Different Diseases

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Different Diseases
Chickenpox
What is Chickenpox?
Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is a common illness among
kids, particularly those under age 12. An itchy rash of spots that look like blisters
can appear all over the body and be accompanied by flu-like symptoms.
Symptoms usually go away without treatment, but because the infection is very
contagious.
A person usually has only one episode of chickenpox, but VZV can lie dormant
within the body and cause a different type of skin eruption later in life called
shingles. Getting the chickenpox vaccine significantly lowers kids' chances of
getting chickenpox, but they might still develop shingles later in life.
Symptoms of Chickenpox
Chickenpox causes a red, itchy skin rash that usually appears first on the
abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the
body, including the scalp, mouth, nose, ears, and genitals.
The rash begins as multiple small red bumps that look like pimples or insect bites.
They develop into thin-walled blisters filled with clear fluid, which becomes cloudy.
The blister wall breaks, leaving open sores, which finally crust over to become
dry, brown scabs.
Chickenpox blisters are usually less than a quarter of an inch wide, have a
reddish base, and appear in crops over 2 to 4 days.
Some kids have a fever, abdominal pain, sore throat, headache, or a vague sick
feeling a day or 2 before the rash appears. These symptoms may last for a few
days, and fever stays in the range of 37.7°–38.8° C, though in rare cases may be
higher. Younger kids often have milder symptoms and fewer blisters than older
children or adults.
Chickenpox is usually a mild illness, but can affect some infants, teens, adults,
and people with weak immune systems more severely. Some people can
develop serious bacterial infections involving the skin, lungs, bones, joints, and
the brain. Even kids with normal immune systems can occasionally develop
complications, most commonly a skin infection near the blisters.
Vaccine for Chickenpox
The chickenpox (varicella) vaccine was first licensed for use in Japan and Korea
in 1988. After many years of development, it was licensed in the United States in
1995. Since that time, the number of hospitalizations and deaths from varicella
has declined more than 90%.In 2005, a combination vaccine containing live
attenuated measles-mumps-rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccine was licensed
for use in persons age 12 months through age 12 years.
Measles
What is Measles?
Measles, also called rubeola, is a highly contagious respiratory infection that's
caused by a virus. It causes a total-body skin rash and flu-like symptoms,
including a fever, cough, and runny nose. Though rare in the United States, 20
million cases occur worldwide every year.
Since measles is caused by a virus, there is no specific medical treatment and
the virus has to run its course. But a child who is sick should receive plenty of
fluids and rest, and be kept from spreading the infection to others.
Symptoms of Measles
While measles is probably best known for the full-body rash it causes, the first
symptoms of the infection are usually a hacking cough, runny nose, high fever,
and red eyes. A characteristic marker of measles are Koplik's spots, small red
spots with blue-white centers that appear inside the mouth. The measles rash
typically has a red or reddish brown blotchy appearance, and first usually shows
up on the forehead, then spreads downward over the face, neck, and body, then
down to the arms and feet.
Vaccine for Measles
Measles vaccine is a live, attenuated (or weakened) strain of the measles virus
grown in chick embryo tissue culture. In the United States, it is recommended
that it be given as part of the MMR vaccine, which protects against measles,
mumps, and rubella (German measles) or the MMRV vaccine (MMR plus
varicella (chickenpox) vaccine) when age-appropriate (licensed for use only from
age 12 months through age 12 years).
Rubella
What is Rubella?
Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an
infection that primarily affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by the
rubella virus which is usually transmitted by droplets from the nose or throat that
others breathe in. It can also pass through a pregnant woman's bloodstream to
infect her unborn child.
It's a generally mild disease in children; the primary medical danger of rubella is
the infection of pregnant women because it can cause congenital rubella
syndrome in developing babies.
Most rubella infections today appear in young, non-immunized adults rather than
in kids. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently
susceptible to rubella, which could pose a danger to children they might have
someday.
Symptoms of Rubella
Rubella infection may begin with 1-2 days of mild fever of 37.2–37.8° C and
swollen, tender lymph nodes, usually in the back of the neck or behind the ears.
A rash then begins on the face and spreads downward. As it spreads, it usually
clears on the face. This rash is often the first sign of illness that a parent notices.
The rubella rash can look like many other viral rashes. It appears as either pink
or light red spots, which may merge to form evenly colored patches. The rash
can itch and lasts up to 3 days. As the rash clears, the affected skin occasionally
sheds in very fine flakes.
Other symptoms of rubella (these are more common in teens and adults) can
include headache, loss of appetite, mild conjunctivitis(inflammation of the lining of
the eyelids and eyeballs), a stuffy or runny nose, swollen lymph nodes in other
parts of the body, and pain and swelling in the joints (especially in young women).
Many people with rubella have few or no symptoms.
Vaccine for Rubella
The rubella vaccine is a live attenuated (weakened) virus. Although it is available
as a single preparation, it is recommended that it be given as part of the MMR
vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles)
or the MMRV vaccine (MMR plus varicella (chickenpox) vaccine) when ageappropriate (MMRV is licensed for use only from age 12 months through age 12
years).
Mumps
What is Mumps?
Mumps is a disease caused by a virus that usually spreads through saliva and
can infect many parts of the body, especially the parotid salivary glands. These
glands, which produce saliva for the mouth, are found toward the back of each
cheek, in the area between the ear and jaw. In cases of mumps, these glands
typically swell and become painful.
Symptoms of Mumps
Cases of mumps may start with a fever of up to 39.4° Celsius, as well as a
headache and loss of appetite. The well-known hallmark of mumps is swelling
and pain in the parotid glands, making the child look like a hamster with food in
its cheeks. The glands usually become increasingly swollen and painful over a
period of 1 to 3 days. The pain gets worse when the child swallows, talks, chews,
or drinks acidic juices (like orange juice).
Both the left and right parotid glands may be affected, with one side swelling a
few days before the other, or only one side may swell. In rare cases, mumps will
attack other groups of salivary glands instead of the parotids. If this happens,
swelling may be noticed under the tongue, under the jaw, or all the way down to
the front of the chest.
Mumps can lead to inflammation and swelling of the brain and other organs,
although this is not common. Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and
meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) are both rare
complications of mumps. Symptoms appear in the first week after the parotid
glands begin to swell and may include: high fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea
and vomiting, drowsiness, convulsions, and other signs of brain involvement.
Vaccine for Mumps
The mumps vaccine is made from a live attenuated (weakened) virus. In the
United States, it is recommended that it be given as part of the MMR vaccine,
which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles) or the
MMRV vaccine (MMR plus varicella [chickenpox] vaccine) when age-appropriate
(licensed for use only from age 12 months through age 12 years).
References:
http://kidshealth.org
http://www.vaccineinformation.org
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