The Central Nervous System

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and
Nervous Tissue
Nervous System
• Master control and communication system
• Has three overlapping functions
• Sensory receptors monitor changes inside and outside the body
• Change—a stimulus
• Gathered information—sensory input
Nervous System
• Processes and interprets sensory input
• Makes decisions—integration
• Dictates a response by activating effector organs
• Response—motor output
Basic Divisions of the Nervous System
• Central nervous system (CNS)
• Brain and spinal cord
• Integrating and command center
• Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
• Outside the CNS
• Consists of nerves extending from brain and spinal cord
• Cranial nerves
• Spinal nerves
• Peripheral nerves link all regions of the body to the CNS
• Ganglia are clusters of neuronal cell bodies
Sensory Input and Motor Output
• Sensory (afferent) signals picked up by sensor receptors
• Carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS
• Motor (efferent) signals are carried away from the CNS
• Innervate muscles and glands
• Divided according to region they serve
• Somatic body region
• Visceral body region
• Results in four main subdivisions
Somatic sensory
Visceral sensory
Somatic motor
Visceral motor (autonomic nervous system)
Types of Sensory and Motor Information
Basic Divisions of the Nervous System
• Somatic sensory
• General somatic senses—receptors are widely spread
• Touch
• Pain
• Vibration
• Pressure
• Temperature
(receptors discussed in Chapter 14)
• Somatic sensory (continued)
• Proprioceptive senses—detect stretch in tendons and muscle
• Body sense—position and movement of body in space
• Special somatic senses (Chapter 16)
• Hearing
• Balance
• Vision
• Smell
• Visceral sensory
• General visceral senses—stretch, pain, temperature, nausea,
and hunger
• Widely felt in digestive and urinary tracts, and reproductive
• Special visceral senses
• Taste
• Somatic motor
• General somatic motor—signals contraction of skeletal muscles
• Under our voluntary control
• Often called “voluntary nervous system”
• Branchial motor
• Typical skeletal muscle derived from somitomeres
• Visceral motor
Regulates the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle
Makes up autonomic nervous system
Controls function of visceral organs
Often called “involuntary nervous system”
• Autonomic nervous system (Chapter 15)
Nervous Tissue
• Cells are densely packed and intertwined
• Two main cell types
• Neurons—transmit electrical signals
• Support cells (neuroglial cells in CNS)
• Nonexcitable
• Surround and wrap neurons
The Neuron
• The human body contains billions of neurons
• Basic structural unit of the nervous system
• Specialized cells conduct electrical impulses along the plasma
• Nerve impulse (action potential)
The Neuron
• Other special characteristics
• Longevity—can live and function for a lifetime
• Do not divide—fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo
mitosis; neural stem cells are an exception
• High metabolic rate—require abundant oxygen and glucose
• Neurons die after 5 minutes without oxygen
The Cell Body
• Cell body (soma)
• Perikaryon—around the nucleus
• Size of cell body varies from 5–140µm
• Contains usual organelles plus other structures
• Chromatophilic bodies (Nissl bodies)
• Clusters of rough ER and free ribosomes
• Stain darkly and renew membranes of the cell
• Neurofibrils—bundles of intermediate filaments
• Form a network between chromatophilic bodies
• Most neuronal cell bodies are
• Located within the CNS
• Protected by bones of the skull and vertebral column
• Ganglia—clusters of cell bodies
• Lie along nerves in the PNS
Structure of a Typical Large Neuron
Neuron Processes
• Dendrites
• Extensively branching from the cell body
• Transmit electrical signals toward the cell body
• Chromatophilic bodies—only extend into the basal part of
dendrites and to the base of the axon hillock
• Function as receptive sites for receiving signals from other
Neuron Processes
• Axons
Neuron has only one
Impulse generator and conductor
Transmits impulses away from the cell body
Chromatophilic bodies are absent
No protein synthesis in axon
Neurofilaments, actin microfilaments, and microtubules
• Provide strength along length of axon
• Aid in the transport of substances to and from the cell body
• Axonal transport
• Branches along length are infrequent
• Axon collaterals
• Multiple branches at end of axon
• Terminal branches (telodendria)
• End in knobs called axon terminals
(also called end bulbs or boutons)
• Nerve impulse
• Generated at the initial segment of the axon
• Conducted along the axon
• Releases neurotransmitters at axon terminals
• Neurotransmitters—excite or inhibit neurons
• Neuron receives and sends signals
• Site at which neurons communicate
• Signals pass across synapse in one direction
• Presynaptic neuron
• Conducts signal toward a synapse
• Postsynaptic neuron
• Transmits electrical activity away from a synapse
Types of Synapses
• Axodendritic
• Between axon terminals of one neuron and dendrites of another
• Most common type of synapse
• Axosomatic
• Between axons and neuronal cell bodies
• Elaborate cell junctions
• Axodendritic synapses—representative type
• Synaptic vesicles on presynaptic side
• Membrane-bound sacs containing neurotransmitters
• Mitochondria abundant in axon terminals
• Synaptic cleft
• Separates the plasma membrane of the two neurons
Fundamentals of the Nervous System and
Nervous Tissue
Classification of Neurons
• Structural classification
• Multipolar—possess more than two processes
• Numerous dendrites and one axon
• Bipolar—possess two processes
• Rare neurons
• Found in some special sensory organs
• Unipolar (pseudounipolar)—possess one short, single process
• Start as bipolar neurons during development
Functional Classification of Neurons
• Functional classification is
• According to the direction the nerve impulse travels relative to
the CNS
• Types of neurons
• Sensory neurons
• Motor Neurons
• Interneurons
Functional Classification of Neurons
• Sensory neurons
• Transmit impulses toward the CNS
• Virtually all are unipolar neurons
• Cell bodies in ganglia outside the CNS
• Short, single process divides into
• The central process—runs centrally into the CNS
• The peripheral process—
extends peripherally to the receptors
• Motor (efferent) neurons
Carry impulses away from the CNS to effector organs
Most motor neurons are multipolar
Cell bodies are within the CNS
Form junctions with effector cells
• Interneurons (association neurons)—most are multipolar
• Lie between motor and sensory neurons
• Confined to the CNS
Supporting Cells
• Six types of supporting cells
• Four in the CNS
• Two in the PNS
• Provide supportive functions for neurons
• Cover nonsynaptic regions of the neurons
Neuroglial in the CNS
• Neuroglia
Glial cells have branching processes and a central cell body
Outnumber neurons 10 to 1
Make up half the mass of the brain
Can divide throughout life
• Astrocytes are the most abundant glial
cell type
Sense when neurons release glutamate
Extract blood sugar from capillaries for energy
Take up and release ions to control environment around neurons
Involved in synapse formation in developing neural tissue
Produce molecules necessary for neuronal growth (BDTF)
Propagate calcium signals involved with memory
• Microglia—smallest and least abundant glial cell
• Phagocytes—the macrophages
of the CNS
• Engulf invading microorganisms and dead neurons
• Derive from blood cells called monocytes
• Ependymal cells
• Line the central cavity of the spinal cord and brain
• Bear cilia—help circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
• Oligodendrocytes—have few branches
• Wrap their cell processes around axons in CNS
• Produce myelin sheaths
Neuroglia in the PNS
• Satellite cells—surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia
• Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes)—surround axons in the
• Form myelin sheath around axons of the PNS
Fundamentals of the Nervous System and
Nervous Tissue
Myelin Sheaths
• Segmented structures composed of the lipoprotein myelin
• Surround thicker axons
• Form an insulating layer
• Prevent leakage of electrical current
• Increase the speed of impulse conduction
Myelin Sheaths in the PNS
• Formed by Schwann cells
• Develop during fetal period and in the first year of postnatal life
• Schwann cells wrap in concentric layers around the axon
• Cover the axon in a tightly packed coil of membranes
• Neurilemma
• Material external to myelin layers
• Nodes of Ranvier—gaps along axon
• Thick axons are myelinated
• Thin axons are unmyelinated
• Conduct impulses more slowly
• Oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheaths in the CNS
• Have multiple processes
• Coil around several different axons
• Nerves—cablelike organs in the PNS
• Consists of numerous axons wrapped in connective tissue
• Axon is surrounded by Schwann cells
• You see many nerves in lab
• Nerves of brachial plexus
• Radial, axillary, median, musculocutaneous, ulnar
• Nerves of lumbosacral plexus
• Endoneurium—layer of delicate connective tissue
surrounding the axon
• Perineurium—connective tissue wrapping surrounding a
nerve fascicle
• Nerve fascicles—groups of axons bound into bundles
• Epineurium—whole nerve is surrounded by tough fibrous
Gray and White Matter in the CNS
• Gray matter
• Is gray-colored and surrounds hollow central cavities of the CNS
• Forms H-shaped region in the spinal cord
• Dorsal half contains cell bodies of interneurons
• Ventral half contains cell bodies of motor neurons
• Primarily composed of neuronal cell bodies, dendrites,
unmyelinated axons
• Surrounds white matter of CNS in cerebral cortex and
• White matter
Lies external to the gray matter of the CNS
Composed of myelinated axons
Consists of axons passing between specific regions of the CNS
Tracts are bundles of axons traveling to similar destinations
Integration Between the PNS and CNS
• The CNS and PNS are functionally interrelated
• Nerves of the PNS
• Information pathways to and from body periphery
• Afferent PNS fibers respond to sensory stimuli
• Efferent PNS fibers transmit motor stimuli from CNS to
muscles and glands
Integration Between the PNS and CNS
• Nerves of the CNS
• Composed on interneurons that
• Process and receive sensory information
• Direct information to specific CNS regions
• Initiate appropriate motor responses
• Transport information from one area of the CNS to another
Reflex Arcs
• Reflex arcs—simple chains of neurons
• Explain reflex behaviors
• Determine structural plan of the nervous system
• Responsible for reflexes
• Rapid, autonomic motor responses
• Can be visceral or somatic
Five Essential Components to the Reflex Arc
• Receptor—site where stimulus acts
• Sensory neuron—transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
• Integration center—consists of one or more synapses in the
• Motor neuron—conducts efferent impulses from integration
center to an effector
• Effector—muscle or gland cell
• Responds to efferent impulses
• Contracting or secreting
Types of Reflexes
• Monosynaptic reflex
• Simplest of all reflexes
• Just one synapse
• The fastest of all reflexes
• Knee-jerk reflex
• Polysynaptic reflex
• More common type of reflex
• Most have a single interneuron between the sensory and motor
• Withdrawal reflexes
Neuronal Circuits
• Diverging circuit—one presynaptic neuron synapses with
several other neurons (divergence)
• Converging circuit—many neurons synapse on a single
postsynaptic neuron (convergence)
• Reverberating circuit—circuit that receives feedback via a
collateral axon from a neuron in the circuit
• Serial processing
• Neurons pass a signal to a specific destination along a single
pathway from one to another
• Parallel processing
• Input is delivered along many pathways; a single sensory
stimulus results in multiple perceptions
Simplified Design of the Nervous System
• Three-neuron reflex arcs
• Basis of the structural plan of the nervous system
• Similar reflexes are associated with the brain
• Sensory neurons—located dorsally
• Cell bodies outside the CNS in sensory ganglia
• Central processes enter dorsal aspect of the spinal cord
• Motor neurons—located ventrally
• Axons exit the ventral aspect of the spinal cord
• Interneurons—located centrally
• Synapse with sensory neurons
• Interneurons are neurons confined to CNS
• Long chains of interneurons between sensory and motor
Disorders of the Nervous System
• Multiple sclerosis
• Common cause of neural disability
• An autoimmune disease
• Immune system attacks the myelin around axons in the CNS
• Varies widely in intensity among those affected
• More women than men are affected
• When men are affected, disease develops quicker and is
more devastating
• Cause is incompletely understood
Neuronal Regeneration
• Neural injuries may cause permanent dysfunction
• If axons alone are destroyed, cells bodies often survive and
the axons may regenerate
• PNS—macrophages invade and destroy axon distal to the injury
• Axon filaments grow peripherally from injured site
• Partial recovery is sometimes possible
Neuronal Regeneration
• CNS—neuroglia never form bands to guide re-growing axons
and may hinder axon growth with growth-inhibiting chemicals
• No effective regeneration after injury to the spinal cord and brain
Nervous Tissue Throughout Life
• Nervous system develops from the dorsal ectoderm
• Invaginates to form the neural tube and neural crest
• Neural tube walls begin as neuroepithelial cells
• These cells divide and become neuroblasts
Nervous Tissue Throughout Life
The Central
Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
• Central nervous system
• The brain and spinal cord
• Directional terms unique to the CNS
• Rostral—toward the nose
• Caudal—toward the tail
The Spinal Cord
• Functions of the spinal cord
• Spinal nerves attach to it
• Provides two-way conduction pathway
• Major center for reflexes
• Location of the spinal cord
• Runs through the vertebral canal
• Extends from the foramen magnum to the level of the vertebra L1
or L2
• Conus medullaris
• The inferior end of the spinal cord
• Filum terminale
• Long filament of connective tissue
• Attaches to the coccyx inferiorly
• Cervical and lumbar enlargements
• Where nerves for upper and lower limbs arise
• Cauda equina
• Collection of spinal nerve roots
• Spinal cord segments
• Indicate the region of the spinal cord from which spinal nerves
• Designated by the spinal nerve that issues from it
• T1 is the region where the first thoracic nerve emerges
The Spinal Cord
• Two deep grooves run the length of the cord
• Posterior median sulcus
• Anterior median fissure
White Matter of the Spinal Cord
• White matter
• Outer region of the spinal cord
• Composed of myelinated and unmyelinated axons
• Allow communication between spinal cord and brain
• Fibers classified by type
• Ascending fibers
• Descending fibers
• Commisural fibers
Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Roots
• Shaped like the letter “H”
• Gray commissure—contains the central canal
• Dorsal horns
• Consist of interneurons
• Ventral and lateral horns
• Contain cell bodies of motor neurons
Organization of the Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord
• Gray matter
• Divided according to somatic and visceral regions
• SS—somatic sensory
• VS—visceral sensory
• VM—visceral motor
• SM—somatic motor
Protection of the Spinal Cord
• Protected by vertebrae, meninges, and CSF
• Meninges
• Dura mater—a single layer surrounding spinal cord
• Arachnoid mater—lies deep to the dura mater
• Pia mater—innermost layer
• Delicate layer of connective tissue
• Extends to the coccyx
• Denticulate ligaments—lateral extensions of pia mater
Cerebrospinal Fluid
• Fills the hollow cavities of the brain and spinal cord
• Provides a liquid cushion for the spinal cord and brain
• Other functions:
• Nourishes brain and spinal cord
• Removes wastes
• Carries chemical signals between parts of the CNS
