Packet 12: Optics Packet

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Unit IV: Waves and Energy Transfer
Subunit C: Light Optics
NOTES:
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Objectives
What you should know when all is said and done:
1. Use the ray model of light to distinguish between regular and diffuse reflection, state the law of
reflection and use it to find images with plane mirrors.
2. Use the ray model of light and Huygens’ Principle to find the direction a light ray would travel
upon crossing the boundary between media with different optical densities (undergoing
refraction).
3. Find focal points for curved mirrors and lenses, and relate to the center of curvature.
4. Trace ray diagrams for curved mirrors and curved lenses to find images.
5. Distinguish between real and virtual images.
6. Explain how the eye works, and how vision is corrected.
7. Explain how optical instruments work (i.e. the camera, telescope, microscope, and projector).
8. Differentiate between spherical and chromatic aberration and understand ways to correct each.
Read from Lesson 1 of the Reflection chapter at The Physics Classroom:
Read from Lesson
1 of the Reflection chapter at The Physics Classroom:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l1d.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l1d.html
Discussion:
Discussion:
MOP Connection:
Reflection
and Mirrors: sublevel 4
1.
MOP Connection:
Reflection and Mirrors: sublevel 4
Describe the difference between diffuse reflection and regular (or specular) reflection.
1.
3.
1.
Describe the difference between diffuse reflection and regular (or specular) reflection.
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet
State the law of reflection in the
space below. 1
Describe the difference between diffuse reflection and regular (or specular) reflection.
Consider the diagram at the right in answering the next three questions.
Explain
what
causes
light rays to
undergo by
diffuse
4. The
angle
of incidence
is denoted
anglereflection.
____.
Consider the diagram at the right in answering the next three questions.
2. Explain what causes light rays to undergo diffuse reflection.
2. The angle
ofangle
incidence
is denoted
by angle
____.____.
5. The
of reflection
is denoted
by angle
2.
3. The angle of reflection is denoted by angle ____.
6.
If an
incident
of light
of 35°
thesurface
mirror surface
then
the of
4. If an incident
ray
of lightray
makes
anmakes
angle an
of angle
35° with
thewith
mirror
then the
angle
angle
offollowing
reflectiondiagrams
is _______°.
3.
Which
one
of
the
depicts
diffuse
reflection?
________
reflection is _______°.
Light, Reflection and Mirrors
3.
Which one of the following diagrams depicts diffuse reflection? ________
5. Use the
of reflection
andofthe
embedded
protractor
in order
draw
reflected
ray
7. law
Why
do windows
distant
houses appear
to reflect
the to
sun
onlythe
when
rising or
setting? Explain in
8. Use the
law
of reflection
and
the embedded
protractor
in order
to draw
the
reflected
words.
Use the
diagram
tofor
help,
appropriate
light
raysray
on associated
the(Markings
diagram. are
associated
with
the
given
incident
ray
thedrawing
following
plane
mirror
situations.
the given
incident ray for the following plane mirror situations. (Markings are provided at 15°
providedwith
at 15°
increments.)
increments.)
4.
True or False:
4. True
or False:
When
a beam of light undergoes diffuse reflection, individual rays within the beam do
NOT follow
thealaw
of of
reflection.
When
beam
light undergoes diffuse reflection, individual rays within the beam do
NOT follow the law of reflection.
Explain your answer.
Explain your answer.
5.
For each of the five surfaces given below, draw normal lines.
5.
For
each
of the
five surfaces
given below,
normal
6. For
of
five
surfaces
given
draw draw
normal
lines.lines.
© The
Classroom,
2009below,
9. each
Now
for the
aPhysics
research
question:
Page 1
In this unit we will often discuss how the reflection of light from a mirror results in the formation of
an image. The term image as used here has an obvious context - physics. But the term image has
numerous other contexts - psychology (a positive self-image), religion (created in God's image),
business (the company's image), medicine (an x-ray image), etc.
6.
Your research question involves finding a dictionary and looking up the definition of the word
image. Write down several meaningful definitions from several contexts in the spaces below. (If
you dothe
notdiagram
have a dictionary
at home
then rays
you can
Consider
at the right
of five
of use dictionary.com or wikipedia.org.)
7. Consider
the diagram
at the right
ofrough
five rays
ofrays
lightof
Consider
the
diagram
at the
right
of five
light6.a.approaching
a microscopically
approaching
a microscopically
approaching
a microscopically
rough
surface.
