Study Guide- DNA, Protein Synthesis, Mitosis and Meiosis 1) Outline the scientists and the experiments that lead to the discovery of DNA, and later, it’s structure. Include: Meischer, Griffith, Avery, Hershey and Chase, Watson and Crick and Rosalind Franklin. 2) Discuss the structure and chemical composition of bacteriophages. 3) Be able to describe in detail the structure of DNA, including where each molecule is located, how it connects, and it’s larger shape. 4) Explain DNA replication. Include Okazaki fragments, helicases, DNA polymerase, ligase, 5’ and 3’ and semiconservative in your explanation. 5) Discuss the three different types of cloning, how each type comes about, and what results from each type. 6) Differentiate between the three types of RNA and the function of each. 7) Outline the steps of transcription and translation. Pay attention to where each takes place and the materials required for each step. Know what initiation, elongation and termination are. 8) Know the purpose of transcription, translation, mitosis and meiosis and what results from each process. 9) Make sure you can translate a strand of DNA into mRNA and the mRNA into a string of amino acids using the chart in your textbook. 10) Define: promoter, codon, anticodon, polypeptide 11) Understand the effects of insertions, deletions and base-pair substitutions. 12) Define: histone, centromere, chromosome, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, gene, allele, spindle, centrioles, metaphase plate, cleavage furrow and cell plate, somatic cells, gametes, chromosome number, diploid and haploid 13) Diagram the events in the cell cycle, including the three stages of interphase and the four stages of mitosis. 14) Discuss how molecular “brakes” function to inhibit cancerous tumors. 15) Compare and contrast cancerous and non-cancerous cells and tumors (malignant and benign tumors). 16) Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction. 17) Detail the different ways in which meiosis and fertilization result in genetic variability. 18) Outline the steps of meiosis, including in each step whether the cells are diploid or haploid and what happens in each step. 19) How does a typical plant life cycle differ from a typical animal life cycle? 20) Compare and contrast gamete production in humans. Know the location of gamete production, vocabulary associated with it, steps to make the gametes and why they result in different numbers of products.