The Central
Nervous System
The Brain
• Performs the most complex neural functions
Sensory-motor integration
Involved in innervation of the head
• Brain also controls:
• Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure
• Autonomic nervous system
• Endocrine system
Embryonic Development of the Brain
• Brain arises from rostral part of the neural tube
• Three primary brain vesicles in 4-week-old embryo
• Prosencephalon—the forebrain
• Mesencephalon—the midbrain
• Rhombencephalon—the hindbrain
• Secondary brain vesicles
• Prosencephalon
• Divides into telencephalon and diencephalon
• Mesencephalon—remains undivided
• Rhombencephalon
• Divides into metencephalon and myelencephalon
• Structures of the adult brain
• Develop from secondary brain vesicles
• Telencephalon  the cerebral hemispheres
• Diencephalon  thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
• Metencephalon  pons and cerebellum
• Myelencephalon  medulla oblongata
Embryonic Development of the Brain
• Brain stem includes
• The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
• Ventricles
• Central cavity of the neural tube enlarges
Embryonic Development of the Brain
• Brain grows rapidly
• Changes occur in the relative position of its parts
• Cerebral hemispheres envelop the diencephalon and midbrain
• Wrinkling of the cerebral hemispheres
• More neurons fit within limited space
Basic Parts and Organization of the Brain
• Divided into four regions
• Cerebral hemispheres
• Diencephalon
• Brain stem
• Midbrain, pons, and medulla
• Cerebellum
• Organization
• Centrally located gray matter
• Externally located white matter
• Additional layer of gray matter external to white matter
• Due to groups of neurons migrating externally
• Cortex—outer layer of gray matter
• Formed from neuronal cell bodies
• Located in cerebrum and cerebellum
Ventricles of the Brain
• Expansions of the brain’s central cavity
• Filled with cerebrospinal fluid
• Lined with ependymal cells
• Continuous with each other
• Continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord
• Lateral ventricles—located in cerebral hemispheres
• Horseshoe-shaped from bending of the cerebral hemispheres
• Third ventricle—lies in diencephalon
• Connected with lateral ventricles by interventricular foramen
Ventricles of the Brain
• Cerebral aqueduct—connects 3rd and 4th ventricles
• Fourth ventricle—lies in hindbrain
• Connects to the central canal of the spinal cord
The Brain Stem
• Includes the
• Midbrain
• Pons
• Medulla oblongata
The Brain Stem
• Several general functions
• Produces automatic behaviors necessary for survival
• Passageway for all fiber tracts running between the cerebrum
and spinal cord
• Heavily involved with the innervation of the face and head
• 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves attach to it
The Brain Stem—The Medulla Oblongata
• Most of the caudal level of the brain stem
• Is continuous with the spinal cord
• Choroid plexus lies in the roof of the fourth ventricle
• External landmarks of medulla
• Pyramids of the medulla
• Lie on its ventral surface
• Decussation of the pyramids
• Crossing over of motor tracts
• Inferior cerebellar peduncles
• Fiber tracts connecting medulla and cerebellum
• Olive (olive of the medulla)
• Contains inferior olivary nucleus
The Brain Stem—The Medulla Oblongata
• Cranial nerves VIII–XII attach to the medulla
IX—glossopharyngeal nerve
X—vagus nerve
• (spinal accessory—a branch of the vagus nerve)
• XII—hypoglossal nerve
The Brain Stem—The Medulla Oblongata
• The core of the medulla contains
• Much of the reticular formation
• Nuclei influence autonomic functions
• Visceral centers of the reticular formation include
• Cardiac center
• Vasomotor center
• The medullary respiratory center
• Centers for hiccupping, sneezing, swallowing, and coughing
The Brain Stem—The Pons
• A “bridge” between the midbrain and medulla oblongata
• Pons contains the nuclei of cranial nerves
• V—trigeminal nerve
• VI—abducens nerve
• VII—facial nerve
• The pons contains
• Motor tracts coming from the cerebral cortex
• Pontine nuclei
• Connect portions of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum
• Send axons to cerebellum through the middle cerebellar
The Brain Stem—The Midbrain
• Lies between the diencephalon and the pons
• Cerebral aqueduct
• The central cavity of the midbrain
• Cerebral peduncles located on the ventral surface of the
• Contain pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
• Superior cerebellar peduncles
• Connect midbrain to the cerebellum
The Brain Stem—The Midbrain
• Periaqueductal gray matter surrounds the cerebral aqueduct
• Involved in two related functions
• Fright-and-flight reaction
• Mediates response to visceral pain
• Corpora quadrigemina
• The largest nuclei
• Divided into the superior and inferior colliculi
• Superior colliculi—nuclei that act in visual reflexes
• Inferior colliculi—nuclei that act in reflexive response to
The Brain Stem—The Midbrain
• Imbedded in the white matter of the midbrain
• Two pigmented nuclei
• Substantia nigra—neuronal cell bodies contain melanin
• Functionally linked to the basal nuclei
• Red nucleus—lies deep to the substantia nigra
• Largest nucleus of the reticular formation
The Cerebellum
• Located dorsal to the pons and medulla
• Smoothes and coordinates body movements
• Helps maintain equilibrium
• Consists of two cerebellar hemispheres
• Surface folded into ridges called folia
• Separated by fissures
• Hemispheres each subdivided into
• Anterior lobe
• Posterior lobe
• Flocculonodular lobe (tiny)
• Composed of three regions
• Cortex—gray matter
• Arbor vitae
• Internal white matter
• Deep cerebellar nuclei—deeply situated gray matter
The Cerebellum
• To coordinate body movements, the cerebellar cortex receives
three types of information
• Information on equilibrium
• Information on current movements of the limbs, neck, and trunk
• Information from the cerebral cortex
The Cerebellum
• Coordinating movement
1. The Cerebellum receives information on movement from the
motor cortex of the cerebrum
2. The cerebellum compares intended movement with body
3. The cerebellum sends instructions back to the cerebral cortex to
continuously adjust and fine tune motor commands
The Cerebellum
• Higher cognitive functions of the cerebellum
• Learning a new motor skill
• Participates in cognition
• Language, problem-solving, task planning
The Cerebellum—Cerebellar Peduncles
• Thick tracts connecting the cerebellum to the brain stem are
• Superior cerebellar peduncles
• Middle cerebellar peduncles
• Inferior cerebellar peduncles
• Fibers to and from the cerebellum are ipsilateral
The Central
Nervous System
The Diencephalon
• Forms the center core of the forebrain
• Surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres
• Composed of three paired structures
• Thalamus
• Hypothalamus
• Epithalamus
• Border the third ventricle
• Primarily composed of gray matter
The Diencephalon—The Thalamus
• Makes up 80% of the diencephalon
• Contains approximately a dozen major nuclei
• Act as relay stations for incoming sensory message
• Every part of brain communicating with cerbral cortex relays
signals through thalamic nuclei!
• Send axons to regions of the cerebral cortex
The Diencephalon—The Thalamus
• Afferent impulses converge on the thalamus
• Synapse in at least one of its nuclei
• Is the “gateway” to the cerebral cortex
• Nuclei organize and amplify or tone down signals
The Diencephalon—The Hypothalamus
• Lies between the optic chiasm and the mammillary bodies
• Pituitary gland projects inferiorly
• Contains approximately a dozen nuclei
• Main visceral control center of the body
• The master gland’s master!!
The Diencephalon—The Hypothalamus
• Functions include the following
Control of the ANS
Control of emotional responses
Regulation of body temperature
Regulation of hunger and thirst sensations
Control of behavior
Regulation of sleep-wake cycles
Control of the endocrine system
Formation of memory
The Diencephalon—The Epithalamus
• Forms part of the “roof” (top) of the third ventricle
• Consists of a tiny group of nuclei
• Includes the pineal gland (pineal body)
• Secretes the hormone melatonin
• Under influence of the hypothalamus
• Aids in control of circadian rhythm
The Cerebral Hemispheres
• Account for 83% of brain mass
• Fissures—deep grooves, which separate major regions of the
• Transverse fissure—separates cerebrum and cerebellum
• Longitudinal fissure—separates cerebral hemispheres
The Cerebral Hemispheres
• Sulci
• Grooves on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
• Gyri
• Twisted ridges between sulci
• Prominent gyri and sulci are similar in all people
The Cerebral Hemispheres
• Deeper sulci divide cerebrum into lobes
• Lobes are named for the skull bones overlying them
• Central sulcus separates frontal and parietal lobes
• Bordered by two gyri
• Precentral gyrus
• Postcentral gyrus
The Cerebral Hemispheres
• Parieto-occipital sulcus
• Separates the occipital from the parietal lobe
• Lateral sulcus
• Separates temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobes
• Insula—deep within the lateral sulcus
The Cerebral Hemispheres
• Frontal section through forebrain
• Cerebral cortex
• Cerebral white matter
• Deep gray matter of the cerebrum (basal ganglia)
The Cerebral Cortex
• Home of our conscious mind
• Enables us to
• Be aware of ourselves and our sensations
• Initiate and control voluntary movements
• Communicate, remember, and understand
The Cerebral Cortex
• Composed of gray matter
• Neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, and short axons
• Folds in cortex—triples its size
• Approximately 40% of brain’s mass
• Brodmann areas
• 47 structurally distinct areas
• Functional regions
• Traditionally studied brain-injured people and animals
• New discoveries—PET and fMRI
• Regions of the cerebral cortex
• Perform distinct motor and sensory functions
• Memory and language spread over wide area
The Central
Nervous System
The Cerebral Cortex
• Three general kinds of functional areas
• Sensory areas
• Association areas
• Motor areas
The Cerebral Cortex
• There is a sensory area for each of the major senses
• A “primary sensory cortex”
• Each primary sensory cortex
• Has an association area that processes sensory information
• Sensory association areas
• Multimodal association areas
• Receive and integrate input from multiple regions of the cerebral
• Motor cortex
• Plans and initiates voluntary motor functions
The Cerebral Cortex-Information Processing
• Sensory information received by primary sensory cortex
• Information relayed to sensory association area
• Multimodal association areas receive input in parallel from
sensory areas
• Motor plan enacted
Sensory Areas
• Cortical areas involved in conscious awareness of sensation
• Located in
• Parietal lobes
• Temporal lobes
• Occipital lobes
• Distinct regions of each lobe interpret each of the major
Sensory Areas—Primary Somatosensory Cortex
• Located along the postcentral gyrus
• Involved with conscious awareness of general somatic
• Spatial discrimination
• Precisely locates a stimulus
• Certain regions are more adept at distinguishing precise stimili
• Projection is contralateral
• Cerebral hemispheres
• Receive sensory input from the opposite side of the body
• Sensory homunculus
• A body map of the sensory cortex
Sensory Areas—Somatosensory Association Cortex
• Lies posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
• Integrates different sensory inputs
• Touch
• Pressure
• Draws upon stored memories of past sensory experiences
• You are able to recognize keys or coins in your pocket without
looking at them
Sensory Areas—Visual Areas
• Primary visual cortex
• Location is deep within the calcarine sulcus
• On medial part of the occipital lobe
• Largest of all sensory areas
• Receives visual information that originates on the retina
• Exhibits contralateral function
• First of a series of areas processing visual input
• Visual association area
• Surrounds the primary visual area
• Continues the processing of visual information
• Analyzes color, form, and movement
• Complex visual processing extends into
• Temporal and parietal lobes
Sensory Areas—Visual Areas
• Visual association area
• Approximately 30 cortical areas have been identified
• Visual information proceeds in two streams
• Ventral stream
• Passes information into inferior part of the temporal lobe
• Responsible for recognizing objects, words, and faces
• Dorsal stream
• Extends to the post-central gyrus
• Perceives information about spatial relationships
• Ventral and dorsal streams
• The “what” and “where” pathways for vision
Sensory Areas—Auditory Areas
• Primary auditory cortex
• Function
• Conscious awareness of sound
• Sound waves excite receptors in the inner ear
• Impulses transmitted to primary auditory cortex
• Location
• Superior edge of the temporal lobe
Sensory Areas—Auditory Areas
• Auditory association area
• Lies posterior to the primary auditory cortex
• Permits evaluation of different sounds
• Processes auditory stimuli serially and in parallel
• Posterolateral—”where” pathway
• Anterolateral—”what” pathway
• Lies in the center of Wernicke’s area
• Involved in recognizing and understanding speech
Sensory Areas—Vestibular Cortex
• Responsible for
• Conscious awareness of sense of balance
• Located in the posterior part of the insula
• Deep to the lateral sulcus
Sensory Areas—Gustatory Cortex
• Function
• Involved in the conscious awareness of taste stimuli
• Location
• On the “roof” of the lateral sulcus
Sensory Areas—Olfactory Cortex
• Lies on the medial aspect of the cerebrum
• Located in the piriform lobe
• Olfactory nerves transmit impulses to the olfactory cortex
• Provides conscious awareness of smells
Sensory Areas—Olfactory Cortex
• Part of the rhinencephalon—“nose brain”
• Includes
• The piriform lobe, olfactory tracts, and olfactory bulbs
• Connects the brain to the limbic system
• Explains why smells trigger emotions
• Involved with consciously identifying and recalling specific
Visceral Sensory Areas
• Location
• Within the lateral sulcus
• On the insula lobe
• Receives general sensory input
• Pain
• Pressure
• Hunger
Multimodal Association Areas
• Large areas of the cerebral cortex
• Receive sensory input from
• Multiple sensory modalities
• Sensory association areas
• Make associations between kinds of sensory information
Multimodal Association Areas
• Three multimodal association areas
• Posterior association area
• Anterior association area
• Limbic association area
Posterior Association Area
• Located at interface of visual, auditory, and somatosensory
association areas
• Integrates sensory information into unified perception
• Allows awareness of spatial location of body
• “Body sense”
• Related to language comprehension and speech
Posterior Association Area
• Multiple language areas in left cerebral cortex
• Wernicke’s area functions in
• Speech comprehension
• Coordination of auditory and visual aspects of language
• Initiation of word articulation
• Recognition of sound sequences
Posterior Association Area
• Areas in right cerebral hemisphere act in
• Creative interpretation of words
• Emotional overtones of speech
Anterior Association Area
• A large region of the frontal lobe
• The prefrontal cortex
Receives information from posterior association area
Integrates information with past experience
Initiates and plans motor movements
Has links to the limbic system
Anterior Association Areas
• More complex functions include all aspects of
Thinking, perceiving, intentionally remembering
Processing abstract ideas, reasoning, judgment
Impulse control, mental flexibility, social skills
Humor, empathy, conscience
Anterior Association Area
• Functional neuroimaging techniques
• Reveal functions of specific parts of the prefrontal cortex
• Anterior pole of frontal cortex
• Active in solving the most complex problems
• More complex problems, emotions, cognition at anterior part of
frontal lobe.
