World History Study Guide Feudal System/Middle Ages/ Black Death The Crusades were Holy wars between Christians and Muslims. The Turks held control of Jerusalem at the beginning of the Crusades. The Muslims held control of Jerusalem when the Crusades ended. The Crusades broadened Europeans view of the world and encouraged trade. The garbage and mud in the streets helped spread disease in medieval cities. A manor is a large estate often including a village and farmlands ruled by a lord. Feudalism is a political and military system based on the holding of land. The lands belonging to a medieval lord is known as a manor. A Serf is a poor farm worker who was bound to the land. Pope Urban II stirred Europeans to action. He did so by telling them that Christians in the holy land were in danger. Christian crusaders fought to win Jerusalem from the Muslims. The Muslim leader was Saladin. By the end of the Crusades, the Muslims controlled all of the holy land. People got the disease known as the Black Death from fleas. The plague killed many Europeans in the Middle Ages. The plague enters Europe from Asia spread by rats. The plague caused 25 million deaths throughout Europe. Superstition and fear spread in Europe, and the Jews were blamed. Many Christians in Europe made a pilgrimage to the holy city of Jerusalem. Saladin and Richard agreed on a 5 year truce. The Christian leader was Richard. A Crusade is any of the military journeys taken by Christians to win the holy land from the Muslims. Lords had power over the Serfs that worked for them.