For each
surface. light
For
each
incident ray,
estimate
the rough
surface.
For
each
incident
the
normal
and draw
the
corresponding
reflected
incident
ray,line
estimate
the
normal
lineray,
andestimate
draw the
b. normal line and draw the corresponding reflected
ray of
light. reflected ray of light.
corresponding
ray of light.
c.
d.
8. Identify whether the following phenomenon are attributable to diffuse reflection (DR) or regular
e. (RR):
reflection
A)
The image of a mountain can be clearly seen in the calm waters of a lake. _______
B)
A lacquered tabletop produces a glare of the lamp bulb in the overhead light. _______
10. Now write in your own words a personal definition of what you believe an image of an object is:
C)
sprayed onto
reflects
© The Water
PhysicsisClassroom,
2009a sheet of paper. A laser beam is directed towards the paper, Page
3
© The Physics
Classroom,
2009 _______
Page 3
and produces
a red dot
on the ceiling.
D)
Light from the overhead lights strikes your body and reflects towards all your classmate's
eyes. _______
A microscopic view
of a sheet of paper.
10. Driving at night offers a great example of diffuse vs. regular reflection. A dry road is a diffuse
reflector, while a wet road is not. On the diagrams below, sketch the reflected light off a wet and dry
surface.
9. Which one of the following diagrams depicts diffuse reflection? ________
10. True or False: When a beam of light undergoes diffuse reflection, individual rays within the
beam do NOT follow the law of reflection. Explain your answer.
Why would the wet road appear to the driver to be darker than the dry road?
11. The image of an object as formed by a plane mirror is located ____.
A) on the mirror surface
C) in front of the mirror surface
B) behind the mirror surface
D) any of the above, depending on the object's location.
11. The diagram below contrasts the reflection of light off a smooth surface (left) with the reflection of
light
off a rough
surface
(right).the
Compare
the of
two
diagrams
and explain
why(left)
the reflected
12. The
diagram
below
contrasts
reflection
light
off a smooth
surface
with therays for a
rough surface do not result in the formation of an image.
reflection of light off a rough surface (right).
Light, Reflection and Mirrors
© The Physics Classroom, 2009
Page 4
4. The image of an object as formed by a plane mirror is located ____.
a. on thethe
mirror
b. in
front
the mirrorrays
surface
A) Compare
two surface
diagrams and explain
why
theofreflected
for a rough surface do not result
behind the
surface
d. any of the
on theabove,
object's use
location.
in thec.formation
ofmirror
an image.
(For each reflected
rayabove,
drawndepending
in the diagram
dashed
lines to trace the reflected ray backwards behind the mirror.)
5.
Which of the following statements are true of plane mirror images? List all that apply in
alphabetical order with no spaces between letters.
a. The location of an image is different for different observers.
b. Observers at different locations will sight along different lines at the same image.
Every
image
is located
on the mirror
surface
and at the
same location
for object
different
B) Forc. the
smooth
surface,
compare
the object
distance
(distance
from the
to observers.
the mirror) to
d. Every
image(distance
is locatedfrom
on the
mirror
surface, but
at aordifferent
location for
different
observers.
the image
distance
the
intersection
point
image location
to the
mirror).
e. All observers (regardless of their location) will sight at the same image location.
6.
The diagram below depicts the path of four incident rays emerging from an object and approaching
7.
The diagram below depicts the path of four reflected rays which originated at the object on the left
side of the mirror and have subsequently reflected from the mirror. Five lettered locations are
shown on the right side of the mirror. Which location is representative of the image location?
13. The
diagram
depicts
the are
path
of four
raysside
emerging
from an
object
and is
a mirror.
Fivebelow
lettered
locations
shown
on incident
the opposite
of the mirror.
Which
location
approaching
a
mirror.
Five
lettered
locations
are
shown
on
the
opposite
side
of
the
mirror.
Which
representative of the image location?
location is representative of the image location?
Light, Reflection and Mirrors
15. Consider the mirror and the stick-person shown in the two diagrams below. The distance between
Light, Reflection
and
Mirrors
the mirror
and
the person is different in the two diagrams. For each diagram, accurately draw and
the image
of the
stick-person in
the appropriate
position.
Finally,
draw lines
sight from the
14. Consider thelabel
mirror
and the
stick-person
shown
in the two
diagrams
below.