Anterior Association Area
• Additional functions
• Stores information for less than 30 seconds
• Three working memory areas
• Visual working memory
• Auditory working memory
• Executive area
Limbic Association Areas
• Located on medial side of frontal lobe
• Involved with memory and emotions
• Integrates sensory and motor behaviors
• Aids in the formation of memory
• Processes emotions
Motor Areas
• Cortical areas controlling motor function
Premotor cortex
Primary motor cortex
Frontal eye field
Broca’s area
• All localized in posterior frontal lobe
Motor Areas—Premotor Cortex
• Located anterior to the precentral gyrus
• Controls more complex movements
• Receives processed sensory information
• Visual, auditory, and general somatic sensory
• Controls voluntary actions dependent on sensory feedback
• Involved in planning movements
Motor Areas—Primary Motor Cortex
• Controls motor functions
• Primary motor cortex (somatic motor area)
• Located in precentral gyrus
• Pyramidal cells
• Large neurons of primary motor cortex
Motor Areas—Primary Motor Cortex
• Corticospinal tracts descend through brain stem and spinal
• Axons signal motor neurons to control skilled movements
• Contralateral
• Pyramidal axons cross over to opposite side of the brain
Motor Areas
• Specific pyramidal cells control specific areas of the body
• Face and hand muscles are controlled by many pyramidal cells
• Somatotopy
• Body is represented spatially in the primary motor cortex
Motor Areas
Motor Areas—Frontal Eye Field
• Lies anterior to the premotor cortex
• Controls voluntary movement of the eyes
• Especially when moving eyes to follow a moving target
Motor Areas—Broca’s Area
• Located in left cerebral hemisphere
• Manages speech production
• Connected to language comprehension areas in posterior
association area
• A corresponding region in the right cerebral hemisphere
controls emotional overtones to spoken words
Lateralization of Cortical Functioning
• The two hemispheres control opposite sides of the body
• Contralateral = opposite side
• Hemispheres are specialized for different cognitive functions
Lateralization of Cortical Functioning
• Left cerebral hemisphere—control over:
• Language abilities, math, and logic
• Right cerebral hemisphere—involved with
• Visual-spatial skills
• Reading facial expressions
• Intuition, emotion, artistic, and musical skills
The Central
Nervous System
Cerebral White Matter
• Different areas of the cerebral cortex
• Communicate with each other
• Communicate with the brain stem and spinal cord
• Fibers communicating are
• Usually myelinated and bundled into tracts
Cerebral White Matter
• Types of tracts
• Commissures—composed of commissural fibers
• Allows communication between cerebral hemispheres
• Corpus callosum—the largest commissure
• Association fibers
• Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
• Parts of Wernike’s and Broca’s areas are connected by
association fibers
Cerebral White Matter
Cerebral White Matter
• Types of tracts (continued)
• Projection fibers—run vertically
• Descend from the cerebral cortex
• Ascend to the cortex from lower regions
• Corticospinal tracts begin with pyramidal cells
Cerebral White Matter
Projection Tracts
• Internal capsule—projection fibers form a compact bundle
• Passes between the thalamus and basal nuclei
• Corona radiata—superior to the internal capsule
• Fibers run to and from the cerebral cortex
The Central
Nervous System
Deep Gray Matter of the Cerebrum
• Consists of
• Basal ganglia
• Involved in motor control
• Basal forebrain nuclei
• Associated with memory
• Claustrum
• A nucleus of unknown function
• Amygdala
• Located in cerebrum but is considered part of the of the limbic
Basal Ganglia
• A group of nuclei deep within the cerebral white matter
• Formed from
• Caudate nucleus—arches over thalamus
• Putamen
• Globus pallidus
Basal Ganglia
• Complex neural calculators
• Cooperate with the cerebral cortex in controlling movement
• Receive input from many cortical areas
• Substantia nigra also influences basal ganglia
Basal Ganglia
• Evidence shows that they
• Start, stop, and regulate intensity of voluntary movements
• Select appropriate muscles for a task and inhibit others
• In some way estimate the passage of time
Basal Forebrain Nuclei
• Structures composing basal forebrain nuclei
Diagonal band of Broca
Horizontal band of Broca
Basal nucleus of Meynert
Basal Forebrain Nuclei
• Part of cholinergic system
• That is, they synthesize and release acetylcholine
• Location
• Anterior and dorsal to hypothalamus
• Functions related to
Motor control
• Degeneration of basal forebrain in nuclei
• Associated with Alzheimer’s disease
The Central
Nervous System
Functional Brain Systems
• Networks of neurons functioning together
• Limbic system
• Spread widely in the forebrain
• The reticular formation
• Spans the brain stem
Functional Brain Systems—The Limbic System
• Location
• Medial aspect of cerebral hemispheres
• Also within the diencephalon
• Composed of
• Septal nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampal formation
• Part of the amygdala
• The fornix and other tracts link the limbic system together
Functional Brain Systems—The Limbic System
• The “emotional brain”
• Cingulate gyrus
• Allows us to shift between thoughts
• Interprets pain as unpleasant
• Hippocampal formation
• Hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus
Functional Brain Systems—The Reticular Formation
• Runs through the central core of the medulla, pons, and
• Forms three columns
• Midline raphe nuclei
• Medial nuclear group
• Lateral nuclear group
Functional Brain Systems—The Reticular Formation
• Widespread connections
• Ideal for arousal of the brain as a whole
• Reticular activating system (RAS)
• Maintains consciousness and alertness
• Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep
• Malfunctions in those with narcolepsy
Protection of the Brain
• The brain is protected from injury by
The skull
Cerebrospinal fluid
Blood-brain barrier
Protection of the Brain—Meninges
• Functions of meninges
• Cover and protect the CNS
• Enclose and protect the vessels that supply the CNS
• Contain the cerebrospinal fluid
• Between pia and arachnoid maters
The Dura Mater
• Strongest of the meninges
• Composed of two layers
• Periosteal layer
• Meningeal layer
• Two layers are fused except to enclose the dural sinuses
The Dura Mater
The Dura Mater
• Largest sinus—the superior sagittal sinus
• Dura mater extends inward to subdivide the cranial cavity
The Dura Mater
The Arachnoid Mater
• Located beneath the dura mater
• Arachnoid villi
• Project through the dura mater
• Allow CSF to pass into the dural blood sinuses
The Pia Mater
• Delicate connective tissue
• Clings tightly to the surface of the brain
• Follows all convolutions of the cortex
The Central
Nervous System
Protection of the Brain—Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
• Formed in choroid plexuses in the brain ventricles
• Choroid plexus is
• Located in all four ventricles
• Composed of ependymal cells and capillaries
• Arises from blood
• 500 ml/day
• Prevents most blood-borne toxins from entering the brain
• Impermeable capillaries
• Not an absolute barrier
• Nutrients such as oxygen pass through
• Allows alcohol, nicotine, and anesthetics through
Sensory and Motor Pathways in the CNS
• Multineuron pathways connect brain and body periphery
• Pathways are composed of tracts
• Ascending pathways—carry information to more rostral areas
of the CNS
• Descending pathways—carry information to more caudal
regions of the CNS
Ascending Pathways
• Conduct general somatic sensory impulses
• Chains of neurons composed of
• First-, second-, and third-order neurons
• Four main ascending pathways
Dorsal column pathway
Spinothalamic pathway
Posterior spinocerebellar pathway
Anterior spinocerebellar pathway
Descending Pathways
• Most motor pathways
• Decussate at some point along their course
• Consist of a chain of two or three neurons
• Exhibit somatotopy
• Tracts arranged according to the body region they supply
• All pathways are paired
• One of each on each side of the body
Descending Pathways
• Deliver motor instructions from the brain to the spinal cord
• Divided into two groups
• Pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
• Other motor pathways
• Tectospinal tracts
• Vestibulospinal tract
• Rubrospinal tract
• Reticulospinal tract
Disorders of the Central Nervous System
• Spinal cord damage
• Paralysis—loss of motor function
• Parasthesia—loss of sensation
• Paraplegia—injury to the spinal cord is between T1 and L2
• Paralysis of the lower limbs
• Quadriplegia—injury to the spinal cord in the cervical region
• Paralysis of all four limbs
Disorders of the Central Nervous System
• Brain dysfunction
• Degenerative brain diseases
• Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
• Blockage or interruption of blood flow to a brain region
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Progressive degenerative disease leading to dementias
Disorders of the Central Nervous System
• Congenital malformations
• Hydrocephalus
• Neural tube defects
• Anencephaly—cerebrum and cerebellum are absent
• Spina bifida—absence of vertebral lamina
• Cerebral palsy—voluntary muscles are poorly controlled
• Results from damage to the motor cortex
Postnatal Changes in the Brain
• Brain structures complete development at different times
• Critical periods in learning
• Language
• Some development occurs into early 20s
• Decline with age attributed to changes
• In neural circuitry
• Amount of neurotransmitters being released
The Peripheral
Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
• The PNS
• Is the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
• Provides vital links to the body and outside world
• Nerves allow the CNS to receive information and initiate action
The Peripheral Nervous System
• Sensory inputs and motor outputs
• Categorized as
• Somatic or visceral
• General or special
The Peripheral Nervous System
• Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
• General visceral motor part of the PNS
• ANS has two divisions
• Parasympathetic
• Sympathetic
Basic Structural Components of the PNS
• Sensory receptors—pick up stimuli from inside or outside the
• Nerves and ganglia
• Nerves—bundles of peripheral axons
• Ganglia—clusters of peripheral neuronal cell bodies
• Motor endings—axon terminals of motor neurons
• Innervate effectors (muscle fibers and glands)
Peripheral Sensory Receptors
• Structures that pick up sensory stimuli
• Initiate signals in sensory axons
Peripheral Sensory Receptors
• Two main categories of sensory receptors
• Free nerve endings of sensory neurons
• Monitor general sensory information
• Complete receptor cells—specialized epithelial cells or small
• Monitor most types of special sensory information
Peripheral Sensory Receptors
• Sensory receptors also classified according to
• Location
• Type of stimulus detected
• Structure
Classification by Location
• Exteroceptors—sensitive to stimuli arising from outside the
• Located at or near body surfaces
• Include receptors for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
Classification by Location
• Interoceptors—receive stimuli from internal viscera
• Located in digestive tube, bladder, and lungs
• Monitor a variety of stimuli
• Changes in chemical concentration
• Taste stimuli
• Stretching of tissues
• Temperature
Classification by Location
• Proprioceptors
• Located in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments
• Monitor degree of stretch
• Send inputs on body movement to the CNS
Classification by Stimulus Detected
• Mechanoreceptors—respond to mechanical forces
• Touch, pressure, stretch, vibration, and itch
• Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure
• Thermoreceptors—respond to temperature changes
Classification by Stimulus Detected
• Chemoreceptors
• Respond to chemicals in solution
• Photoreceptors—respond to light
• Located in the eye
• Nociceptors
• Respond to harmful stimuli that result in pain
Classification by Structure
• General sensory receptors
• Widely distributed
• Nerve endings of sensory neurons monitor:
• Touch
• Pressure
• Vibration
• Stretch
• Pain
• Temperature
• Proprioception
Classification by Structure
• General sensory receptors are
• Divided into two groups
• Free nerve endings
• Encapsulated nerve endings
Free Nerve Endings
• Abundant in epithelia and underlying connective tissue
• Respond to pain and temperature
• Monitor affective senses
Free Nerve Endings
• Two specialized types of free nerve endings
• Epithelial tactile complexes (Merkel discs)
• Consist of tactile epithelial cell innervated by sensory nerve
• Slowly adapting receptors for light touch
• Hair follicle receptors—wrap around hair follicles
• Rapidly adapting receptors
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
• Consist of one or more end fibers of sensory neurons
• Enclosed in connective tissue
• Mechanoreceptors
• Include four main types
• Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles
• Lamellar (Pacinian) corpuscles
• Bulbous corpuscles (Ruffini endings)
• Proprioceptors
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
• Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles
Spiraling nerve ending surrounded by Schwann cells
Occur in the dermal papillae
Rapidly adapting receptors for discriminative touch
