Environmental Science 1st Semester Final Study Guide--KEY Chapter 1 1) What parts of the world, what types of nations, see rapid increases in population size? Kenya, Africa 2) Give at least 3 examples of renewable resources. Hydrogen, water, air, soil 3) Give at least 3 examples of non-renewable resources. Coal, minerals, fossil fuels 4) What happened during the agricultural revolution? Plants and animals were domesticated 5) Describe the “Tragedy of Commons.” Describes the conflict between individuals and society 6) According to the law of supply and demand, what would occur if the supply of oil declined and the demand remained the same? Oil prices would increase 7) What is an ecological footprint? The amount of land and ocean area needed to support one person 8) Describe the characteristics of a developed nation. Greater personal wealth, slow population growth 9) Describe the characteristics of a developing nation. Lower than average personal wealth, rapid population growth 10) When did most of today’s environmental problems begin in human history? Industrial Revolution 11) What does the term “biodiversity” refer to? The number and variety of species that live in an area. Chapter 3 12) Scientists divide the Earth, as a system, into four parts, what are they? Geosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere 13) Define Biosphere. The part of Earth where life exists. 14) Define Hydrosphere. All the water on or near the Earth’s surface. 15) Define Atmosphere. The mixture of gases that make up the air we breathe. 16) Define Geosphere. The mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth that extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust. 17) The center of the Earth’s solid inner core is mostly made up of what? Iron and nickel 18) Describe and define Tectonic Plates. Blocks of lithosphere that consist of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle that glide across the underlying asthenosphere. 19) How frequently do tectonic plates move around the Earth’s surface? All the time 20) What forms when tectonic plates collide and the Earth’s crust becomes thicker? Mountains 21) Define magnitude. The measure of the energy released by an earthquake. 22) What characteristics describe an earthquake resistant building? The buildings are slightly flexible so they can sway during an earthquake. 23) Where are volcanoes often located? Near plate tectonic boundaries 24) Define Erosion. The process in which the materials of the Earth’s surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away by wind, ice or gravity. 25) What percentage of the atmosphere is made of nitrogen? 78% Oxygen? 21% 26) What holds the Earth’s atmosphere in place? Gravity 27) Define Greenhouse Effect. The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation. 28) What would happen without the greenhouse effect? The Earth would be too cold for life to exist. 29) Define Precipitation. Any form of water that falls to the Earth’s surface from the clouds, and includes rain, snow, sleet and hail. 30) Define Water Cycle. The continuous movement of water from the ocean, to the atmosphere, to the land, and back to the ocean. 31) Define Condensation. The change of state from gas to liquid. 32) Define Convection. The transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas 33) What role do the Earth’s oceans play in regards to the Earth’s temperature? They regulate temperature. 34) Define Salinity. The measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid. Chapter 4 35) Where does the energy in most ecosystems come from? The sun 36) Define co-evolution. The process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other. 37) How many kingdoms do most scientists classify organisms into? Six 38) What organism lives on plant roots and converts nitrogen in the air into a form that plants can use? Bacteria 39) Define Abiotic factor. A non-living factor, such as, water, rocks, soil, etc. 40) Define Biotic factor. Environmental factors that are associated with or result from the activities of living organisms. Such as, plants, animals, dead organisms, and the waste products of dead organisms. 41) Describe Fungi. Eukaryotic protists which are characterized by the absence of chlorophyll and by the presence of a rigid cell wall. 42) Describe Bacteria. Single celled organisms, with a cell wall, which are essential to all life and live either independently or as a parasite. Bacteria have three basic shapes which include bacillus, coccus and spiral. Bacteria multiply through cell division and in most cases can be killed by antibiotics. 43) Describe Protists. The protists include a variety of unicellular and multicellular organisms, such as the protozoans, slime molds, brown algae, and red algae. 44) Define Ecosystems. Communities of organisms and their abiotic environment. 45) Define Species. Groups of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring. 46) Define Populations. Groups of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed. 47) Define Habitats. Places where organisms usually live. 48) Who receives the most credit for discovering and describing the process of Natural Selection? Charles Darwin 49) Define Natural Selection. The process by which individuals that have favorable variations and are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do. 50) Define Evolution. The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth. 51) Define Artificial Selection. The selective breeding of organisms, by humans, for specific desirable traits. 52) What is the smallest unit of biological organization? A cell 53) What is the most abundant type of invertebrate on Earth? Insects 54) What observable characteristics describe a vertebrate? They have a backbone 55) What structure has evolved in insects as a means of protection? Exoskeleton Chapter 5 56) Which kind of organism obtains energy only from producers? Herbivores 57) If an insect eats a plant, and a bird eats the insect, about how much energy from the plant is stored in the insect for the bird to use? (provide percentage) 10% 58) Define Food Web. The many feeding relationships that are possible in an ecosystem. 