The ofdistance
eyes of the stick-person to the mirror in order to indicate which portion of the mirror is needed to
between the mirror
the person
is different
in theand
two
viewand
the image.
Use a ruler/
straight-edge
bediagrams.
precise.
theaccurately
mirror anddraw
the stick-person
shown
in the
diagrams below.
Theappropriate
distance between
A) For 15.
eachConsider
diagram,
and label the
image
of two
the stick-person
in the
the mirror and the person is different in the two diagrams. For each diagram, accurately draw and
position. label the image of the stick-person in the appropriate position. Finally, draw lines of sight from the
eyes of the stick-person to the mirror in order to indicate which portion of the mirror is needed to
B) Draw lines
ofthe
sight
fromUse
the aeyes
the stick-person
the mirror in order to indicate which
view
image.
ruler/ofstraight-edge
and betoprecise.
portion of the mirror is needed to view the image. Use a ruler/straight-edge and be precise.
16. Compare the height of the stick-person to the length of mirror needed to view the stick-person.
Make some measurements (from the diagram above) and record below.
C) Compare the height of the stick-person to the length of mirror needed to view the stick-person.
Make some measurements (from the diagram above) and record below.
17. Does the distance from the stick-person to the mirror seem to effect the amount of mirror which the
person needs to view the image? ________ Explain and support your answer using numerical
values taken from question # 15 above.
D) Does
distancethefrom
theofstick-person
to the
mirror
seem
to effect
the amount
of mirror
which
16.the
Compare
height
the stick-person
to the
length
of mirror
needed
to view the
stick-person.
measurements
(from
the diagram
above)
recordyour
below.
the person Make
needssome
to view
the image?
________
Explain
andand
support
answer using numerical
values taken from question above.
17. Does the distance from the stick-person to the mirror seem to effect the amount of mirror which the
person needs to view the image? ________ Explain and support your answer using numerical
values taken from question # 15 above.
© The Physics Classroom, 2009
© The Physics Classroom, 2009
Page 10
Page 10
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet 2
Vocabulary
A. Angle of Incidence
B. Angle of Reflection
C. Concave Mirror
D. Convex Mirror
E. Diffuse Reflection
F. Upright Image
G. Focal Length
H. Focal Point
I. Normal
J. Object
K. Principal Axis
L. Real Image
M. Regular Reflection
N. Virtual Image
1. _______This occurs when light bounces off surfaces that are not very smooth.
2. _______ An imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the surface.
3. _______ The angle that an incoming beam makes with the normal.
4. _______ An image at which light rays actually converge.
5. _______ A(n) ___ reflects light from its inwardly curving surface.
6. _______ The straight line perpendicular to the surface of a mirror at its center.
7. _______When light bounces of extremely smooth surfaces, so that the light returns to the
Reflection and Mirrors
Name:
observer in parallel Light,
beams.
8. _______ The distance between the focal point and the mirror.
9. _______ The angle made with the normal by a beam of light
that has
bounced off a surface.
Spherical
Mirrors
10. ______ A source of diverging
light
rays.
Read from Lesson 3 of the Reflection chapter at The Physics Classroom:
11. ______ An image at which light rays do not actually converge.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l3a.html
12. ______ A spherical mirror that reflects lighthttp://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l3b.html
from its outwardly curving surface.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l3c.html
13. ______ An image that is right-side-up.
14. ______ The place at whichMOP
lightConnection:
rays parallelReflection
to the and
principal
of5a concave mirror converge.
Mirrors: axis
sublevel
1. A spherical mirror has a shape which is a
15. Consider the concave spherical
mirror shown at the right.
section of a sphere. Consider the concave
Label the following on the diagram:spherical mirror shown at the right.
Label the following on the diagram:
• the principal axis (a line) as
PA
• the focal point (a point) as •F the principal axis (a line) as PA
• the focal point (a point) as F
• the center of curvature (a point)
as C
• the center of curvature (a point) as C
Light, Reflection and Mirrors
• the focal length (a length) as
f
• the focal length (a length) as f
•
the
radius
of
curvature
(a
length)
as ofRcurvature
radius
The diagram below depicts a convex mirror with its principal axis and•its the
center
of curvature
(C). Five (a length) as R
incident rays moving parallel to the principal axis are shown.
7.
8.
9.