Occur in sensitive, hairless areas of the skin
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
• Lamellar Corpuscles
• Single nerve ending surrounded by layers of flattened Schwann
• Occur in the hypodermis
• Sensitive to deep pressure—rapidly adapting receptors
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
• Bulbous Corpuscles
• Located in the dermis and respond to pressure
• Monitor continuous pressure on the skin—adapt slowly
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
• Proprioceptors
• Monitor stretch in locomotory organs
• Three types of proprioceptors
Three Types of Proprioceptors
• Muscle spindles—measure the changing length of a muscle
• Imbedded in the perimysium between muscle fascicles
• Golgi tendon organs—located near the muscle-tendon
• Monitor tension within tendons
• Joint kinesthetic receptors
• Sensory nerve endings within the joint capsules
The Peripheral
Nervous System
Cranial Nerves
• Attach to the brain and pass through foramina of the skull
• Numbered from I–XII
• Cranial nerves I and II attach to the forebrain
• All others attach to the brain stem
• Primarily serve head and neck structures
• The vagus nerve (X) is the only cranial nerve that extends into
the abdomen
Olfactory Nerves
• Sensory nerves of smell
II The Optic Nerves
• Sensory nerve of vision
III The Oculomotor Nerves
• Innervates four of the extrinsic eye muscles
IV The Trochlear Nerves
• Innervates the superior oblique muscle (an extrinsic eye
V The Trigeminal Nerves
The Trigeminal Nerves
• Largest of the cranial nerves
• Has three divisions
• Ophthalmic division (V1)
• Maxillary division (V2)
• Mandibular division (V3)
• Cell bodies of sensory neurons located in the trigeminal
• Mandibular division contains motor fibers that innervate the
chewing muscles
The Peripheral
Nervous System
VI The Abducens Nerves
• Abducts the eyeball—innervates lateral rectus muscle
VII The Facial Nerves
• Innervates muscles of facial expression
VIII The Vestibulocochlear Nerves
• Sensory nerve of hearing and balance
IX The Glossopharyngeal Nerves
• Innervates structures of the tongue and pharynx
X The Vagus Nerves
• A mixed sensory and motor nerve
• “Wanders” into thorax and abdomen
• Parasympathetic innervation of organs
XI The Accessory Nerves
• Unique among cranial nerves
• Accessory nerves are formed from ventral rootlets of the spinal
• Do not arise from the brainstem
XII The Hypoglossal Nerves
• Runs inferior to the tongue
• Innervates the tongue muscles
The Peripheral
Nervous System
Spinal Nerves
• 31 pairs—contain thousands of nerve fibers
• Connect to the spinal cord
• Named for point of issue from the spinal cord
8 pairs of cervical nerves (C1–C8)
12 pairs of thoracic nerves (T1–T12)
5 pairs of lumbar nerves (L1–L5)
5 pairs of sacral nerves (S1–S5)
1 pair of coccygeal nerves (Co1)
Spinal Nerves Posterior View
Spinal Nerves
• Connect to the spinal cord by the dorsal root and ventral root
• Dorsal root—contains sensory fibers
• Cell bodies—located in the dorsal root ganglion
• Ventral root—contains motor fibers arising from anterior gray
Spinal Nerves
• Branch into dorsal ramus and ventral ramus
• Dorsal and ventral rami contain sensory and motor fibers
• Rami communicantes connect to the base of the ventral
• Lead to the sympathetic chain ganglia
Innervation of the Back
• Dorsal rami
• Innervate back muscles
• Follow a neat, segmented pattern
• Innervate a horizontal strip of muscle and skin
• In line with emergence point from the vertebral column
Innervation of the Anterior Thoracic and Abdominal Wall
• Thoracic region
• Ventral rami arranged in simple, segmented pattern
• Intercostal nerves—supply intercostal muscles, skin, and
abdominal wall
• Each gives off lateral and anterior cutaneous branches
Introduction to Nerve Plexuses
• Nerve plexus—a network of nerves
• Ventral rami (except T2–T12)
• Branch and join with one another
• Form nerve plexuses
• In cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral regions
• Primarily serve the limbs
• Fibers from ventral rami crisscross
The Cervical Plexus
• Buried deep in the neck
• Under the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Formed by ventral rami of first four cervical nerves (cn 1–4)
Most are cutaneous nerves
Some innervate muscles of the anterior neck
Phrenic nerve—the most important nerve of the cervical
The Brachial Plexus and Innervation of the Upper Limb
• Brachial plexus lies in the neck and axilla
• Formed by ventral rami of C5–C8
• Cords give rise to main nerves of the upper limb
Nerves from the Lateral and Medial Cords
• Musculocutaneous—main branch of the lateral cord
• Innervates the biceps brachii and brachialis
• Median—originates from both lateral and medial cords
• Innervates anterior forearm muscles and lateral palm
Nerves from the Lateral and Medial Cords
• Ulnar—branches from the medial cord
• Innervates intrinsic hand muscles and skin of the medial hand
Nerves from the Posterior Cord
• Radial—continuation of the posterior cord
• Largest branch of the brachial plexus
• Innervates muscles of the posterior upper limb
• Axillary
• Innervates the deltoid and teres minor
The Peripheral
Nervous System
The Lumbar Plexus and Innervation of the Lower Limb
• Lumbar plexus
• Arises from L1– L4
• Smaller branches innervate the posterior abdominal wall and
psoas muscle
• Main branches innervate the anterior thigh
• Femoral nerve—innervates anterior thigh muscles
• Obturator nerve—innervates adductor muscles
The Sacral Plexus
• Arises from spinal nerves L4–S4
• Caudal to the lumbar plexus
• Often considered with the lumbar plexus
• Lumbosacral plexus
Innervation of the Lower Limb
• Sciatic nerve—the largest nerve of the sacral plexus
• Actually two nerves in one sheath
• Tibial nerve—innervates most of the posterior lower limb
• Common fibular (peroneal) nerve—innervates muscles of the
anterolateral leg
Innervation of the Lower Limb
• Superior and inferior gluteal nerves
• Innervate the gluteal muscles
• Pudendal nerve
• Innervates muscles of the perineum
Innervation of the Skin: Dermatomes
• Dermatome—an area of skin
• Innervated by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve
• Upper limb
• Skin is supplied by nerves of the brachial plexus
• Lower limb
• Lumbar nerves—anterior surface
• Sacral nerves—posterior surface
Disorders of the PNS
• Shingles (herpes zoster)
Viral infection
Stems from childhood chicken pox
Often brought on by stress
Mostly experienced by those over 50
Disorders of the PNS
• Migraine headache
• Relates to sensory innervation of cerebral arteries
• Arteries dilate and compresses and irritate sensory nerve
• Myasthenia gravis
• Progressive weakening of the skeletal muscles
• An autoimmune disorder
• Antibodies destroy acetylcholine receptors
The PNS Throughout Life
• Spinal nerves form late in week 4
• Each of the 31 pairs of spinal nerves:
• Sends motor fibers to an individual myotome
• Sends sensory fibers to the overlying band of skin
• During week 5, nerves reach the organs they innervate
The PNS Throughout Life
• Embryonic muscles migrate to new locations
• Some skin dermatomes become displaced
• Muscles and skin always retain their original nerve supply
The Autonomic
Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons
The ANS and Visceral Sensory Neurons
• The ANS—a system of motor neurons
• Innervates
• Smooth muscle
• Cardiac muscle
• Glands
• The ANS—a system of motor neurons
• Regulates visceral functions
• Heart rate
• Blood pressure
• Digestion
• Urination
• The ANS is the
• General visceral motor division of the PNS
The Autonomic Nervous System
and Visceral Sensory Neurons
Comparison of Autonomic and Somatic Motor Systems
• Somatic motor system
• One motor neuron extends from the CNS to skeletal muscle
• Axons are well myelinated, conduct impulses rapidly
Comparison of Autonomic and Somatic Motor Systems
• Autonomic nervous system
• Chain of two motor neurons
• Preganglionic neuron
• Ganglionic neuron
• Conduction is slower than somatic nervous system due to
• Thinly myelinated or unmyelinated axons
• Motor neuron synapses in a ganglion
Autonomic and Somatic Motor Systems
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
• Chains of two motor neurons
• Innervate mostly the same structures
• Cause opposite effects
• Sympathetic division mobilizes the body during extreme
• Parasympathetic division controls routine maintenance functions
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Sympathetic—“fight, flight, or fright”
• Activated during EXTREME situations
• Exercise
• Excitement
• Emergencies
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Sympathetic responses help us respond to dangerous
Increase heart rate and breathing rate
Increases blood and oxygen to skeletal muscles
Dilates pupils and airways
Motility of the digestive tract and urinary tracts are inhibited
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Parasympathetic division
• Active when the body is at rest
• Concerned with conserving energy
• Directs “housekeeping” activities
• Heart rate and breathing are at low-normal levels
• Gastrointestinal tract digests food
• Pupils are constricted
Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic
and Parasympathetic Divisions
• Issue from different regions of the CNS
• Sympathetic—also called the thoracolumbar division
• Parasympathetic—also called the craniosacral division
Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic
and Parasympathetic Divisions
• Length of postganglionic fibers
• Sympathetic—long postganglionic fibers
• Parasympathetic—short postganglionic fibers
• Branching of axons
• Sympathetic axons—highly branched
• Influences many organs
• Parasympathetic axons—few branches
• Localized effect
Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic
and Parasympathetic Divisions
• Neurotransmitter released by postganglionic axons
• Sympathetic
• Most release norepinephrine (adrenergic)
• Parasympathetic
• Release acetylcholine (cholinergic)
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions
The Parasympathetic Division
• Cranial outflow
• Comes from the brain
• Innervates
• Organs of the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen
• Sacral outflow
• Innervation supplies
• Remaining abdominal and pelvic organs
The Parasympathetic Division
Cranial Outflow (Parasympathetic)
• Preganglionic fibers run via
Oculomotor nerve (III)
Facial nerve (VII)
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Vagus nerve (X)
• Cell bodies of CNs located in cranial nerve nuclei in the brain
Outflow via the Oculomotor Nerve (III)
• Parasympathetic fibers innervate smooth muscles in the eye
• Cause pupil constriction
• Preganglionic cell bodies
• Located in the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain
• Ganglionic cell bodies
• Lie in the ciliary ganglion
Outflow via the Facial Nerve (VII)
• Parasympathetic fibers stimulate secretion of glands in the
• Lacrimal nucleus
• Located in the pons
• Synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion
• Superior salivatory nucleus
• Located in the pons
• Synapse in the submandibular ganglion
Outflow via the Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
• Parasympathetic fibers
• Stimulate secretion of glands in the head
• Lacrimal nucleus—located in the pons
• Synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion
• Superior salivatory nucleus—located in the pons
• Synapse in the submandibular ganglion
Outflow via the Vagus Nerve (X)
• Fibers innervate visceral organs of the thorax and most of the
• Stimulates:
• Digestion, reduction in heart rate, and reduction in blood
• Preganglionic cell bodies
• Located in dorsal motor nucleus in the medulla
• Postganglionic neurons
• Confined within the walls of organs being innervated
• Cell bodies form intramural ganglia
Path of the Vagus Nerve
• Sends branches through
• Autonomic nerve plexuses
• Cardiac plexus
• Pulmonary plexus
• Esophageal plexus
• Celiac plexus
• Superior mesenteric plexus
Autonomic nerves, plexuses and ganglia
The Autonomic
Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons
Sacral Outflow
• Emerges from S2–S4
• Innervates organs of the pelvis and lower abdomen
• Preganglionic cell bodies
• Located in visceral motor region of spinal gray matter
Sacral Outflow
• Axons run in ventral roots to ventral rami
• Form pelvic splanchnic nerves
• Run through the inferior hypogastric plexus
The Sympathetic Division
• Basic organization
• Issues from T1–L2
• Preganglionic fibers form the lateral gray horn
• Supplies visceral organs and structures of superficial body
• Contains more ganglia than the parasympathetic division
Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia
• Located on both sides of the vertebral column
• Linked by short nerves into sympathetic trunks
• Sympathetic trunk ganglia are also called
• Chain ganglia
• Paravertebral ganglia
Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia
• Joined to ventral rami by white and gray rami
• Fusion of ganglia  fewer ganglia than spinal nerves
• Fusion of ganglia most apparent in the cervical region
• Superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia
Collateral Ganglia
• Differ from sympathetic trunk ganglia in three ways
• Unpaired, not segmentally arranged
• Occur only in abdomen and pelvis
• Lie anterior to the vertebral column
• Main ganglia
• Celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and inferior
hypogastric ganglia
Sympathetic Pathways
• Preganglionic neurons in the thoracolumbar spinal cord send
motor axons through:
• Adjacent ventral root into
• Spinal nerve, then the
• White ramus communicans
• And to the associated sympathetic trunk ganglion
Sympathetic Pathways
• Preganglionic axons follow one of three pathways
1. Synapes with a postganglionic neuron at the same level and exit
on a spinal nerve at that level
Sympathetic Pathways
2. Axon ascends or descends in the sympathetic trunk to synapse
in another ganglion
3. Axon passes through the sympathetic trunk and exits on a
splanchnic nerve
Sympathetic Pathways to the Body Periphery
• Innervate
• Sweat glands
• Arrector pili muscles
• Peripheral blood vessels
Pathways to the Body Periphery
• Preganglionic fibers enter the sympathetic trunk ganglia and
synapse there
• Some preganglionic fibers travel superiorly or inferiorly on the
sympathetic trunk
• Postganglionic axons travel in gray rami communicantes
Pathways to the Body Periphery
• Gray and white rami communicantes
• Gray rami—contain only postganglionic fibers traveling to
peripheral structures
• Fibers are unmyelinated
• White rami—contain preganglionic fibers traveling to
sympathetic trunk ganglia
• Fibers are myelinated
Sympathetic Pathways to the Head
• Preganglionic fibers originate in spinal cord at T1–T4
• Fibers ascend in the sympathetic trunk
• Synapse in superior cervical ganglion
Sympathetic Pathways to the Head
• Postganglionic fibers associate with large arteries
• Carried by these structures to
• Glands
• Smooth muscle
• Vessels throughout the head
Sympathetic Pathways to Thoracic Organs
• Preganglionic fibers originate at spinal levels T1–T6
• Some fibers synapse in nearest sympathetic trunk ganglion
• Postganglionic fibers run directly to the organ supplied
Sympathetic Pathways to Thoracic Organs
• Sympathetic fibers to heart have a less direct route
• Functions
Increase heart rate
Dilate bronchioles
Dilate blood vessels to the heart wall
Inhibit muscles and glands in the esophagus and digestive
Sympathetic Pathways to Abdominal Organs
• Preganglionic fibers originate in spinal cord (T5–L2)
• Pass through adjacent sympathetic trunk ganglia
• Then travel in thoracic splanchnic nerves
• Synapse in prevertebral ganglia on the abdominal aorta
• Celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia
• Inhibit activity of muscles and glands in visceral organs
Pathways to the Pelvic Organs
• Preganglionic fibers originate in the spinal cord from T10–L2
• Fibers descend in the sympathetic trunk to lumbar and sacral
• Some postganglionic fibers run in lumbar and sacral
splanchnic nerves to plexuses
• Inferior mesenteric plexus, aortic plexus, or hypogastric
Pathways to the Pelvic Organs
• Other preganglionic fibers pass directly to autonomic plexuses
and synapse in collateral ganglia
• Inferior mesenteric ganglia or inferior hypogastric ganglia
• Postganglionic fibers go from these plexuses to the
• Bladder, reproductive organs, and distal large intestine
The Role of the Adrenal Medulla in the Sympathetic Division
• Major organ of the sympathetic nervous system
• Constitutes largest sympathetic ganglia
• Secretes great quantities of norepinephrine and adrenaline
• Stimulated to secrete by preganglionic sympathetic fibers
Visceral Sensory Neurons
• General visceral sensory neurons monitor
• Stretch, temperature, chemical changes, and irritation
• Cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion
• Visceral pain
• No pain results when visceral organs are cut
• Visceral pain results from chemical irritation or inflammation
• Visceral pain often perceived to be of somatic origin
• Phenomenon of referred pain
Visceral Reflexes
• Visceral sensory and autonomic neurons
• Participate in visceral reflex arcs
• Defecation reflex
• Micturition reflex
• Some are simple spinal reflexes
• Others do not involve the CNS
• Strictly peripheral reflexes
Central Control of the ANS
• Control by the brain stem and spinal cord
• Reticular formation exerts most direct influence
• Medulla oblongata
• Periaqueductal gray matter
• Control by the hypothalamus and amygdala
• Hypothalamus—the main integration center of the ANS
• Amygdala—main limbic region for emotions
• Control by the cerebral cortex
Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Raynaud’s disease—characterized by constriction of blood
• Provoked by exposure to cold or by emotional stress
• Hypertension—high blood pressure
• Can result from overactive sympathetic vasoconstriction
Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Mass reflex reaction
• Uncontrolled activation of autonomic and somatic motor neurons
• Affects quadriplegics and paraplegics
• Achalasia of the cardia
• Defect in the autonomic innervation of the esophagus
The ANS Throughout Life
• Preganglionic neurons of the ANS develop from the neural
• Ganglionic neurons develop from the neural crest
• Development of the sympathetic division
• Some cells migrate ventrally
• Form the sympathetic trunk ganglia
• Other cells migrate
• Form the prevertebral ganglia
The ANS Throughout Life
• Efficiency of the ANS declines with advancing age
• Constipation due to reduced mobility of gastrointestinal (GI) tract
• Dry eyes due to reduced tear formation
The Special Senses
The Special Senses
• Taste, smell, sight, hearing, and balance
• Touch—a large group of general senses
• Special sensory receptors
• Localized—confined to the head region
• Receptors are not free endings of sensory neurons
• Special receptor cells
• Are neuronlike epithelial cells or small peripheral neurons
• Transfer sensory information to other neurons in afferent
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
• Taste—gustation
• Smell—olfaction
• Receptors—classified as chemoreceptors
• Respond to chemicals
• Food dissolved in saliva
• Airborne chemicals that dissolve in fluids of the nasal mucosa
• Taste receptors
• Occur in taste buds
• Most are found on the surface of the tongue
• Located within tongue papillae
• Two types of papillae (with taste buds)
• Fungiform papillae
• Vallate papillae
Taste Buds
• Collection of 50–100 epithelial cells
• Contain two major cell types
• Gustatory epithelial cells supporting cells
• Basal epithelial cells gustatory cells
• Contain long microvilli—extend through a taste pore to the
surface of the epithelium
• Cells in tastebuds replaced every 7–10 days
Taste Sensation and the Gustatory Pathway
• Five basic qualities of taste
• Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
• “Umami” is elicited by glutamate
• The “taste map” is a myth
• All taste modalities can be elicited from all areas containing taste
Gustatory Pathway
• Taste information reaches the cerebral cortex
• Primarily through the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX)
• Some taste information through the vagus nerve (X)
• Sensory neurons synapse in the medulla
• Located in the solitary nucleus
• Impulses are transmitted to the thalamus and ultimately to the
gustatory area of the cerebral cortex in the insula
Smell (Olfaction)
• Olfactory receptors are part of the olfactory epithelium
• Olfactory epithelium is pseudostratified columnar and contains
three main cell types
• Olfactory sensory neurons
• Supporting epithelial cells
• Basal epithelial cells
Smell (Olfaction)
• Cell bodies of olfactory sensory neurons
• Located in olfactory epithelium
• Have an apical dendrite that projects to the epithelial surface
• Ends in a knob from which olfactory cilia radiate
Smell (Olfaction)
• Olfactory cilia act as receptive structures for smell
• Mucus captures and dissolves odor molecules
Smell (Olfaction)
• Axons of olfactory epithelium
Gather into bundles—filaments of the olfactory nerve
Pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
Attach to the olfactory bulbs and synapse with mitral cells
Mitral cells transmit impulses along the olfactory tract to
1.Limbic system
2.Piriform lobe of the cerebral cortex
Disorders of the Chemical Senses
• Anosmia—absence of the sense of smell
• Due to injury, colds, allergies, or zinc deficiency
• Uncinate fits—distortion of smells or olfactory hallucinations
• Often result from irritation of olfactory pathways
• After brain surgery or head trauma
Embryonic Development of the Chemical Senses
• Development of olfactory epithelium and taste buds
• Olfactory epithelium—derives from olfactory placodes
• Taste buds develop upon stimulation by gustatory nerves
The Eye and Vision
• Visual organ—the eye
• 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eyes
• 40% of the cerebral cortex is involved in processing visual
• Anterior one-sixth of the eye’s surface is visible
Accessory Structures of the Eye
• Eyebrows—coarse hairs on the superciliary arches
• Eyelids (palpebrae)—separated by the palpebral fissure
Meet at the medial and lateral angles (canthi)
Lacrimal caruncle—reddish elevation at the medial canthus
Tarsal plates—connective tissue within the eyelids
Tarsal glands—modified sebaceous glands
Accessory Structures of the Eye
• Conjunctiva—transparent mucous membrane
• Palpebral conjunctiva
• Bulbar conjunctiva
• Conjunctival sac
Accessory Structures of the Eye
• Lacrimal apparatus—keeps the surface of the eye moist
• Lacrimal gland—produces lacrimal fluid
• Lacrimal sac—fluid empties into nasal cavity
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
• Six muscles that control movement of the eye
• Originate in the walls of the orbit
• Insert on outer surface of the eyeball
• Annular ring—origin of the four rectus muscles
• The six extrinsic eye muscles are
• Lateral rectus and medial rectus
• Superior rectus and inferior rectus
• Superior oblique and inferior oblique
The Special Senses
Anatomy of the Eyeball
• Components of the eye
• Protect and support the photoreceptors
• Gather, focus, and process light into precise images
Anterior pole—most anterior part of the eye
Posterior pole—most posterior part of the eye
External walls—composed of three tunics
Internal cavity—contains fluids (humors)
The Fibrous Layer
• Most external layer of the eyeball
• Composed of two regions of connective tissue
• Sclera—posterior five-sixths of the tunic
• White, opaque region
• Provides shape and an anchor for eye muscles
• Cornea—anterior one-sixth of the fibrous tunic
• Limbus—junction between sclera and cornea
• Scleral venous sinus—allows aqueous humor to drain
The Vascular Layer
• The middle coat of the eyeball
• Composed of choroid, ciliary body, and iris
• Choroid—vascular, darkly pigmented membrane
• Forms posterior five-sixths of the vascular tunic
• Brown color—from melanocytes
• Prevents scattering of light rays within the eye
• Choroid corresponds to the arachnoid and pia maters
The Vascular Layer
• Ciliary body—thickened ring of tissue, which encircles the
• Composed of ciliary muscle
• Ciliary processes—posterior surface of the ciliary body
• Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament)
• Attached around entire circumference of the lens
The Iris
• Visible colored part of the eye
• Attached to the ciliary body
• Composed of smooth muscle
• Pupil—the round, central opening
• Sphincter pupillae muscle
• Dilator pupillae muscle
• Act to vary the size of the pupil
• Pupillary light reflex
• Protective response of pupil constriction when a bright light is
flashed in the eye
The Inner Layer (Retina)
• Retina—the deepest tunic
• Composed of two layers
• Pigmented layer—single layer of melanocytes
• Neural layer—sheet of nervous tissue
• Contains three main types of neurons
• Photoreceptor cells
• Bipolar cells
• Ganglion cells
The Inner Layer
• Photoreceptor cells signal bipolar cells
• Bipolar cells signal ganglion cells to generate nerve impulses
• Axons from ganglion cells run along internal surface of the
• Converge posteriorly to form the optic nerve
• Two main types
• Rod cells—more sensitive to light
• Allow vision in dim light
• Cone cells—operate best in bright light
• Enable high-acuity, color vision
• Considered neurons
• Rods and cones have an inner and outer segment
• Outer segments are receptor regions
• Light absorbing pigments are present
• Light particles modify the visual pigment and generate a nerve
• Photoreceptors
• Vulnerable to damage by light or heat
• Cannot regenerate if destroyed
• Continuously renew and replace their outer segments
Regional Specializations of the Retina
• Ora serrata retinae
• Neural layer ends at the posterior margin of the ciliary body
• Pigmented layer covers ciliary body and posterior surface of the
• Macula lutea—contains mostly cones
• Fovea centralis—contains only cones
• Region of highest visual acuity
• Optic disc—blind spot
Blood Supply of the Retina
• Retina receives blood from two sources
• Outer third of the retina—supplied by capillaries in the choroid
• Inner two-thirds of the retina—supplied by central artery and vein
of the retina
Internal Chambers and Fluids
• The lens and ciliary zonules divide the eye
• Posterior segment (cavity)
• Filled with vitreous humor
• Clear, jelly-like substance
• Transmits light
• Supports the posterior surface of the lens
• Helps maintain intraocular pressure
Internal Chambers and Fluids
• Anterior segment
• Divided into anterior and posterior chambers
• Anterior chamber—between the cornea and iris
• Posterior chamber—between the iris and lens
