm.
(b) Mention three features that distinguish the production of malting barley from feeding barley.
(c) Name (i) a polysaccharide and (ii) a mineral element which form the main structural units of the
cell wall of plants.
(d) The diagram shows an ectoparasite of farm animals.
(i) Explain the underlined term.
(ii) Identify the ectoparasite shown.
(iii) To which phylum does this parasite belong?
(e) Explain why colloidal humus particles are more beneficial than colloidal clay particles in a soil.
(f) Explain the function of each of the following:
(i) masseter muscles,
(ii) saliva,
(iii) reticulum.
(g) Write out the dental formula for an adult pig.
(h) Give two reasons why the intake of fodder crops, (e.g. rape and kale) in the diet of a farm animal
should be limited.
(i) List three characteristics of a loam soil that would make it suitable for tillage.
(j) Distinguish between the following:
(i) transpiration and translocation,
(ii) osmosis and active transport.
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) Explain why most soils in Ireland are regarded as “young” soils in geological terms.
(b) State three reasons why texture is an important soil property.
(c) Give two examples of the use of hormones in the control of growth characteristics of plants.
(d) Give one example, in each case, of a plant that reproduces using one of the following:
(i) Runners
(ii) Rhizomes
(iii) Tubers
(iv) Bulbs.
(e) Name a plant or animal parasite, belonging to the Phylum Nematoda, and describe its lifecycle.
(f) (i) Name the organ that produces bile in the body.
(ii) Where is bile stored?
(iii) State a function of bile.
(g) Explain one use of each of the following in the context of the feeding of farm animals:
(i) Molasses
(ii) Beet tops
(iii) Kale.
(h) Give an example of one plant from each of the following families:
(i) Cruciferae
(ii) Leguminosae
(iii) Compositae
(iv) Umbelliferae.
(i) Answer the following in the context of sheep:
(i) What is the approximate weight (in kg) of a lamb at birth?
(ii) What is the length (in days) of the oestrous cycle of a ewe?
(iii) What is the gestation period (in months) of a ewe?
(j) Most of the bacon pigs produced in Ireland are reared in integrated pig production units.
Explain the underlined term and give two advantages of these units.
(60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) Explain why oxygen is necessary for germination.
(b) State three features of a grass flower that enable wind pollination to occur.
(c) Explain the term critical temperature in the context of the rearing of pigs.
(d) (i) Name the plant in photograph A.
(ii) Name the family to which it belongs.
(iii) State the expected yield per hectare of this crop.
(e) (i) Name the type of sedimentary rock that is prevalent in the Burren, County Clare.
(ii) Describe a chemical process that aids in weathering of this rock.
(iii) Name one feature of a soil formed from this type of rock.
(f) List the target weights for the efficient production of spring-born beef animals at the following
stages of growth:
(i) at housing for the first winter,
(ii) at the start of grazing for the second summer,
(iii) at slaughter at 24 months.
(g) Speckled yellows is a disease of sugar beet caused by a deficiency of a trace element.
(i) Name the trace element involved.
(ii) Name another disease of sugar beet caused by a deficiency of a named trace element.
(h) State the specific function of each of the following in the animal body:
(i) Diaphragm,
(ii) Thyroid gland,
(iii) Hepatic portal vein.
(i) Give two reasons why most animals reared for beef in Ireland are steers (i.e. castrated males) and
not bulls.
(j) Outline three functions of blood in the animal body.
(60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) (i) Identify the animal in photograph A.
(ii) State the phylum to which this animal belongs.
(iii) Write a note on the importance of any member of this phylum in agriculture.
(b) List four characteristics of a loam soil in comparison to a clay soil.
(c) Describe how a named plant pest could be controlled biologically.
(d) Name three notifiable diseases of farm animals in Ireland.
(e) (i) Identify the plant in photograph B.
(ii) State the family to which this plant belongs.
(iii) Describe the growth habit of this plant as shown in the photograph.
(f) (i) Identify the two crops in photographs C and D.