As on the front side, construct normal lines for each of the 2.
five incident
rays.
(Geometry
Review:
A
Explain
why
concave
mirrors
are
line which passes through the center of a circle will be perpendicular
to the circle
at its point
of
sometimes
called
converging
mirrors.
intersection. Thus, the normal line for each of these incident rays passes through C.)
Measure the angle of incidence and use the law of reflection to construct five reflected rays at the
appropriate angle of reflection.
For each reflected ray, construct extensions of the rays backwards behind the mirror until they
intersect the principal axis.
16. Explain why concave mirrors are called converging
mirrors.
3.
Explain why convex mirrors are sometimes called diverging mirrors.
17. Explain why convex mirrors are called
diverging mirrors.
4.
The diagrams below show three incident rays. For each diagram, draw the three corresponding
reflected rays on the diagrams. Place arrowheads upon all your rays. (Study the ray diagrams in
your textbook carefully to answer these questions.)
10. Make some generalized statements about rays 1-5 to describe how they reflect.
For each statement below, write true or rewrite the italicized part to make the statement true.
Concave Mirrors.
18. _________________ Rays perpendicular to the principal axis of a concave mirror converge at
or near the focal point.
19. _________________ The focal length of a concave mirror is half the radius of curvature of the
mirror.
20. _________________ Concave mirrors can produce only virtual images.
21. _________________ Concave mirrors cannot act as magnifiers.
Convex Mirrors.
22. _________________ The focal point of a convex mirror is behind the mirror.
23. _________________ Rays reflected from a convex mirror always converge.
24. _________________ The images produced by convex mirrors are real images.
25. _________________ Compared to the size of the objects, the images produced by convex
mirrors are always the same size.
26. Light from a distant star is collected by a concave mirror. How far from the mirror do the light
rays converge if the radius of curvature of the mirror is 150 cm?
27. Suppose your teacher gives you a concave mirror and asks you to find the focal point.
Describe the procedure you would use to do this.
3.
Explain why convex mirrors are sometimes called diverging mirrors.
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet 3
4.
The diagrams below show three incident rays. For each diagram, draw the three corresponding
rays onbelow
the diagrams.
Placeincident
arrowheads
upon
yourdiagram,
rays. (Study
thethe
raythree
diagrams in
1. reflected
The diagrams
show three
rays.
Foralleach
draw
your textbook reflected
carefully to
answer
these
questions.)Place arrowheads on all your rays.
corresponding
rays
on the
diagrams.
Light, Reflection and Mirrors
Name:
Ray Diagrams for Concave Mirrors
Read from Lesson 3 of the Reflection chapter at The Physics Classroom:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l3d.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refln/u13l3e.html
2. State the three rules
which describe the predictable reflection of three rays of incident light for a
concave
mirror. (See
questionand
#1.)
MOP
Connection:
Reflection
Mirrors: sublevels 5 and 6
For the following mirrors and corresponding object positions,
construct ray diagrams. Then describe the Location of the image,
©
The Physics
Classroom,
2009 of the image, the relative Size of
Orientation
(upright
or inverted)
the image (larger or smaller than object), and the Type of image
(real or virtual). For Case 4, merely construct the ray diagram.
Page 13
NOTE: 1) All light rays have arrowheads which indicate the direction of travel of the ray.
2) Always draw in the image once located (an arrow is a good representation).
3) Exactness counts. Use a straight-edge and be accurate.
Case 1: If the object is located "beyond" the center of curvature.
3. DRAWING RAY DIAGRAMS FOR CONCAVE MIRRORS. Use the rules above to draw ray
diagrams and complete the “LOST” description of the image.
Case 1: If the object is located "beyond" the center of curvature.
Description of Image:
Location:
_________________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Description of Image:
CaseLocation:
2: If the object is located at the center of
curvature.
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
Description
of Image:
Case
2: If the object
is located at the center of curvature.
Location:
___________________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
T: Real or Virtual
Case 3: If the object is located
between the center of curvature and the focal
point.
Description of Image:
Location:
_____________________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Case 4: If the object is located
at the focal point.
What happens to the image?
Case 5: If the object is located
between the focal point and the
mirror.
