Syntax Vocabulary

SYNTAX VOCABULARY—English Language & Composition AP (Sanchez)
syntax: ordering of words in the sentence
phrase: a group of related words that lacks either a subject, a predicate, or both
verbal phrase: verb forms used as a noun
prepositional phrase: group of words beginning with a preposition
appositive phrase: a group of words that renames a noun
absolute phrase: a group of words containing the past or past participle tense of a verb in apposition to a noun
subordinate clause: a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate but is incomplete as a sentence
independent clause: a grammatically complete sentence
declarative sentence: makes a statement
imperative sentence: gives a command
exclamatory: shows emotion
interrogative: asks a question
rhetorical: a question asked to induce thought and provide emphasis rather than evoke an answer
basic sentence: one in which the parts of speech are in order: a subject, verb, and modifiers
inverted sentence: verb, subject, modifiers order
loose sentence: modifiers throughout—main clause comes at the beginning of the sentence
periodic: modifiers, subject, verb: creates suspense; slows the reader; explanatory information precedes the main point;
interrupted sentence: non-essential information added in the middle of a sentence set off with dashes
parallel: similar ideas expressed in similar grammatical forms (words with words, phrases with phrases, clauses with clauses)
balanced sentence: two parallel elements are set off against each other; both parts have the same form grammatically
simple sentence: one independent clause; use for emphasis and clarity
compound: two or more independent clauses; use for clarifying relationships and connecting elements of equal importance
complex sentence: one or more dependent clauses joined to one independent clause; use to show subordinate relationships
compound-complex: one or more dependent clauses & two or more independent clauses; use to express complicated relationships
antithesis: a figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or structure
juxtaposition: to place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast
oxymoron: a rhetorical device in which contradictory terms are combined as in “deafening silence”
epigram: a concise, clever, often paradoxical statement
paradox: a seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true
anastrophe: inversion of the normal syntactical order of words
listing: ordering in rank by number, importance, or size
transition: passage from one subject to another in discourse
isolated: standing alone; solitary
omission: leaving out
ellipsis: the omission of a word or phrase necessary for a complete syntactical construction but not necessarily for understanding
asyndeton: the omission of conjunctions from constructions in which they would normally be used
apposition: a noun or noun phrase is placed with another as an explanatory equivalent, both having the same syntactic relation
parenthesis: a comment departing from the theme of discourse; a digression (See interrupted sentence.)
polysyndeton: the use of “and” to separate each member of a compound construction, especially in a series
anaphora: the deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs.
Chiasmus: a rhetorical inversion of the second of two parallel structures
periodic sentence: the main clause of the sentence is found at the end.
Parallelism: sentence elements in a series have all the same form and same grammatical function; main clause comes first
balanced: one in which two parallel elements are set off against each other’ both parts have the same form (parallel grammatically)