(ii) Distinguish between the two crops at the inflorescence stage of growth.
(g) State three differences between red clover and white clover.
(h) (i) State one factor that determines wool quality.
(ii) What is the approximate weight of a wool fleece?
(i) State two functions of the liver of a farm animal.
(j) Give two reasons why it is necessary to have strict controls in the application of pesticides to farm
(60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) Explain each of the following terms:
(1) Vaccination
(2) Symbiosis
(3) Tillering
(b) (1) What is anaerobic respiration?
(2) State one example where it occurs on the farm.
(c) Explain three characteristics of a loam soil that make it very suitable for tillage crops.
(d) The diagram is that of common oat (Avena sativa).
(1) To which plant family does oats belong?
(2) Name the parts labelled A and B.
(e) Seeds grow by epigeal or hypogeal germination.
(1) Explain the underlined terms.
(2) Give one example for each of the explained terms.
(f) Name one food constituent stored in each of the following animal tissues:
(1) Adipose tissue
(2) Bone
(3) Muscle
(g) Explain how the aspect of a field affects the temperature of a soil in early spring.
(h) Distinguish between a systemic and a contact fungicide.
(i) Explain the function of each of the following plant structures:
(1) Tendril
(2) Stolon
(3) Sorus
(j) State two differences between plant and animal cells.
(60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) Explain each of the following terms: (1) Soil biomass
(2) Soil humus
(b) (1) Name one member of the Phylum Arthropoda.
(2) State two characteristics of this example from the Phylum Arthropoda.
(c) Use of artificial fertilisers may result in "run off" from grassland.
State three ways farmers could minimise this.
(d) The picture shows a stage in the
lifecycle of the liverfluke, Fasciola hepatica.
(1) Name the larval stage shown in the diagram.
(2) In what animal would this larval stage be found?
(e) Plants can be described as being annuals and biennials.
(1) Explain the underlined terms.
(2) Give one example for each of the explained terms.
(f) Give one example of a sedimentary rock and state one location for this
rock in Ireland.
(g) Where in a pig's body would you find the ureter and what is the ureter’s
(h) Distinguish between photosynthesis and respiration in plants.
(i) Explain why energy is expended in the uptake of mineral nutrients in
ionic form by plant roots.
(j) Name one crop plant from each of the following families: (1) Cruciferae (2) Leguminosae (3)
Solanaceae. (60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) Distinguish between (i) blanket and (ii) basin peats.
(b) Give an example of a fungus for each of the following:
(i) an animal pathogen, (ii) a plant pathogen.
(c) State a function for each of the following plant tissues:
(i) xylem, (ii) collenchyma, (iii) phloem.
(d) Explain the term “tillering” and outline the conditions which promote it.
(e) Why is the use of ground rock phosphate as a straight fertiliser in Ireland confined almost entirely to
(f) Name the stomach compartments of a named ruminant.
(g) List two characteristics of any named organism belonging to the Phylum Annelida.
(h) Explain how an application of lime helps to reduce the incidence of liver fluke.
(i) Mention the plant families to which each of the following belongs:
(i) potato, (ii) daisy, (iii) crested dogtail, (iv) buttercup.
(j) State two functions of the lymphatic system.
(60 marks)
1. Answer any six of the following:
(a) State two characteristics which assist in identifying a grass species.
(b) State where each of the following is located in the animal body; sperm,
thyroid gland, spleen, colon.
(c) Name two plant mineral nutrients that are available following decomposition
of organic matter in the soil.
(d) State which phylum each of the following belongs to: earthworm, aphid,
liver fluke, Babesia.
(e) Draw a labelled diagram to show each of the following parts of the bread
mould fungus Mucor: mycelium, sporangium, hypha.
(f) Name the parts of the flower that form: (i) the calyx, (ii) the corolla.
(g) Explain what is meant by condition scoring of cows.
(h) Describe two characteristics of a podzol.
(i) Explain briefly how crop rotation helps the practice of weed control in
(j) Describe the characteristics of a temporary ley.
(60 marks)