Chapter 17 and 18 Study Guide

Hnrs. Renaissance History Chapter 17 & 18 Study Guide
1. The two most important influences on Enlightenment thought were who? John
Locke and Isaac Newton
2. After 1688, Great Britain permitted religious toleration to which groups?
Lutherans, Jews, and Muslims
3. This nation was significantly freer than any other European nation at the
beginning of the Enlightenment. What nation is this? Great Britain
4. An expanding, literate public and the growing influence of secular printed
materials created a new and increasing influential social force called what? public
5. Written by Voltaire in English and later translated to French, this book praised the
virtues of the English, especially their religious liberty, and implicitly criticized
the abuses of French society. What is this book’s title? Letters on the English
6. Philosophies criticized the Christian church for many things, but not for what?
Taking too limited a role in national politics.
7. The two major points in the Deists' creed were what? The belief in an afterlife
dependent upon one's earthly actions and the existence of a rational God.
8. Which of the following figures came closest to atheism in their religious thinking?
Baron d'Holbach
9. According to Ethics, the most famous of his works, this man closely identified
God and nature, an idea for which his contemporaries condemned him. Who was
this? Spinoza
10. This 18th century philosopher was known as the "Jewish Socrates". Who is this
man? Mendelssohn
11. Pascal and other critics saw this as an exceptionally carnal or sexually
promiscuous religion because of its teaching that heaven was a place of sensuous
delights. What is this religion? Islam
12. The Encyclopedia did what? secularized learning and spread Enlightenment
ideas throughout Europe
13. He published On Crimes and Punishments, in which he applied critical analysis to
the problem of making punishments both effective and just. Who is this?
Marquis Cesare Beccaria
14. Adam Smith advocated what? The ending of England’s mercantile system.
15. According to Smith, government should provide what? Schools, armies, navies
and roads.
16. According to Smith's four-stage theory, human societies moved from where to
where? Barbarism to Civilization
17. The most important political thought of the Enlightenment occurred in what
country? France
18. He contended that the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted
human nature. Who is he? Rousseau
19. Based on his ideas and traditions, most 18th-century political thinkers regarded
human beings as individuals and society as a collection of individuals pursing
personal, selfish goals. Who is this? John Locke
20. Most European thinkers associated with the Enlightenment favored what? the
extension of European empires across the world
21. Herder is famous for his early views concerning what? cultural relativism
22. The philosophies generally were not what? avid feminists
23. He maintained that women were not naturally inferior to men and that women
should have a wider role in society. He was also sympathetic in his observations
concerning the value placed on women's appearance and the prejudice women
met as they aged. Who was he? Montesquieu
24. Which of the following styles of art utilizes lavish, often lighthearted decoration
with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light? Rococo
25. Which of the following styles of art embodies a return to figurative and
architectural modes drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world?
26. Neoclassical paintings were didactic rather than emotional and their
subject matter usually concerned what? Public life or public morals.
27. He was a strong monarchist who in 1759 published a History of the Russian
Empire under Peter the Great, which declared, "Peter was born, and Russia
was formed!” Who said this? Voltaire
28. Monarchs such as Joseph II and Catharine II made "enlightened" reforms
as part of their drive to do what? Increase revenues and gain political
29. This monarch embodies enlightened absolutism more than any other.
He/she forged a state that commanded the loyalty of the military, the
junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy, and a growing bureaucracy?
Frederick the Great
30. Monarchs associated with enlightened absolutism included all of the
following rulers: Maria Theresa, Joseph II, Frederick the Great,
Catherine II
31. Of all the rising states of the 18th century, this state was the most diverse
in its people and problems. What is this state? Austria
32. Maria Theresa of Austria did all of the following: limited the amount of
labor the nobility could demand from peasants; established a very
efficient tax system; expanded primary education; created central
councils to deal with political problems
33. Joseph II of Austria: sought to improve the productivity and social
conditions of the peasantry
34. Catherine the Great of Russia did what? built a strong alliance with the
35. As part of her territorial aspirations, Catherine the Great painlessly
annexed what newly independent state in 1783? Crimea
36. King Louis XVI convened the Estates General in order to do what? raise
tax revenues
37. The French parlements spoke for the interests of what group? The
38. He was responsible for the introduction of the revolutionary land tax that
all landowners would have to pay regardless of their social status. Who is
he? Charles Alexandre de Calonne
39. The parliament of Paris declared that only the_______________ could
establish new taxes. Estates General
40. The Second Estate of the Estates General was made up of what group?
The Nobility
41. By the following way the aristocracy attempted to limit the influence of
the Third Estate. What is this attempt? They demanded that each estate
have an equal number of representatives
42. The cahiers de doleances presented to the king included all of the following
grievances: Government waste, corruption, indirect taxes, and the
hunting rights of the aristocracy.
43. The Tennis Court Oath refers to an oath taken by what party? National
Assembly to give France a constitution
44. Throughout the winter and spring of 1789, the high prices for what
commodity produced many riots? Bread
45. "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" was proclaimed by
what group? the National Constituent Assembly
46. During the Great Fear what happened? Peasants reclaimed rights and
property they had lost to aristocratic resurgence.
47. Which of the following best describes the form of government pursued by
the National Constituent Assembly? constitutional monarchy
48. According to the suffrage stipulations of the Constitution of 1791,
approximately how many of France's 25 million citizens were qualified to
vote? 50,000
49. The Chapelier Law did what? forbade workers' associations
50. The Roman Catholic Church condemned the _________________________.
French Revolution
51. The following statement about the Jacobins are not true: they were the
most conservative political group in the National Constituent Assembly
52. The term "sans culottes" was used in revolutionary France to refer to
what? Workers
53. The sans culottes wanted what above all else? Democracy
54. Louis XVI was condemned to death on the charge of what? Conspiring
against the liberty of the people.
55. As Prime Minister of England, William Pitt the Younger did what?
Suppressed reform AND popular movements
56. The following best summarizes Edmund Burke's view of the French
Revolution: He believed it was shortsighted and politically ignorant
57. By April 1793, the following countries were at war with France: Spain,
Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia
58. Issued in August of 1793, the lévee en masse was a what? military
requisition on the entire population
59. By late 1794, the French army was the _______________________ in
European history. Largest army
60. The core value of the republic of virtue created by the revolution was
what? Public good over private good
61. The following was not part of the ideology embraced by Maximilien de
Robespierre? Embrace Christianity
62. Many victims of the Reign of Terror were subject to what "humane" form
of execution? Guillotine
63. The Law of 22 Prairial, passed on June 10 of 1794, permitted the _________
__________________________ without substantial evidence. conviction of
64. The Thermidorian reaction resulted in all of the following: a pull back
from the radical revolution; a new constitution; the closing of the Paris
Jacobin Club; the reduction of the political power of the sans culottes
65. The "Bands of Jesus” did what? murdered suspected Jacobins
66. The following best summarizes the comparison of freedoms exercised by
women before 1789 versus after 1795? Women had more freedom before
67. The French Revolution has often been considered a victory of what group?
68. The Treaties of Basel in March and June 1795 concluded peace with
whom? Spain and Prussia