• Filled with aqueous humor
• Renewed continuously
• Formed as a blood filtrate
• Supplies nutrients to the lens and cornea
The Special Senses
The Lens
• A thick, transparent, biconvex disc
• Held in place by its ciliary zonule
• Lens epithelium—covers anterior surface of the lens
• Lens fibers form the bulk of the lens
• New lens fibers are continuously added
• Lens enlarges throughout life
The Eye as an Optical Device
• Structures in the eye bend light rays
• Light rays converge on the retina at a single focal point
• Light bending structures (refractory media) are
• The lens, cornea, and humors
• Accommodation—curvature of the lens is adjustable
• Allows for focusing on nearby objects
Visual Pathways
• Most visual information travels to the cerebral cortex
• Responsible for conscious “seeing”
• Other pathways travel to nuclei in the midbrain and
Visual Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex
• Pathway begins at the retina
Light activates photoreceptors
Photoreceptors signal bipolar cells
Bipolar cells signal ganglion cells
Axons of ganglion cells exit eye as the optic nerve
Visual Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex
• Optic tracts send axons to
• Lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
• Synapse with thalamic neurons
• Fibers of the optic radiation reach the primary visual cortex
Visual Pathways to Other Parts of the Brain
• Some axons from the optic tracts
• Branch to midbrain
• Superior colliculi
• Pretectal nuclei
• Other branches from the optic tracts
• Branch to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Disorders of the Eye and Vision
• Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
• Involves the buildup of visual pigments in the retina
• Retinopathy of prematurity
• Blood vessels grow within the eyes of premature infants
• Vessels have weak walls—causes hemorrhaging and blindness
• Trachoma—contagious infection of the conjunctiva
Embryonic Development of the Eye
• Eyes develop as outpocketings of the brain
• By week 4, optic vesicles protrude from the diencephalon
Embryonic Development of the Eye
• Ectoderm thickens and forms a lens placodes
• By week 5, a lens vesicle forms
• Internal layer of the optic cup becomes
• Neural retina
• External layer becomes
• Pigmented retina
• Optic fissure—pathway for blood vessels
The Ear: Hearing and Equilibrium
• The ear—receptor organ for hearing and equilibrium
• Composed of three main regions
• Outer ear—functions in hearing
• Middle ear—functions in hearing
• Internal ear—functions in both hearing and equilibrium
The Outer (External) Ear
• Composed of
• The auricle (pinna)
• Helps direct sounds
• External acoustic meatus
• Lined with skin
• Contains hairs, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands
• Tympanic membrane
• Forms the boundary between the external and middle ear
Structure of the Ear
The Middle Ear
• Composed of
• The tympanic cavity
• A small, air-filled space
• Located within the petrous portion of the temporal bone
• Medial wall is penetrated by
• Oval window
• Round window
• Pharyngotympanic tube (auditory or eustachian tube)
• Links the middle ear and pharynx
Structures of the Middle Ear
The Middle Ear
• Ear ossicles—smallest bones in the body
• Malleus—attaches to the eardrum
• Incus—between the malleus and stapes
• Stapes—vibrates against the oval window
• Tensor tympani and stapedius
• Two tiny skeletal muscles in the middle ear cavity
The Internal Ear
• Internal ear—also called the labyrinth
• Lies within the petrous portion of the temporal bone
• Bony labyrinth—a cavity consisting of three parts
• Semicircular canals
• Vestibule
• Cochlea
The Internal Ear
The Internal Ear
• Membranous labyrinth
• Series of membrane-walled sacs and ducts
• Fit within the bony labyrinth
• Consists of three main parts
• Semicircular ducts
• Utricle and saccule
• Cochlear duct
The Internal Ear
• Membranous labyrinth (continued)
• Filled with a clear fluid—endolymph
• Confined to the membranous labyrinth
• Bony labyrinth is filled with perilymph
• Continuous with cerebrospinal fluid
The Internal Ear
The Cochlea
• A spiraling chamber in the bony labyrinth
• Coils around a pillar of bone—the modiolus
• Spiral lamina—a spiral of bone in the modiolus
• The cochlear nerve runs through the core of the modiolus
The Cochlea
• The cochlear duct (scala media)—contains receptors for
• Lies between two chambers
• The scala vestibuli
• The scala tympani
• The vestibular membrane—the roof of the cochlear duct
• The basilar membrane—the floor of the cochlear duct
The Cochlea
• The cochlear duct (scala media)—contains receptors for
• Spiral organ (of Corti)—the receptor epithelium for hearing
• Consists of
• Supporting cells
• Inner and outer hair cells (receptor cells)
• Inner hair cells are the receptors that transmit vibrations of
the basilar membrane
• Outer hair cells actively tune the cochlea and amplify the
The Anatomy of the Cochlea
The Role of the Cochlea in Hearing
The Vestibule
• The central part of the bony labyrinth
• Lies medial to the middle ear
• Utricle and saccule—suspended in perilymph
• Two egg-shaped parts of the membranous labyrinth
• House the macula—a spot of sensory epithelium
The Vestibule
• Macula—contains receptor cells
• Monitor the position of the head when the head is still
• Contains columnar supporting cells
• Receptor cells—called hair cells
• Synapse with the vestibular nerve
• Tips of hair cells are embedded in otolithic membrane
• Contains crystals of calcium carbonate called otoliths
The Special Senses
The Semicircular Canals
• Lie posterior and lateral to the vestibule
• Anterior and posterior semicircular canals
• Lie in the vertical plane at right angles
• Lateral semicircular canal
• Lies in the horizontal plane
The Semicircular Canals
• Semicircular duct—snakes through each semicircular canal
• Membranous ampulla—located within bony ampulla
• Houses a structure called a crista ampullaris
• Cristae contain receptor cells of rotational acceleration
• Epithelium contains supporting cells and receptor hair cells
Equilibrium and Auditory Pathways
• The equilibrium pathway
• Transmits information on the position and movement of the head
• Most information goes to lower brain centers (reflex centers)
• The ascending auditory pathway
• Transmits information from cochlear receptors to the cerebral
Disorders of Equilibrium and Hearing
• Motion sickness—carsickness, seasickness
• Popular theory for a cause—a mismatch of sensory inputs
• Meniere’s syndrome—equilibrium is greatly disturbed
• Excessive amounts of endolymph in the membranous labyrinth
Disorders of Equilibrium and Hearing
• Deafness
• Conduction deafness
• Sound vibrations cannot be conducted to the inner ear
• Ruptured tympanic membrane, otitis media, otosclerosis
• Sensorineural deafness
• Results from damage to any part of the auditory pathway
Embryonic Development of the Ear
• Begins in the fourth week of development
• The inner ear forms from ectoderm
• The middle ear forms from the first pharyngeal pouches
• Ear ossicles develop from cartilage
• The external ear differentiates from the first branchial groove
The Special Senses Throughout Life
• Smell and taste
• Sharp in newborns
• In the fourth decade of life
• Ability to taste and smell declines
The Special Senses Throughout Life
• Photoreceptors—fully formed by 25 weeks
• All newborns are hyperopic
• By 3 months—image can be focused on the retina
• By 6 months—depth perception is present
The Special Senses Throughout Life
• With increased age
• The lens loses its clarity
• The dilator muscles of the iris become inefficient
• Visual acuity is dramatically lower in people over 70
The Special Senses Throughout Life
• In the newborn
• Responses to sounds are reflexive
• Low-pitched and middle-pitched sounds can be heard
• In the elderly
• Hair cells are gradually lost
• Ability to hear high-pitched sounds fades
• Presbycusis—gradual loss of hearing with age
Blood Circulation
• Powered by the pumping action of the heart
• Functions of blood
• Carries respiratory gases, nutrients, and hormones
• Helps body regulate temperature
• Blood volume
• Males: 5–6 liters
• Females: 4–5 liters
Composition of Blood
• Contains cellular and liquid components
• A specialized connective tissue
• Blood cells—formed elements
• Plasma—fluid portion and fibrinogen
• Hematocrit—measure of % RBC
• Males: 47% ± 5%
• Females: 42% ± 5%
Major Components of Whole Blood
Blood Plasma
• Straw-colored, sticky fluid portion of blood
• Approximately 90% water
• Contains over 100 kinds of molecules
• Ions—Na+ and Cl–
• Nutrients—Sugars, amino acids, lipids, wastes, and proteins
• Three main proteins
• Albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen
Formed Elements
• Blood cells
• Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
• Staining of blood cells
• Acidic dye—eosin; stains pink
• Basic dye—methylene blue; stains blue and purple
• Oxygen-transporting cells—7.5 µm in diameter (diameter of
capillary 8—10mm)
• Most numerous of the formed elements
• Females: 4.3–5.2 million cells/cubic millimeter
• Males: 5.2–5.8 million cells/cubic millimeter
• Have no organelles or nuclei
• Are the ideal measuring tool for estimating sizes of nearby
• Are packed with oxygen-carrying hemoglobin
• Hemoglobin molecule bears four oxygen molecules
• Each O2 molecule bears an iron molecule
• Oxidation of iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules
• Gives blood its red color
• Pick up O2 at lung capillaries
• Release O2 across other tissue capillaries
• Structural characteristics contribute to respiratory function
• Biconcave shape  30 more surface area
• 97% hemoglobin
• Lack mitochondria
• Do not consume O2 they pick up
An Erythrocyte
Leukocytes—White Blood Cells (WBCs)
• 4800–11,000/cubic millimeter
• Protect the body from infectious microorganisms
• Function outside the bloodstream in loose connective tissue
• Diapedesis—circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries
• Originate in bone marrow
Leukocytes—White Blood Cells (WBCs)
• Two types of leukocytes
• Granulocytes
• Agranulocytes
• Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Relative Percentages of the Different Types of Leukocytes
• Neutrophils—most numerous WBC
• Phagocytize and destroy bacteria
• Nucleus—has two to six lobes
• Granules pick up acidic and basic stains
• Eosinophils—compose 1–4% of all WBCs
• Play roles in
• Ending allergic reactions, parasitic infections
• Basophils—about 0.5% of all leukocytes
• Nucleus—usually two lobes
• Granules secrete histamines
• Function in inflammation mediation
• Similar in function to mast cells
• Lymphocytes—compose 20–45% of WBCs
The most important cells of the immune system
Nucleus—stains dark purple
Effective in fighting infectious organisms
Act against a specific foreign molecule (antigen)
• Two main classes of lymphocyte
• T cells—attack foreign cells directly
• B cells—multiply to become plasma cells
• Secrete antibodies
• Monocytes—compose 4–8% of WBCs
• The largest leukocytes
• Nucleus—kidney shaped
• Transform into macrophages
• Phagocytic cells
• Cell fragments
• Break off from megakaryocytes
• Function in clotting of blood
Summary of Formed Elements
Blood Cell Formation
• Hematopoiesis—process by which blood cells are formed in
red marrow
• 100 billion new blood cells formed each day
Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis
• Bone marrow—located within all bones
• Red marrow—actively generates new blood cells
• Contains immature erythrocytes
• In adults, red marrow is located
• Between trabeculae of spongy bone of axial skeleton
• Girdles
• Proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis
• Tissue framework of bone marrow
• Reticular connective tissue
• Fibroblasts covering and secreting the fiber network are
reticular cells
• Blood sinusoids run throughout the reticular tissue
• Mature blood cells enter the blood stream through endothelial
cells of sinusoids
Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis
• Reticular tissue of bone marrow
• Contains macrophages that extend pseudopods to capture
• Some cells of the reticular network are mesenchymal stem
• Can give rise to
• Fat cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and muscle
Red Bone Marrow
Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis
• Yellow marrow—dormant
• Contains many fat cells
• Located in the long bones of adults
Cell Lines in Blood Cell Formation
• All blood cells originate in bone marrow
• All originate from one cell type
• Blood stem cell (pluripotential hematopoeitic stem cell)
• Lymphoid stem cells
• Give rise to lymphocytes
• Myeloid stem cells
• Give rise to all other blood cells
Cell Lines in Blood Cell Formation
• Genesis of erythrocytes
• Committed cells are proerythroblasts
• Remain in the reticulocyte stage for 1–2 days in circulation
• Make up about 1–2% of all erythrocytes
Cell Lines in Blood Cell Formation
• Formation of leukocytes
• Granulocytes form from myeloblasts
• Monoblasts enlarge and form monocytes
• Platelet-forming cells from megakaryoblasts
• Break apart into platelets
Stages of Differentiation of Blood Cells
Disorders of the Blood
• Disorders of erythrocytes
• Polycythemia
• Abnormal excess of erythrocytes
• Anemia
• Erythrocyte levels or hemoglobin concentrations are low
Disorders of the Blood
• Disorders of erythrocytes (continued)
