TASK 1. Match the following headings with the sections of the text below:
Effectiveness // History // Moral aspect
(1) Capital punishment is a legal infliction of the death penalty; in modern law, corporal punishment
in its most severe form. The usual alternative to the death penalty is long-term or life imprisonment.
The earliest historical records contain evidence of capital punishment. It was mentioned in the Code of
Hammurabi. The Bible prescribed death as the penalty for more than 30 different crimes, ranging from murder to
fornication. The Draconian Code of ancient Greece imposed capital punishment for every offence.
In England, during the reign of William the Conqueror, the death penalty was not used, although the results
of interrogation and torture were often fatal. By the end of the 15th century, English law recognized six major
crimes: treason, murder, larceny, burglary, rape, and arson. By 1800, more than 200 capital crimes were
recognized, and as a result, 1000 or more persons were sentenced to death each year (although most sentences were
commuted by royal pardon). In early American colonies the death penalty was commonly authorized for a wide
variety of crimes. Blacks, whether slave or free, were threatened with death for many crimes that were punished
less severely when committed by whites.
Efforts to abolish the death penalty did not gather momentum until the end of the 18th century. In Europe, a
short treatise, On Crimes and Punishments, by the Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria, inspired influential thinkers such
as the French philosopher Voltaire to oppose torture, flogging, and the death penalty.
The abolition of capital punishment in England in November 1965 was welcomed by most people with
humane and progressive ideas. To them it seemed a departure from feudalism, from the cruel pre-Christian spirit of
revenge: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. Many of these people think differently now. Since the abolition of
capital punishment crime – and especially murder – has been on increase throughout Britain. Today, therefore,
public opinion in Britain has changed. People who before, also in Parliament, stated that capital punishment was not
a deterrent to murder – for there have always been murders in all countries with or without the law of execution –
now feel that killing the assassin is the lesser of two evils. Capital punishment, they think, may not be the ideal
answer, but it is better than nothing, especially when, as in England, a sentence of life imprisonment only lasts eight
or nine years.
(2) The fundamental questions raised by the death penalty are whether it is an effective deterrent to violent
crime, and whether it is more effective than the alternative of long-term imprisonment.
DEFENDERS of the death penalty insist that because taking an offender's life is a more severe
punishment than any prison term, it must be the better deterrent. SUPPORTERS also argue that no adequate
deterrent in life imprisonment is effective for those already serving a life term who commit murder while being
in prison, and for revolutionaries, terrorists, traitors, and spies.
In the U.S. those who argue against the death penalty as a deterrent to crime cite the following: (1)
Adjacent states, in which one has the death penalty and the other does not, show no significant differences in the
murder rate; (2) states that use the death penalty seem to have a higher number of homicides than states that do
not use it; (3) states that abolish and then reintroduce the death penalty do not seem to show any significant
change in the murder rate; (4) no change in the rate of homicides in a given city or state seems to occur following
an expository execution.
In the early 1970s, some published reports showed that each execution in the U.S. deterred eight or more
homicides, but subsequent research has discredited this finding. The current prevailing view among
criminologists is that no conclusive evidence exists to show that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent to
violent crime than long-term imprisonment.
(3) The classic moral arguments in favor of the death penalty have been biblical and call for retribution.
“Whosoever sheds man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed” has usually been interpreted as a divine warrant
for putting the murderer to death. “Let the punishment fit the crime” is its secular counterpart; both statements
imply that the murderer deserves to die. DEFENDERS of capital punishment have also claimed that society has the
right to kill in defence of its members, just as the individual may kill in self-defence. The analogy to self-defence,
however, is somewhat doubtful, as long as the effectiveness of the death penalty as a deterrent to violent crimes has
not been proved.
The chief objection to capital punishment has been that it is always used unfairly, in at least three major
ways. First, women are rarely sentenced to death and executed, even though 20 percent of all homicides in recent
years have been committed by women. Second, a disproportionate number of non-whites are sentenced to death
and executed. Third, poor and friendless defendants, those with inexperienced or court-appointed attorney, are
most likely to be sentenced to death and executed.
DEFENDERS of the death penalty, however, have insisted that, because none of the laws of capital
punishment causes sexist, racist, or class bias in its use, these kinds of discrimination are not a sufficient reason
for abolishing the death penalty. OPPONENTS have replied that the death penalty can be the result of a mistake
in practice and that it is impossible to administer fairly.
