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Project TE 333, New Example Level/Categories CL 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b3, 3a AL 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b3, 3a Documents This is an artificial example. Brief Description of the Artificial Example The document discloses a device which converts value from a multivalued number system (range-N digit) to a binary representation (conventional L-digit binary), which does not mitigate the performance benefits of multivalued logic processors. This converter comprises multi-level folding circuits containing multiple-peak resonant tunneling transistors (e.g. an FET and a multiple-peak resonant tunneling diode) which exhibit multiple negative differential transconductance being connected by a voltage divider. The conversion for multiple inputs is accomplished by a series of decomposition stages, and each decomposition stage produces an interim multivalued number and a binary digit, which becomes one of the digits of the binary output word. The decomposition at each stage is accomplished by a set of the converters. Representative Prior Art (only for Category 3) There are many references relating to Resonant Tunneling Device and it is known that Multivalued Logic circuits have a potential for increased speed and density since multiple binary bits may be simultaneously processed in a single Multivalued Logic circuit. Invention Information I1: A converter which converts a multivalued (range-N) digit to a binary (conventional L-digit binary) word (claim 1) I2: A multivalued logic circuit which comprises series of stages of decomposition which is accomplished by a set of converters which convert a multivalued digit to a binary word (claim 7, fig 3) I3: A binary adder in redundant multivalued logic representation (fig 1) 1 Additional Information (only for Category 3) None Identification of Potential Subclasses Subject Matter Tool Query I1 TACSY digits conversion I2 TACSY multivalued logic circuit I3 Catchword Index I3 TACSY ADDING see COMPUTING then COMPUTING electrically in digital fashion Binary adder (in G06F) IPC Places H03M 5/00, H03M 7/02, H03M 13/03, H03M 1/26 H03K, G06K 9/00, F15C G06F G06F 7/38 Analysis and Selection of Classification Symbols Core Level I1: As the table above shows, TACSY indicates some groups whose subclasses are H03M which covers “CODE CONVERSION” and must be considered appropriate. In those groups, H03M 13/00 and H03M 1/00 are obviously irrelevant because H03M 13/00 is for error detection or error correction and H03M 1/00 covers AD/DA conversion. Additionally, H03M7/00 is irrelevant because the input information to be converted in I1 is not represented by a given sequence or number of digits. On the other hand, I1 is to convert the form of the representation of individual digits as well, so I1 is classified in H03M 5/00. I2: As the table above shows, TACSY indicates H03K, G06K 9/00 and F15C. F15C (FLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES) and G06K (RECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS) are obviously irrelevant, however from the title of H03K we should investigate this area further. The title of H03K is “PULSE TECHNIQUE” and its note says “This subclass covers methods, circuits, devices, or apparatus using active elements operating in a discontinuous or switching manner for generating, counting, amplifying, shaping, modulating, demodulating, or otherwise manipulating signals.” Therefore, H03K is appropriate. In the groups of this subclass, I2 is classified in 19/08 because the circuits use resonant tunneling diodes. On the other hand, the input information described in I2 can be represented by a given sequence or number of digits, and thus H03M 7/00 is appropriate. In addition, output digits are conventional binary codes, that is, weighted codes. So H03M 7/02 is appropriate. Though there is a last place priority rule, other groups under 7/00 are irrelevant. Therefore, I2 is also classified in H03M 7/02. 2 I3: As the table above shows, TACSY indicates G06F 7/38 for a binary adder. The title of G06F 7/38 is “Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation”. Therefore, the group is appropriate. In three groups under group G06F 7/38, group G06F 7/48 is appropriate because I3 uses non-contact-making devices. Advanced Level I1: As the table above shows, TACSY indicates some groups whose subclasses are H03M which covers “CODE CONVERSION” and it must be considered appropriate. In those groups, H03M 13/00 and H03M 1/00 are obviously irrelevant because H03M 13/00 is for error detection or error correction and H03M 1/00 covers AD/DA conversion. Additionally, H03M 7/00 is irrelevant because the input information to be converted in I1 is not represented by a given sequence or number of digits. On the other hand, I1 is to convert the form of the representation of individual digits as well, so H03M 5/00 is appropriate. The example given is that of an input signal with 4 amplitude ranges (0-0.5volt, 0.5-1.5v, 1.5-2.5v, >2.5v) to represent the 4 digits of the base 4 code, i.e. respectively 0, 1, 2, 3 (see fig.10). This multivalued (4 values) input is converted into binary by two parallel 2-threshold circuit using tunnel diodes which deliver the 2 bit output code CW (fig.10). The base 4 input could be represented by any kind of signal. This document deals specifically with the conversion of a 4 level amplitude multivalued signal into binary. Therefore, H03M 5/20(“the pulses having more than three levels”) is selected here. I2: As the table above shows, TACSY indicates H03K, G06K 9/00 and F15C. F15C (FLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES) and G06K (RECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS) are obviously irrelevant, however from the title of H03K we should investigate this area further. The title of H03K is “PULSE TECHNIQUE” and its note says “This subclass covers methods, circuits, devices, or apparatus using active elements operating in a discontinuous or switching manner for generating, counting, amplifying, shaping, modulating, demodulating, or otherwise manipulating signals.” Therefore, H03K is appropriate. In the groups of this subclass, I2 is classified in 19/10 because the circuits use resonant tunneling diodes. On the other hand, the input information described in I2 can be represented by a given sequence or number of digits, and thus H03M 7/00 is appropriate. In addition, output digits are conventional binary codes, that is, weighted codes. So H03M 7/04 is appropriate. Though there is a last place priority rule, other groups under H03M 7/00 are irrelevant. Therefore, I2 is also classified in H03M 7/04. I3: As the table above shows, TACSY indicates G06F 7/38 for a binary adder. The title of G06F 7/38 is “Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation”. Therefore, the group is appropriate. In groups under group H03M 7/38, I3 is classified in H03M 7/50 because I3 is an adder and uses non-contact-making devices. 3 Subject Matter Analysis of Subclass Selection Subclass Analysis of Group Selection IPC CL IPC (2006) IPC AL I1 Subclass title covers subject matter H03M Common rule for CL, Last place priority rule for AL H03M 5/00 H03M 5/20 (2006.01) I2 Subclass title covers subject matter H03M Last place priority rule H03M 7/02 H03M 7/04 (2006.01) I2 Subclass title covers subject matter H03K Common rule H03K 19/08 H03K 19/10 (2006.01) I3 Subclass title covers subject matter G06F Common rule G06F 7/48 G06F 7/50 (2006.01) Complete Classification The complete core and advanced level classification for this document based on the above analysis is as follows: Core Level Int. Cl. (2006) H03M 5/00 H03M 7/02 H03K 19/08 G06F 7/48 Advanced Level Int. Cl. H03M 5/20 (2006.01) H03M 7/04 (2006.01) H03K 19/10 (2006.01) G06F 7/50 (2006.01) 4