Description of Image:
Location:
___________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Part 2- Convex mirror
4. DRAWING RAY DIAGRAMS FOR CONVEX MIRRORS. Use the rules above to dray ray
8. a. Locate the image in the convex mirror.
diagrams and complete the “LOST” description of the image.
b. Trace 4 additional rays from the tip of the object to the mirror and back to an observ
Case 1: Object is Relatively Close to Mirror
Description of Image:
Location:
________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
.
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In the situation below, sketch a ray diagram that allows you to determine the image locatio
Case 2: Object is Relatively Far
Away from Mirror
Description of Image:
Location:
________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
5. Remember, rays of light are reversible.
So the rule is: If you can see me, ______________________________________________!!!
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet 4
Vocabulary
A. Angle of Incidence
B. Angle of Refraction
C. Concave Lens
D. Convex Lens
E. Critical Angle
F. Index of Refraction
G. Magnification
H. Optically Dense
I. Refraction
J. Total Internal Reflection
1. ______ The bending of light at the boundary between two media.
2. ______ A transparent refracting device that is thinner in the middle than at the edges.
3. ______ If the angle of refraction is smaller than the angle of incidence, the medium in which the
angle is smaller is more _____.
4. ______ The angle that a refracted ray makes with the normal.
5. ______ For light going from a vacuum into another medium, the constant n is the ____.
6. ______ A transparent device that cause light rays to converge.
7. ______This describes the angle that causes a refracted ray to lie along the boundary of a
substance.
8. ______ The angle that an incoming beam makes with the normal.
9. _____ The ratio of the size of an image to the size of the object.
10. _____ When light passes form one medium to a less optically dense medium at an angle so
great that there is no refracted ray.
11. Which labeled line represents the incident ray? How can
you tell?
Medium 1
Medium 2
C
12. Which line represents the refracted ray? How can you tell?
B
F
13. Which line represents the boundary between two media?
E
A
14. Which line represents the normal? How can you tell?
15. Which labeled angle represents the angle of incidence?
H
G
16. Which labeled angle represents the angle of refraction?
17. Which angle is greater: the angle of incidence or the angle of refraction?
18. Which medium is more optically dense? Which has the lower index of refraction?
19. When light passes into a medium in which it travels faster, the light will refract ________ the
normal. When light passes into a medium in which it travels slower, light will refract ________ the
normal.
A) towards, away from
B) away from, towards
D
20. When light passes into a medium that is more optically dense, the light will refract ________
the normal. When light passes into a medium that is less optically dense, the light will refract
________ the normal.
A) towards, away from
B) away from, towards
21. As light passes from one medium into another, it refracts. There is only one condition in which
light will cross a boundary but not refract. State this condition.
Light, Refraction and Lenses
11.
In each
draw
the "missing"
ray (either
or refracted)
order to appropriately
show
22. In
eachdiagram,
diagram,
draw
the "missing"
ray incident
(either incident
or in
refracted)
in order to appropriately
that
thethe
direction
of bending
is towards
or away from
the normal.
show
that
direction
of bending
is towards
or away
from the normal.
12. A ray of light is shown passing through three
23. Light
will undergo
total internal
reflection
only when it is _______. Choose
consecutive
layered materials.
Observe
the direction
bending
each boundary
rank thetowards
three
A) inofthe
less at
dense
mediumand
traveling
the more dense medium
materials
(A,
B
and
C)
in
order
of
increasing
index
of
B) in the more dense medium traveling towards the less dense medium
refraction.
two.
C) in the medium where it travels slowest, moving towards the medium where it travels fastest
D) in the medium< where it travels
< fastest, moving towards the medium where it travels slowest
smallest
largest
Complete the following blanks by answering questions #24-#25: The critical angle is the angle of
(#24) that causes light to (#25) .
24. Referring to the statement above:
13.
Arthur Podd's method
of
A) incidence
B) refraction
C) reflection
fishing involves spearing the
fish while standing on the
25. Referring
to the statement
shore. The apparent
location above:
of a fish
shown in the
A) cross
theis boundary
without refracting
diagram below.
Because
of same angle as the angle of
B) undergo
refraction
at the
the refraction of light, the
C) refract
at location
an angle
of refraction
of 90 degrees
observed
of the
fish is
D) reflect
atthan
the its
same
angle as the angle of incidence
different
actual
location. If Arthur is to
successfully spear the fish,
must he aim at, below, or
above where the fish appears
to be? __________ Explain.
incidence
1.
Converging lenses are _____ at the center and _____ at the edges.
a. thickest, thinnest
b. thinnest, thickest
2.