59) What serves as the main source of energy for plants? Sunlight 60) Plants use the energy from sunlight to make _Glucose/sugar___, that is used by other organism as a source of energy. 61) Define Photosynthesis. The process where plants use sunlight to make glucose and oxygen. 62) What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? CO2+H2O+sunlight=>C6 H12 O6 +O2 63) What is the chemical formula for glucose? C6 H12 O6 64) Define autotrophs. Organisms that make their own food. 65) Define heterotophs. Organisms that must get their energy/food from other sources. 66) What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration? C6 H12 O6+O2=>CO2+H2O+Heat 67) How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next? (percentage) 10% 68) What is released when fossil fuels are burned? Carbon Dioxide 69) What do herbivores eat? Producers What do carnivores eat? Herbivores, Omnivores and other Carnivores What do decomposers eat? Dead things (examples of decomposers are fungi and bacteria) 70) What type of consumers are humans? Omnivores 71) Describe the Carbon Cycle. The movement of carbon from nonliving environment into living things and back. 72) What are fossil fuels made from? Dead organisms that contain carbon are broken down and turned into fossil fuels. Chapter 6 & 7 73) What types of biomes are the most diverse and widespread? Forests 74) Name the three main forest biomes? Tropical, temperate, coniferous 75) What do tropical rainforest help regulate? Earth’s climate 76) What type of forest is Georgia located in? Deciduous 77) What do many birds that live in the temperate deciduous forest do in order to survive the winters? Migrate 78) How have trees in the temperate deciduous forest adapted to survive the seasonal changes? During the fall, trees change color and then lose their leaves. This is in preparation for the winter season. Because it gets so cold, the trees have adapted to the winter by going into a period of dormancy or sleep. They also have thick bark to protect them from the cold weather. 79) What type of leaves does a conifer tree have? Needle-like leaves 80) Where is the tundra located? Near the poles 81) Which biome receives the most amount of precipitation? Rainforest Chapter 8 & 9 82) What factor contributed the most to the exponential growth of the human population? More food, better hygiene 83) Less developed countries suffer more from rapid population growth because they are less likely to have the _infrastructure__ to support the population. 84) Define dispersion. The scattering of organisms over time within a given area or over the Earth. 85) What continent holds the majority of the world’s population? Asia 86) What must happen in order for the human growth rate to be zero? Birth rate must be equal to the death rate 87) Define exponential growth. A growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number. (Ex. J-curve) 88) Define mutualism. A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other organism is unaffected. 89) What factors came about during the industrial and scientific revolution that helped the human population to dramatically increase? Food production and improvements in hygiene. 90) What important resource often becomes polluted by large cities? Water Chapter 10 91) What is the known number of species on Earth? 1.7 million 92) Define Genetic Diversity. All the different genes contained within all the members of a population. 93) What happens when a population experiences a bottleneck? A decrease in genetic variation and inbreeding occurs. 94) What are almost all antibiotics derived from? Fungi 95) Define mass extinction. The extinction of many species in a relatively short period of time. 96) How did the pesticide DDT affect the bald eagle that was endangered? DDT was in the fish that the bald eagle ate and caused the bald eagle’s eggs to have thin shells that broke when sat on by the eagle. 97) What is the most effective way to save a species? To protect the species habitat with joint efforts by conservationists, builders and governments to preserve their habitats and having as small of a human impact as possible. 98) What Act was signed into place in 1973 and why is it important? The Endangered Species Act 99) In 1989, what did CITES ban from being sold worldwide? Ivory 100) About how long ago was the last mass extinction? 65 million years ago. Chapter 2 101) List and describe the steps to the scientific method. Observing, hypothesizing, predicting, experimenting, and communicating results 102) Describe the difference in a hypothesis and a prediction. A hypothesis is an explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. A prediction is a statement about what will happen or might happen in the future. 103) An ____experiment______ is a procedure designed to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions. 104) What are two essential characteristics of a good experiment? 1) a single variable is tested 2) a control is used 105) What is a variable? The factor of interest. 106) What is the major difference in a control group and an experimental group? The control group is composed of participants who do not receive the experimental treatment. They are the group that all else is compared to. Experimental group-The group that receives treatment. 107) Name 4 types of models and explain each. 1) Physical Models-Three-dimensional models you can touch. 2) Graphical Models-Maps and charts 3) Conceptual Models-verbal explanation of how a system works 4) Mathematical Models-one or more equations that represents the way a system or process works.