• Sickle cell disease
• Inherited condition
• Results from a defective hemoglobin molecule
• Erythrocytes distort into a sickle shape
• Hemachromatosis
• Inherited
• Abnormal excess of iron
Disorders of the Blood
• Disorders of leukocytes
• Leukemia—a form of cancer
• Classified as lymphoblastic or myeloblastic
• Disorders of platelets
• Thrombocytopenia
• Abnormally low concentration of platelets
The Blood Throughout Life
• First blood cells develop with the earliest blood vessels
• Mesenchyme cells cluster into blood islands
• Late in the second month:
• Liver and spleen take over blood formation
• Bone marrow becomes major hematopoietic organ at Month 7
The Heart
The Heart
• A muscular double pump
• Pulmonary circuit—takes blood to and from the lungs
• Systemic circuit—vessels transport blood to and from body
• Atria—receive blood from the pulmonary and systemic circuits
• Ventricles—the pumping chambers of the heart
The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
Location and Orientation within the Thorax
• Heart—typically weighs 250–350 grams (healthy heart)
• Largest organ of the mediastinum
• Located between the lungs
• Apex lies to the left of the midline
• Base is the broad posterior surface
Location of the Heart in the Thorax
Four “Corners” of the Heart
• Superior right
• At costal cartilage of third rib and sternum
• Inferior right
• At costal cartilage of sixth rib lateral to the sternum
• Superior left
• At costal cartilage of second rib lateral to the sternum
• Inferior left
• Lies in the fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line
Structure of the Heart—Coverings
• Pericardium—two primary layers
• Fibrous pericardium
• Strong layer of dense connective tissue
• Serous pericardium
• Formed from two layers
• Parietal layer of the serous pericardium
• Visceral layer of the serous pericardium
Layers of the Pericardium and of the Heart Wall
Structure of the Heart—Layers of the Heart Wall
• Epicardium
• Visceral layer of the serous pericardium
• Myocardium
• Consists of cardiac muscle
• Muscle arranged in circular and spiral patterns
• Endocardium
• Endothelium resting on a layer of connective tissue
• Lines the internal walls of the heart
Circular and Spiral Arrangements of Cardiac Muscle
Heart Chambers
• Right and left atria
• Superior chambers
• Right and left ventricles
• Inferior chambers
• Internal divisions
• Interventricular septa
• Interatrial septa
• External markings
• Coronary sulcus
• Anterior interventricular sulcus
• Posterior interventricular sulcus
Gross Anatomy of the Heart
Right Atrium
• Forms right border of heart
• Receives blood from systemic circuit
• Pectinate muscles
• Ridges inside anterior of right atrium
• Crista terminalis
• Landmark used to locate veins entering right atrium
• Fossa ovalis
• Depression in interatrial septum
• Remnant of foramen ovale
Right Ventricle
• Receives blood from right atrium through the tricuspid valve
• Pumps blood into pulmonary circuit via
• Pulmonary trunk
• Internal walls of right ventricle
• Trabeculae carneae
• Papillary muscles
• Chordae tendineae
• Pulmonary semilunar valve
• Located at opening of right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Left Atrium
• Makes up heart’s posterior surface
• Receives oxygen-rich blood from lungs through pulmonary
• Opens into the left ventricle through
• Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)
Left Ventricle
• Forms apex of the heart
• Internal walls of left ventricle
• Trabeculae carneae
• Papillary muscles
• Chordae tendineae
• Pumps blood through systemic circuit via
• Aortic semilunar valve (aortic valve)
Heart Chambers
Inferior View of the Heart
Heart Valves—Valve Structure
• Each valve composed of
• Endocardium with connective tissue core
• Atrioventricular (AV) valves
• Between atria and ventricles
• Aortic and pulmonary valves
• At junction of ventricles and great arteries
Fibrous Skeleton
• Surrounds all four valves
• Composed of dense connective tissue
• Functions
Anchors valve cusps
Prevents overdilation of valve openings
Main point of insertion for cardiac muscle
Blocks direct spread of electrical impulses
Heart Valves—Valve Structure
Heart Sounds
• “Lub-dup”—sound of valves closing
• First sound “lub”
• The AV valves closing
• Second sound “dup”
• The semilunar valves closing
Heart Sounds
• Each valve sound is best heard near a different heart corner
Pulmonary valve—superior left corner
Aortic valve—superior right corner
Mitral (bicuspid) valve—at the apex
Tricuspid valve—inferior right corner
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
• Beginning with oxygen-poor blood in the superior and inferior
venae cavae
• Go through pulmonary and systemic circuits
• A blood drop passes through all structures sequentially
• Atria contract together
• Ventricles contract together
• 70–80 beats per minute at rest
• Systole—contraction of a heart chamber
• Diastole—expansion of a heart chamber
• Systole and diastole also refer to
• Stage of heartbeat when ventricles contract and expand
Structure of Heart Wall
• Walls differ in thickness
• Atria—thin walls
• Ventricles—thick walls
• Systemic circuit
• Longer than pulmonary circuit
• Offers greater resistance to blood flow
Structure of Heart Wall
• Left ventricle—
three times thicker than right
• Exerts more pumping force
• Flattens right ventricle into a crescent shape
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Forms a thick layer called myocardium
• Striated like skeletal muscle
• Contractions pump blood through the heart and into blood
• Contracts by sliding filament mechanism
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Cardiac muscle cells
Have one or two nuclei
Not fused colonies like skeletal muscle
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Cells join at intercalated discs
• Complex junctions
• Form cellular networks
• Cells are separated by delicate endomysium
• Binds adjacent cardiac fibers
• Contains blood vessels and nerves
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Intercalated discs—complex junctions
• Adjacent sarcolemmas interlock
• Possess three types of cell junctions
• Desmosomes
• Fasciae adherans—long desmosome-like junctions
• Gap junctions
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Triggered to contract by Ca2+ entering the sarcoplasm
• Signals sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ ions
• Ions diffuse into sarcomeres
• Trigger sliding filament mechanism
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Not all cardiac cells are innervated
• Will contract in rhythmic manner without innervation
• Inherent rhythmicity
• Is the basis for rhythmic heartbeat
Conducting System
• Cardiac muscle tissue has intrinsic ability to
• Generate and conduct impulses
• Signal these cells to contract rhythmically
• Conducting system
• A series of specialized cardiac muscle cells
• Sinoatrial (SA) node sets the inherent rate of contraction
• Heart rate is altered by external controls
• Nerves to the heart include
Visceral sensory fibers
Parasympathetic branches of the vagus nerve
Sympathetic fibers—from cervical and upper thoracic chain
The Heart
Blood Supply to the Heart
• Functional blood supply
• Coronary arteries
• Arise from the aorta
• Located in the coronary sulcus
• Main branches
• Left and right coronary arteries
Disorders of the Heart
• Coronary artery disease
• Atherosclerosis—fatty deposits
• Angina pectoris—chest pain
• Myocardial infarction—blocked coronary artery
• Heart attack
• Silent ischemia—no pain or warning
Disorders of the Heart
• Heart failure
• Progressive weakening of the heart
• Cannot meet the body’s demands for oxygenated blood
• Congestive heart failure (CHF)
• Heart enlarges
• Pumping efficiency declines
• Pulmonary arterial hypertension
• Enlargement and potential failure of right ventricle
Disorders of the Conduction System
• Arrythmias—variation from normal heart rhythm
• Ventricular fibrillation
• Rapid, random firing of electrical impulses in the ventricles
• Results from crippled conducting system
• Common cause of cardiac arrest
Disorders of the Conductory System
• Arrythmias (continued)
• Atrial fibrillation
• Impulses circle within atrial myocardium, stimulating AV node
• Promotes formation of clots
• Leads to strokes
• Occur in episodes characterized by
• Anxiety, fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations
Development of the Heart
• Heart folds into thorax region about Day 20–21
• Heart starts pumping about Day 22
• Earliest heart chambers are unpaired
• From “tail to head,” the chambers are
Sinus venosus
Bulbus cordis
Development of the Heart
• Sinus venosus—will become
• Smooth-walled part of right atrium, coronary sinus, and SA node
• Also contributes to back wall of left atrium
• Atrium—will become
• Ridged parts of right and left atria
Development of the Heart
• Ventricle—is the strongest pumping chamber
• Gives rise to the left ventricle
• Bulbus cordis
• Bulbus cordis and truncus arteriosus give rise to the pulmonary
trunk and first part of aorta
• Bulbus cordis gives rise to the left ventricle
Congenital Heart Defects
• Can be traced to month 2 of development
• Most common defect is ventricular septal defect
• Two basic categories of defect
• Inadequately oxygenated blood reaches body tissues
• Ventricles labor under increased workload
The Heart in Old Age
• Heart usually functions well throughout life
• Regular exercise increases the strength of the heart
• Aerobic exercise can help clear fatty deposits in coronary
The Heart in Old Age
• Age-related changes
1. Hardening and thickening of heart valve cusps
2. Decline in cardiac reserve
3. Fibrosis of cardiac muscle
Blood Vessels
Types of Blood Vessels
• Arteries—carry blood away from the heart
• Capillaries—smallest blood vessels
• The site of exchange of molecules between blood and tissue
• Veins—carry blood toward the heart
Structure of Blood Vessels
• Composed of three layers (tunics)
• Tunica intima—composed of simple squamous epithelium
• Tunica media—sheets of smooth muscle
• Contraction—vasoconstriction
• Relaxation—vasodilation
• Tunica externa—composed of connective tissue
• Lumen
• Central blood-filled space of a vessel
Structure of Blood Vessels
Structure of Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
Types of Arteries
• Elastic arteries—the largest arteries
Diameters range from 2.5 cm to 1 cm
Includes the aorta and its major branches
Sometimes called conducting arteries
High elastin content dampens surge of blood
Types of Arteries
• Muscular (distributing) arteries
• Lie distal to elastic arteries
• Diameters range from
1 cm to 0.3 mm
• Includes most named arteries
• Tunica media is thick
• Unique feature
• Internal and external elastic laminae
Types of Arteries
• Arterioles
Smallest arteries
Diameters range from 0.3 mm to 10 µm
Larger arterioles possess all three tunics
Diameter of arterioles
controlled by
• Local factors in
the tissues
• Sympathetic
nervous system
• Smallest blood vessels
• Diameter from 8–10 µm
• Red blood cells pass through single file
• Site-specific functions of capillaries
• Lungs—oxygen enters blood, carbon dioxide leaves
• Small intestines—receive digested nutrients
• Endocrine glands—pick up hormones
• Kidneys—remove of nitrogenous wastes
RBCs in a Capillary
Capillary Beds
• Network of capillaries running through tissues
• Precapillary sphincters
• Regulate the flow of blood to tissues
• Tendons and ligaments—poorly vascularized
• Epithelia and cartilage—avascular
• Receive nutrients from nearby CT
Capillary Permeability
• Endothelial cells—held together by tight junctions and
• Intercellular clefts—gaps of unjoined membrane
• Small molecules can enter and exit
• Two types of capillary
• Continuous—most common
• Fenestrated—have pores
Routes of Capillary Permeability
• Four routes into and out of capillaries
Direct diffusion
Through intercellular clefts
Through cytoplasmic vesicles
Through fenestrations
Low Permeability Capillaries
• Blood-brain barrier
• Capillaries have complete tight junctions
• No intercellular clefts are present
• Vital molecules pass through
• Highly selective transport mechanisms
• Not a barrier against:
• Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and some anesthetics
• Wide, leaky capillaries found in some organs
• Usually fenestrated
• Intercellular clefts are wide open
• Occur in bone marrow and spleen
• Sinusoids have a large diameter and twisted course
• Conduct blood from capillaries toward the heart
• Blood pressure is much lower than in arteries
• Smallest veins—called venules
• Diameters from 8–100 m
• Smallest venules—called postcapillary venules
• Venules join to form veins
• Tunica externa is the thickest tunic in veins
Mechanisms to Counteract Low Venous Pressure
• Valves in some veins
• Particularly in limbs
• Skeletal muscle pump
• Muscles press against thin-walled veins
Vascular Anastomoses
• Vessels interconnect to form vascular anastomoses
• Organs receive blood from more than one arterial source
• Neighboring arteries form arterial anastomoses
• Provide collateral channels
• Veins anastomose more frequently than arteries
Vasa Vasorum
• Tunica externa of large vessels have
• Tiny arteries, capillaries, and veins
• Vasa vasorum—vessels of vessels
• Nourish outer region of large vessels
• Inner half of large vessels receive nutrients from luminal blood