Diverging lenses are _____ at the center and _____ at the edges.
a. thickest, thinnest
b. thinnest, thickest
Consider the diagram at the right in answering the next two questions.
3.
4.
List the letters of all the converging
lenses.
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet 5
List the letters of all the diverging
lenses.
1. Use refraction principles to sketch an approximate path of light as it enters and exits the lens.
Think FST (fast
to refraction
slow = toward)
SFAan(slow
to fast
= away).
of lens.
the rays
5. Use
principlesand
to sketch
approximate
path
of light asTrace
it entersthe
andpath
exits the
Think into,
FST
and
SFA.
Trace
the
path
of
the
rays
into,
through
and
out
of
the
lens.
Repeat
the
procedure
for the
through and out of the lens. Repeat the procedure for the light rays exiting the lens and trace
the
light
rays
exiting
the
lens
and
trace
the
emerging
light
rays.
Place
arrowheads
on
all
light
rays.
emerging light rays. Place arrowheads on all light rays.
'
Light, Refraction and Lenses
Name:
Lenses
Read from Lesson 5 of the Refraction and Lenses chapter at The Physics Classroom:
6.
Explain why lenses (like the one onhttp://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l5a.html
the left above) are called "converging" lenses.
2. Explain why lenses (like the one on the left above) are called "converging" lenses.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l5b.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l5c.html
Connection:
Refraction
and Lenses:
sublevel 7
3. Converging lensesMOP
are _____
at the center
and _____
at the edges.
A) thickest, thinnest B) thinnest, thickest
1.
Converging lenses are _____ at the center and _____ at the edges.
a. thickest, thinnest
b. thinnest, thickest
4. Diverging7.lenses
are _____
at have
the center
and _____ (positive,
at the edges.
Converging
lenses will
____________________
negative) focal lengths. Diverging
2. B)
Diverging
lenses
are _____
at the
centerfocal
andlengths.
_____ at the edges.
lenses will
have
____________________
(positive,
negative)
A) thickest, thinnest
thinnest,
thickest
a. thickest, thinnest
b. thinnest, thickest
Consider the diagramConsider
at the right
in answering
the next
two questions.
the diagram
at the right
in answering
the next two questions.
5. List the letters of all
the
converging
lenses.
3. List the letters of all the converging
lenses.
© The Physics Classroom, 2009
Page 9
6. List the letters of all
diverging
lenses.
4. theList
the letters
of all the diverging
lenses.
'
For each statement below,
write
true orprinciples
rewrite the
italicized
part to make
theofstatement
true. and exits the lens.
5. Use
refraction
to sketch
an approximate
path
light as it enters
7. __________________ FST
A convex
lens
can
be
used
as
a
magnifying
glass.
and SFA. Trace the path of the rays into, through and out of the lens. Repeat the procedu
the light rays exiting the lens and trace the emerging light rays. Place arrowheads on all light
8. __________________ When a lens is used as a magnifying glass, the object is placed outside
the focal point.
9. __________________ Images produced by convex lenses are always real.
10. __________________ The images produced by concave lenses are always inverted.
11. __________________ A concave lens is thinner in the center than at the edges.
12. __________________ Concave lenses refract rays so that the rays converge.
# 2:
# 3:
10. State the three rules of refraction for diverging lenses:
13. Identify the following statements as being either true (T) or false (F).
# 1: A) If reflected or refracted rays diverge, there is no image.
_______
_______ B) If an object is located in front of a focal point, there is no image.
# 2: C) Virtual images cannot be seen.
_______
_______ D) All images are formed by the actual convergence of reflected or refracted light.
# 3: E) Just three rays of light from an object can intersect at the image location.
_______
14.
depictthe
therefraction
refraction
light
through
various
lenses.
the diagrams
11. The
Thediagrams
diagrams below depict
ofof
light
through
various
lenses.
List Circle
the diagrams
that
showthe
the proper
proper refraction
those
which
the improper
refraction
that show
refractionofoflight.
light._________
For those For
which
show
theshow
improper
refraction
of light,of
either
the diagrams
by showing
the proper
refracted
rays
or explain
is wrong
eitherlight,
correct
thecorrect
diagrams
by showing
the proper
refracted
rays or
explain
whatwhat
is wrong
with the
with
the
refracted
rays.
refracted rays.