TASK 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and expressions related to punishment:
1. возмездие
2. долгосрочное тюремное заключение
3. допрос
4. отбыть срок в тюрьме
5. отмена смертной казни
6. пожизненное тюремное заключение
7. показательная казнь
8. приговаривать к смерти
9. пытка
10. смягчить приговор
11. телесные наказания
TASK 3. Translate the following passage into English paying special attention to the words in bold type:
На протяжении веков смертная казнь назначалась за самые разные виды преступлений. В средние века
человека могли казнить за хищение имущества, изнасилование и даже поджог. Государственная
измена была и остается во многих странах преступлением, наказуемым смертной казнью. Существует
мнение, что даже долгосрочное или пожизненное тюремное заключение является бессмысленным
наказанием для так называемых «идеологических» преступников: предателей, шпионов, террористов.
Смертная казнь для такого рода преступников – меньшее из двух зол.
TASK 4. Answer the following questions:
Why was capital punishment imposed so frequently in ancient societies?
Why were blacks punished more severely than whites in early American colonies?
When did European thinkers begin considering the alternatives to death penalty?
How have the attitudes towards capital punishment changed in Britain since the abolition of death penalty
in 1965?
5. Is imprisonment effective for revolutionaries and terrorists? Why?
6. How have Americans treated the problem of death penalty?
7. What factors may hamper the fair administration of justice in capital cases?
TASK 5. Continue the table below with the following words and expressions describing polar views. The first few
are done for you
to argue against smth.
to argue in favour of smth.
objection to smth.
to accept smth.
to admit smth.
to agree to/with smth.
to confirm smth.
to consent to smth.
to contradict to smth.
to deny smth.
to disagree with smth.
to object to smth.
to oppose smth.
to reject smth.
TASK 6. What is your personal understanding of the following famous statements? Make a list of examples from
history to illustrate these statements. Use the words and expressions from Task 5 to support the following
opposite points of view:
1. “ An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth!” 1. “ An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth!”
– We should admit this Biblical principle. It is
- This is a cruel pre-Christian spirit of revenge.
We are civilized now – let’s give it up and be
2. “Let the punishment fit the crime.” - Those
who steal should be deprived of their property, ….
those who kill should be deprived of their own
3. “The pain of the penalty should outweigh
only slightly the pleasure of success in crime.”
J. Bentham
2. “Let the punishment fit the crime.” – We can
not accept fixed punishments for crimes.
Circumstances should be taken into account.
4 "It is much more prudent to acquit two
persons, though actually guilty, than to pass
sentence of condemnation on one that is
virtuous and innocent."
5. “The primary purpose of the punishment
which society inflicts is to redress the disorder
caused by the offence.”
Pope John Paul II
6. “An evil deed is not redeemed by an evil deed
of retaliation.”
7. “Whosoever sheds man's blood, by man shall
his blood be shed.”
Perhaps all criminals should be required to carry cards which read: “Fragile: Handle with Care”. It will never
do, these days, to go around referring to criminals as violent thugs. You must refer to them politely as “social
misfits”. The professional killer who wouldn't think twice about using his cosh or crowbar to batter some harmless
old lady to death in order to rob her of her meagre life-savings must never be given a dose of his own medicine. He
is in need of “hospital treatment”. According to his misguided defenders, society is to blame. A wicked society
breeds evil – or so the argument goes. When you listen to this kind of talk, it makes you wonder why we aren't all
criminals. We have done away with the absurdly harsh laws of the nineteenth century and this is only right. But
surely enough is enough. The most senseless piece of criminal legislation in Britain and a number of other
countries has been the suspension of capital punishment.
The violent criminal has become a kind of hero-figure in our time. He is glorified on the screen; he is pursued
by the press and paid vast sums of money for his “memoirs”. Newspapers which specialise in crime-reporting
enjoy enormous circulations and the publishers of trashy cops and robbers stories or “murder mysteries” have
never had it so good. When you read about the achievements of the great train robbers, it makes you wonder
whether you are reading about some glorious resistance movement. The hardened criminal is cuddled and cosseted
by the sociologists on the one hand and adored as a hero by the masses on the other. It's no wonder he is a
privileged person who expects and receives VIP treatment wherever he goes.
Capital punishment used to be a major deterrent. It made the violent robber think twice before pulling the
trigger. It gave the cold-blooded poisoner something to ponder about while he was shaking up or serving his
arsenic cocktail. It prevented unarmed policemen from being mowed down while pursuing their duty by killers
armed with automatic weapons. Above all, it protected the most vulnerable members of society, young children,
from brutal sex-maniacs. It is horrifying to think that the criminal can literally get away with murder. We all know
that 'life sentence' does not mean what it says. After ten years or so of 'good conduct', the most desperate villain is
free to return to society where he will live very comfortably, thank you, on the proceeds of his crime, or he will go
on committing offences until he is caught again. People are always willing to hold liberal views at the expence of
others. It's always fashionable to pose as the defender of the under-dog, so long as you, personally, remain
unaffected. Did the defenders of crime, one wonders, in their desire for fair-play, consult the victims before they
suspended capital punishment? Hardly. You see, they couldn't, because all the victims were dead.