Pulmonary Circulation
• Pulmonary trunk leaves the right ventricle
• Divides into right and left pulmonary arteries
• Superior and inferior pulmonary veins
• Carry oxygenated blood into the left atrium
Systemic Circulation
• Systemic arteries
• Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
• Aorta—largest artery in the body
The Aorta
• Ascending aorta—arises from the left ventricle
• Branches—coronary arteries
• Aortic arch—lies posterior to the manubrium
• Branches
• Brachiocephalic trunk
• Left common carotid
• Left subclavian arteries
The Aorta
• Descending aorta—continues from the aortic arch
• Thoracic aorta—in the region of T5–T12
• Abdominal aorta—ends at L4
• Divides into right and left common iliac arteries
Blood Vessels
Arteries of the Head and Neck
Common Carotid Arteries
• Located in the anterior triangle of the neck
• Two branches of the common carotid artery
• External carotid artery
• Internal carotid artery
Common Carotid Arteries
• External carotid artery branches
Superior thyroid artery
Lingual artery
Facial artery
Occipital artery
Posterior auricular artery
Superficial temporal artery
Maxillary artery
Common Carotid Arteries
• Internal carotid artery branches
• Optithalmic artery
• Anterior cerebral artery
• Anterior communicating artery
• Forms part of the cerebral arterial circle
• Middle cerebral artery
Vertebral Arteries
• Supply the posterior brain
• Join to form the basilar artery
• Basilar artery divides into two posterior cerebral arteries
• Posterior cerebral arteries connect to the posterior
communicating arteries
Cerebral Arterial Circle
• Two posterior communicating arteries join the anterior
communicating artery
Arteries of the Upper Limb
• Subclavian artery enters the axilla as the axillary artery
• Axillary artery becomes the brachial artery at the inferior
border of teres major
• Brachial artery divides into
• Radial artery and ulnar artery
Arteries of the Upper Limb and Thorax
Arteries of the Abdominal Aorta
• Inferior phrenic arteries
• Celiac trunk
• Superior mesenteric artery
• Suprarenal arteries
• Renal arteries
• Gonadal (testicular or ovarian) arteries
• Inferior mesenteric artery
• Common iliac arteries
Blood Vessels
Distribution of the Superior and Inferior Mesenteric Arteries
Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
• Internal iliac arteries
• External iliac artery
• Femoral artery
• Popliteal artery
• Anterior tibial artery
• Posterior tibial artery
Systemic Veins
• Three major veins enter the right atrium
• Superficial veins lie just beneath the skin
• Multivein bundles—venous plexuses
• Unusual patterns of venous drainage
• Dural sinuses
• Hepatic portal system
Venae Cavae and Tributaries
• Superior vena cava
• Returns blood from body regions superior to the diaphragm
• Inferior vena cava
• Returns blood from body regions inferior to the diaphragm
• Superior and inferior vena cava
• Join the right atrium
Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation
Blood Vessels
Veins of the Head and Neck
• Venous drainage
• Internal jugular veins
• External jugular veins
• Vertebral veins
Veins of the Head and Neck
• Dural sinuses
Superior and inferior sagittal sinuses
Straight sinus
Transverse sinuses
Sigmoid sinus
Veins of the Upper Limbs
• Deep veins
• Follow the paths of companion arteries
• Have the same names as the companion arteries
• Superficial veins
• Visible beneath the skin
• Cephalic vein
• Basilic vein
• Median cubital vein
• Median vein of the forearm
Veins of the Thorax and Right Upper Limb
Superficial Veins of the Right Upper Limb
• Form anastomese frequently
• Median cubital vein is used to obtain blood or administer IV
Veins of the Thorax
• Azygos vein
• Hemiazygos vein
• Accessory hemiazygos vein
Veins of the Abdomen
• Lumbar veins
• Gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins
• Renal veins
• Suprarenal veins
• Hepatic veins
The Hepatic Portal System
• A specialized part of the vascular circuit
• Picks up digested nutrients
• Delivers nutrients to the liver for processing
The Basic Scheme of the Hepatic Portal System
Blood Vessels
Veins of the Hepatic Portal System
Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
• Deep veins
• Share the name of the accompanying artery
• Superficial veins
• Great saphenous vein empties into the femoral vein
• Small saphenous vein empties into the popliteal vein
Disorders of the Blood Vessels
• Aneurysm
• Deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb
• Venous disease
• Microangiopathy of diabetes
• Arteriovenous malformation
Abdominal Aneurysm
Blood Vessels Throughout Life
• Fetal circulation
• All major vessels in place by month three of development
• Differences between fetal and postnatal circulation
• Fetus must supply blood to the placenta
• Very little blood is sent through the pulmonary circuit
Vessels to and from the Placenta
• Umbilical vessels run in the umbilical cord
• Paired umbilical arteries
• Unpaired umbilical vein
• Fetal vessels and structures
• Ductus venosus
• Ligamentum teres
• Ligamentum venosum
• Medial umbilical ligaments
Shunts Away from the Pulmonary Circuit
• Foramen ovale
• Ductus arteriosus
Fetal and Newborn Circulation Compared
Blood Vessels in Adulthood
• Atherosclerosis begins in youth
• Consequences evident in middle to old age
• Males
• More atherosclerosis than females between ages 45–65
• Females
• Experience heart disease and atherosclerosis later in life
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems
• Lymphatic system
• Main function is to return excess tissue fluid to blood vascular
• Lymphatic vessels collect tissue fluid
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems
• Immune system
• Protects our bodies from foreign organisms
• Confers immunity to disease
• Main components
• Lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue, and lymphoid organs
The Lymphatic System
• Lymphatic vessels collect tissue fluid from loose connective
• Carry fluid to great veins in the neck
• Fluid flows only toward the heart
• Once tissue fluid is within lymphatic vessels it is termed lymph
Functions of Lymphatic Vessels
• Collect excess tissue fluid and blood proteins
• Return tissue fluid and blood proteins to bloodstream
Orders of Lymphatic Vessels
• Lymph capillaries
• Smallest lymph vessels
• First to receive lymph
• Lymphatic collecting vessels
• Collect from lymph capillaries
• Lymph nodes are scattered along collection vessels
Orders of Lymphatic Vessels
• Lymph trunks
• Collect lymph from collecting vessels
• Lymph ducts
• Empty into veins of the neck
Lymphatic Capillaries
• Located near blood capillaries
• Receive tissue fluid from CT
• Increased volume of tissue fluid
• Minivalve flaps open and allow fluid to enter
• High permeability allows entrance of
• Tissue fluid and protein molecules
• Bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells
Lymphatic Capillaries
• Lacteals—specialized lymphatic capillaries
• Located in the villi of the small intestines
• Receive digested fats
• Fatty lymph—chyle
Lymphatic Collecting Vessels
• Accompany blood vessels
• Composed of the same three tunics as blood vessels
• Contain more valves than veins do
• Helps direct the flow of blood
• Lymph propelled by
• Skeletal muscles bulging
• Nearby arteries pulsing
• Tunica media of the lymph vessels
• Lymph flow is unaided by heartbeat
Lymph Nodes
• Cleanse the lymph of pathogens
• Human body contains around 500
• Superficial lymph nodes located in
• Cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
• Deep nodes are
• Tracheobronchial, aortic, and iliac lymph nodes
Microscopic Anatomy of a Lymph Node
• Fibrous capsule—surrounds lymph nodes
• Trabeculae—connective tissue strands
• Lymph vessels
• Afferent lymphatic vessels
• Efferent lymphatic vessels
Lymph Trunks
• Lymphatic collecting vessels converge
• Five major lymph trunks
• Lumbar trunks
• Receives lymph from lower limbs
• Intestinal trunk
• Receives chyle from digestive organs
• Bronchomediastinal trunks
• Collects lymph from thoracic viscera
Lymph Trunks
• Five major lymph trunks (continued)
• Subclavian trunks
• Receive lymph from upper limbs and thoracic wall
• Jugular trunks
• Drain lymph from the head and neck
Lymph Ducts
• Cisterna chyli
• Located at the union of lumbar and intestinal trunks
• Thoracic duct
• Ascends along vertebral bodies
• Empties into venous circulation
• Junction of left internal jugular and left subclavian veins
• Drains three quarters of the body
Lymph Ducts
• Right lymphatic duct
• Empties into right internal jugular and subclavian veins
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems
The Immune System
• Recognizes specific foreign molecules
• Destroys pathogens effectively
• Key cells—lymphocytes
• Also includes lymphoid tissue and lymphoid organs
• Lymphoid organs
• Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, aggregated lymphoid
nodules, and appendix
• Infectious organisms attacked by inflammatory response
• Macrophages, then lymphocytes
• Are effective fighters of infectious organisms
• Each lymphocyte recognizes a specific foreign molecule
• Antigens are any molecules inducing a response from a
• B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes are the two main classes of
• Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
• Attack foreign cells directly
• Binds to antigen-bearing cells
• Perforates cell membrane
• Signals cell to undergo apoptosis
• Destroy virus infected cells and some cancer cells
• B lymphocytes
• Become plasma cells
• Secrete antibodies
• Mark cells for destruction by macrophages
• Respond primarily to bacteria and bacterial toxins
Lymphocyte Activation
• Lymphocytes originate in bone marrow
• Some travel to the thymus gland
• T lymphocytes
• Some stay in bone marrow
• B lymphocytes
• Able to recognize a unique antigen
• Gain immunocompetence
• Travels through blood stream
• Meets and binds to a specific antigen
Lymphocyte Activation
• During activation
• Lymphocyte is presented its antigen by
• A macrophage
• Or a dendritic cell
Lymphocyte Activation
• Both T and B lymphocytes produce clones of
• Effector lymphocytes
• Respond immediately, then die
• Memory cells
• Wait until the body encounters the antigen again
• Basis of acquired immunity
• Prevent subsequent infections of the same illness
Lymphoid Tissue
• Most important tissue of the immune system
• Two general locations
• Mucous membranes of
• Digestive, urinary, respiratory, and reproductive tracts
• Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
• Lymphoid organs (except thymus)
Lymphoid Organs
• Primary lymphoid organs
• Bone marrow
• Thymus
• Secondary lymphoid organs
• Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils
• Aggregated lymphoid nodules
• Appendix
Lymphoid Organs
• Designed to gather and destroy infectious microorganisms and
to store lymphocytes
• Immature lymphocytes develop into T lymphocytes
• Secretes thymic hormones
• Most active in childhood
• Functional tissue atrophies with age
• Composed of cortex and medulla
• Medulla contains Hassall’s corpuscles (thymic corpuseles)
• Differs from other lymphoid organs
• Functions strictly in lymphocyte maturation
• Arises from epithelial tissue
Lymph Nodes
• Function
• Lymph percolates through lymph sinuses
• Most antigenic challenges occur in lymph nodes
• Antigens destroyed and activate B and T lymphocytes
• Largest lymphoid organ
• Two main blood-cleansing functions
• Removal of blood-borne antigens
• Removal and destruction of old or defective blood cells
• Site of hematopoiesis in the fetus
• Destruction of antigens
• Site of B cell maturation into plasma cells
• Phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out RBCs, WBCs and
• Storage of platelets
• White pulp
• Thick sleeves of lymphoid tissue
• Blood-borne antigens are destroyed as they activate the immune
• Provides the immune function of the spleen
• Red pulp
• Surrounds white pulp
• Composed of
• Venous sinuses
• Splenic cords
• Responsible for disposing of worn out RBCs
• Simplest lymphoid organs
• Four groups of tonsils
• Palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils
• Arranged in a ring to gather and remove pathogens
• Underlying lamina propria consists of MALT
Aggregated Lymphoid Nodules and Appendix
• MALT—abundant in walls of intestines
• Fight invading bacteria
• Generate a wide variety of memory lymphocytes
• Aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer’s patches)
• Located in the distal part of the small intestine
• Appendix—tubular offshoot of the cecum
Aggregated Lymphoid Nodule
Disorders of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
• Chylothorax
• Leakage of fatty lymph into the thorax
• Lymphangitis
• Inflammation of a lymph vessel
• Mononucleosis
• Viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus
• Attacks B lymphocytes
Disorders of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
• Hodgkin’s disease
• Malignancy of lymph nodes
• Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
• Uncontrolled multiplication and metastasis of undifferentiated
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Throughout Life
• Lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes
• Develop from lymphatic sacs
• Thymus originates as an outgrowth of the endoderm
• Spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT
• Arise from mesodermal mesenchyme