© The Physics Classroom, 2009
Page 10
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet 6
Light, Refraction and Lenses
1. The diagram below shows an arrow object positioned in front of a converging and a diverging
lens. Three incident rays are shown. Construct the corresponding refracted rays. Show
8. The diagram below shows an arrow object positioned in front of a converging and a diverging lens.
arrowheads.
Three incident rays are shown. Construct the corresponding refracted rays. Show arrowheads.
9.
State the three rules of refraction for converging lenses:
2. State the three rules of refraction for converging lenses:
#1: # 1:
#2: # 2:
#3:
# 3:
10. State the three rules of refraction for diverging lenses:
# 1: the three rules of refraction for diverging lenses:
3. State
#1:
# 2:
#2:
# 3:
#3:
11. The diagrams below depict the refraction of light through various lenses. List the diagrams that
show the proper refraction of light. _________ For those which show the improper refraction of
3. DRAWING
RAY
DIAGRAMS
FOR
LENSES.
Use therays
rules
above to
dray
ray
light, either
correct
the diagrams
by CONVEX
showing the
proper refracted
or explain
what
is wrong
diagrams
and
complete
the
“LOST”
description
of
the
image.
with the refracted rays.
Case 1: If the object is located beyond 2F:
Description of Image:
Location:
______________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Light, Refraction and Lenses
Description of Image:
Location:
Case 3: If the object is located between 2F and F:
Case 2: If the object is located
between
2F or Inverted
O: Upright
S: Magnified or Reduced
and F:
T: Real or Virtu
Case 4: If the object is located at F:
Description of Image:
Location: _________________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Description of Image:
Location: Required
No Description
Case 3: If the object is located between
F andor
the
lens:
O: Upright
Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
Case 5: If the object is located between F and the lens:
4: If theand
object
is located at F:
Refraction
Lenses
Name:
Description of Image: Light,Case
T: Real or Virt
Location: _________________________________
O: Upright or Inverted
Ray Diagrams for Diverging Lenses
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Read from Lesson 5 of the Refraction and Lenses chapter at The Physics Classroom:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l5ea.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l5eb.html
MOP Connection:
Refraction and Lenses: sublevels 10 and 11
For the following lenses and corresponding object positions, construct
ray diagrams. Then describe the Location of the image, Orientation
(upright or inverted) of the image, the relative Size of the image (larger
Description
ofand
Image:
or smaller
than object),
the Type of image (real or virtual).
NoLocation:
Description Required
CaseFOR
5:O:
If the
objectorisInverted
located
between
Fthe
and
the lens:
Upright
Magnified
or Reduced
T: Real or Virtu
4. DRAWING RAY DIAGRAMS
CONCAVE
LENSES.
UseS:
rules
above
to dray ray
NOTE:
1)
All
light
rays
have
arrowheads
which
indicate
the
direction
of
travel
of the ray.
diagrams and complete the “LOST” description of the image.
2) Always draw in the image once located (an arrow is a good representation).
3) Exactness counts. Use a straight-edge and be accurate.
©1:The
Physics
Classroom,
2009
Case 1: If the object is Case
located
away
from
the lens:
Iffar
the
object
is located
far
away from the lens:
Description of Image:
Location: ______________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Description of Image:
Location:
O: Upright or Inverted
Description of Image:
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virt
Location:
O: Upright or Inverted
© The Physics Classroom, 2009
S: Magnified or Reduced
Case 2: If the object is located nearby the lens:
T: Real or Virtual
Description of Image:
Location:
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Case 2: If the object is located nearby the lens:
Case 2: If the object is located
nearby the lens:
Description of Image:
Location: ________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
Description of Image:
Location:
5. Several statements about images
are given below. Identify which optical device applies to the
given statement. Place the appropriate
marks
in the blanks.S:Mark
all thatorapply.
O: Upright
or Inverted
Magnified
Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
A = plane mirrors
B = concave mirrors
C = convex mirrors
D = converging lenses
E = diverging lenses
______________ a. Are
of producing
images.