TASK 1. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:
a cold-blooded criminal
a desperate villain
a hardened criminal
'a social misfit'
a violent thug
to batter
to breed evil
to cosset
to cuddle
to deter criminals
to do away with
to get away with murder
to mow down
to pull the trigger
TASK 2. Study the following facts and arguments:
Financial Costs
The death penalty is not now, nor has it ever been, a more economical alternative to
life imprisonment. A murder trial normally takes much longer when the death penalty is at
issue than when it is not. Litigation costs – including the time of judges, prosecutors, public
defenders, and court reporters, and the high costs of briefs – are all borne by the taxpayer.
Inevitability of Error
In 1975, only a year before the Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of
capital punishment, two African-American men in Florida were released from prison after
twelve years awaiting execution for the murder of two white men. Their convictions were
the result of coerced confessions, erroneous testimony of an alleged eyewitness, and
incompetent defense counsel. Though a white man eventually admitted his guilt, a nine-year
legal battle was required before the governor would grant them a pardon. Had their
execution not been stayed while the constitutional status of the death penalty was argued in
the courts, these two innocent men probably would not be alive today.
The latest mode of inflicting the death penalty, enacted into law by nearly two dozen
American states, is lethal injection, first used in Texas in 1982. It is easy to overstate the
humaneness and efficacy of this method. There is no way of knowing that it is really
painless. As the U.S. Court of Appeals observed, there is "substantial and uncontroverted
evidence ... that execution by lethal injection poses a serious risk of cruel, protracted
death.... Even a slight error in dosage or administration can leave a prisoner conscious but
paralyzed while dying, a sentient witness of his or her own asphyxiation."
Gangland killings, air piracy, drive-by shootings, and kidnapping for ransom are
among the graver felonies that continue to be committed because some individuals think
they are too clever to get caught. Political terrorism is usually committed in the name of an
ideology that honors its martyrs; trying to cope with it by threatening terrorists with death
penalty is futile.
TASK 3. Read the text below and write down the main ideas in Russian paying special
attention to the words and expressions given in bold type. Translate them into
English. Use the vocabulary from the Unit to render the text into English:
Пришло время отменить смертную казнь. С каждым годом это становится все
более очевидным. Опыт всех стран показывает, что смертная казнь приводит к
ожесточению в обществе. В ряде стран смертные приговоры применяются в
основном к представителям неимущих слоев населения либо расовых или
этнических меньшинств.
В некоторых странах смертная казнь считается мерой, без которой невозможно
терроризм, экономическую коррупцию или искоренить супружескую неверность.
Однако нет никаких доказательств, что ее применение способно снижать уровень
преступности или политического насилия. Смертную казнь часто используют как
средство политических репрессий, а смертные приговоры выносятся и приводятся в
исполнение произвольно.
Оправдывая смертную казнь, чаще всего говорят, что она необходима, по
крайней мере временно, для блага общества.
Однако имеет ли государство право лишать человека жизни?
Смертная казнь — это предумышленное и хладнокровное убийство человека
государством. Само существование этой меры наказания является попранием
основных прав человека: международное право запрещает жестокие, негуманные
или унижающие человека наказания.
Многовековой опыт применения высшей меры наказания и научные
исследования о взаимосвязи смертной казни и уровня преступности не дали
убедительных доказательств, что смертная казнь способна эффективно защитить
общество от преступности или способствовать правосудию. Ни одна система
уголовной юстиции не доказала свою способность последовательно и справедливо
решать, кто должен жить и кто — умереть. Некоторым удается избежать смертной
казни с помощью квалифицированных защитников; другим — потому что их
судят мягкосердечные судьи или присяжные; третьим помогают их политические
связи или положение в обществе. Однако существует определенный процент
судебных ошибок, последствия которых особенно трагичны при приведении
смертного приговора в исполнение.
Using the information and vocabulary from the Unit write an essay on one of the following
Relaxation of harsh laws has never led to increase in crime.
Those in favour of capital punishment are motivated only by desire for revenge
and retaliation.
Hanging, electric chairs, garroting, etc., are barbaric practices, unworthy of
human beings.
Suspension of capital punishment is enlightened and civilised.
Capital punishment creates, it does not solve, problems.
Crime can only be drastically reduced by the elimination of social injustices.
There is no room for capital punishment in a civilized society.
Divide into groups - pro and con - and conduct a debate on the necessity of capital
Appoint the ‘Chair’ of the debate who will give the floor to the speakers of both teams.
Use the active vocabulary from the Unit.