© capable
The Physics
Classroom,real
2009
______________ b. Only produce virtual images.
______________ c. Are capable of producing enlarged images.
______________ d. Can only produce images which are smaller than the object.
______________ e. Capable of producing images the same size as the object.
Unit IV-C: Light Optics
Worksheet 7
1. What type of vision impairment is represented in the diagram below? How is this corrected?
2. What type of vision impairment is represented in the diagram below? How is this corrected?
3. What is astigmatism and how is it corrected?
4. What happens to your vision as you age? How is this corrected?
5. Describe two lens imperfections: chromatic aberration and spherical aberration.
Light, Refraction and Lenses
Unit
Name:
IV-C: Light Optics
Review Worksheet
Direction of Bending
Vocabulary
from Lesson1.1 What
of the Refraction
and
Lenses chapter
Classroom:
is the law of
reflection?
Doesatit The
holdPhysics
for curved
mirrors?
angle of Read
incidence
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l1d.html
angle of reflection
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l1e.html
angle of refraction
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/refrn/u14l1f.html
chromatic aberration
Refraction
and Lenses:
sublevels
and 3
between
reflection
and2refraction.
coherentMOP Connection:2. Distinguish
concave 1.
lens/mirror
The optical density is the property of a medium which provides a relative measure of the speed at
converging which light travels in that medium. Light travels __________________ (fastest, slowest) in media
convex lens/mirror
with a greater optical density.
critical angle
2. Every transparent
material
characterized
a unique
index
refraction
valueway
(n). does
The index of
3. When
lightistravels
from a by
fast
medium
to a of
slow
one, which
diffuse reflection
refraction value is a numerical value which provides a relative measure of the speed of light in that
the light ray bend? From slow to fast?
diverging
particular material. Light travels __________________ (fastest, slowest) in media with a higher index
farsighted of refraction value.
fiber optics
3. The speed of light (v) in a material is determined using
focal length
c
3.00 x 108 m/s
v
=
=
the
speed
of
light
in
a
vacuum
(c)
and
the
index
of
n image? n
4. What is the difference between a real and a virtual
focal point
refraction (n) of the material. Calculate the speed of light
magnification
in the following materials.
nearsighted
a. water (n = 1.33):
b. glass (n = 1.50):
normal
object
c. ice (n = 1.31):
(n =and
2.42):
5. What is the difference betweend.a diamond
converging
a diverging lens?
optically dense
principal 4.
axis When light passes into a medium in which it travels faster, the light will refract ________ the normal.
ray diagram When light passes into a medium in which it travels slower, light will refract ________ the normal.
real image a. towards, away from
b. away from, towards
refraction
5. When light passes into a medium which is more optically dense, the light will refract ________ the
regular reflection
6. Distinguish between spherical and chromatic aberration, and site a
normal. When light passes into a medium which is less optically dense, the light will refract
spherical aberration
________ the remedy
normal. for each.
total internal a. towards, away from
b. away from, towards
reflection
6. Consider the 7.
refraction
of light
in the five
diagramsand
below.
In which vision.
case is the light bending
virtual image
Distinguish
between
farsighted
nearsighted
towards the normal line? Circle all that apply.
8. If a light ray is incident upon a mirror at an angle of 30 degrees with respect to the normal, what
is the angle of reflection with respect to the normal?
Consider the diagram at the right in answering the next four questions.
7.
There are ___ (1, 2, 3, ...) media shown in the diagram.
Consider the diagram at the right in answering the next two questions.
8. There
___ (1, 2, 3, in
...)medium
boundaries
shown in the
diagram.
9. Light must
travelare
__________
1 compared
to medium
A) slower9. LightB)must
faster
C) insufficient
info
travel __________
in medium
1 compared to medium 2.
a. slower
b. faster
c. insufficient info
10. Light10.
mustLight
travel
__________
in medium
2 compared
to medium
must
travel __________
in medium
2 compared
to medium 3.
A) slower
B) faster b. fasterC) insufficient
info info
a. slower
c. insufficient
11. Arrows numbered 1-8 represent object locations for a concave mirror. For each of these
objects, determine the corresponding image location, orientation and relative size. Since these
diagrams have not been created to scale, do NOT use ray diagrams to determine your answers.
12. Arrows numbered 1-4 represent object locations for a convex mirror. For each of these
objects, determine the corresponding image location, orientation and relative size. Since these
diagrams have not been created to scale, do NOT use ray diagrams to determine your answers.
13. Description of Image:
Location: ______________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
14. Description of Image:
Location: _____________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
15. Description of Image:
Location: ____________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
16. Description of Image:
Location: ____________________
O: Upright or Inverted
S: Magnified or Reduced
T: Real or Virtual
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