Standards for School Counseling WAC Standards .......................................................................................................................... 1 CACREP Standards .................................................................................................................... 7 Conceptual Framework Standards ............................................................................................ 13 WAC Standards The items below indicate the candidate’s estimated level of achievement and/or competency. The knowledge and skills evaluated are areas of competence for the Residency-Level Benchmarks for School Counselors Standards reflected in WAC 180-78A-270 (a) (5) [Rev. 12/3/04]. STANDARD 1: Foundations of the School Counseling Profession Certified school counselors design, deliver, and evaluate student-centered, data-driven school counseling programs that advance the mission of the school in light of recognized theory, research, exemplary models, community context, and professional standards. 1. Articulates key features, benefits, goals, and objectives of a comprehensive school counseling program; 2. Conducts counselor time utilization activity according to national ASCA model; 3. Collects and analyzes data to determine impact of school counselor program on student achievement; 4. Articulates and documents how the school counseling program and counselor activities support the mission of the school and impact student learning; 5. Demonstrates understanding of school district policies and procedures regarding counseling activities, student behavior, and general operation of the school; 6. Demonstrates understanding of School Improvement Plan (SIP) processes and how it relates to the school counseling program; 7. Uses school report card, other data, and SIP to design systemic interventions based on research and theory. STANDARD 2: School Counseling and Student Competencies Certified school counselors know and can integrate academic, career, and personal/social student competencies, including Washington State Learning Goals and Essential Academic Learning Requirements, into the school counseling program; can teach counseling and guidance related material by using effective curriculum, instructional strategies, and instructional management; support teachers and parents in helping students develop knowledge and skill for learning, living and working; and provide information about best practices to a school community. 8. Identifies needs of students in academic, career, personal, and social domains and determines positive impact on student learning; 9. Demonstrates knowledge and skills in curriculum development, instructional and assessment practices, and classroom management; 10. Uses student records to assist students and their parents/guardians to align academic and career expectations; Standards for School Counseling Page 2 11. Knows and integrates academic, career, and personal/social student competencies, including Washington State Learning Goals, Essential Academic Learning Requirements, and Grade Level Expectations, into the school counseling program; 12. Guides individuals and groups of students through the development of educational and career awareness and/or plans in order to develop knowledge and skills for learning, living, and working; 13. Promotes academic rigor and helps prepare students for successful transitions to the next level of schooling from kindergarten to high school and beyond; 14. Assists teachers with infusing affective skills and career development, e.g., problem solving, goal setting and decisions making; 15. Able to design needs assessment, analyze results, and use data to set priorities. STANDARD 3: Human Growth and Development Certified school counselors apply comprehensive, in-depth knowledge of human growth and development to improve student learning and well being and to enhance resiliency; provide guidance to parents and teachers about developmentally appropriate practices that support students throughout their schooling experience. 16. Demonstrates comprehensive, in-depth knowledge of human growth and development to improve student learning and well-being; 17. Provides guidance to parents and caregivers about developmentally appropriate practices that support students to motivate and nurture growth in academic, career, and personal/social domains; 18. Consults with staff and families about developmental needs of students and increases resiliency of students through development of skills in academic, career, and personal/social domains and enhances personal connections to school, family and community; 19. Applies knowledge of learning theory, including styles, modalities, and multiple intelligences. STANDARD 4: Counseling Theories and Techniques Certified school counselors demonstrate an understanding of established and emerging counseling theories through effective use of individual and group techniques for working with a diverse population. 20. Counsels individual students and small groups of students using appropriate theories and techniques with respect to each diverse learner; 21. Uses counseling strategies to help students so they can be emotionally and socially prepared to maximize their instructional time; 22. Applies career development theory in educational planning; 23. Articulates a personal and professional belief statement and counseling philosophy; 24. Demonstrates a knowledge of mental health disorders, including substance abuse, and knows how and when to make referrals; 25. Uses counseling strategies that maximizes students’ success and instructional time. Standards for School Counseling Page 3 STANDARD 5: Equity, Fairness, and Diversity Certified school counselors value and show respect for all members of the community; demonstrate fairness, equity, and sensitivity to every student, and they advocate for equitable access to instructional programs and activities; use data for designing and implementing plans that remove barriers to learning; and help to close achievement gaps among sub-groups of students. 26. Models, demonstrates, and advocates for fairness, equity, sensitivity, and respect for students, staff, parents/caregivers, and community members; 27. Advocates for equitable access to instructional programs and activities through the design and implementation of plans that remove barriers to learning; 28. Disaggregates data to identify areas where students may be negatively impacted by school practices and policies and proposes solutions; 29. Demonstrates an awareness of school climate and how it impacts student learning, especially for families and students who have been historically disadvantaged and marginalized; 30. Demonstrates knowledge and awareness of special education and IEP goals and objectives. STANDARD 6: School Climate Certified school counselors work to establish and foster a safe, inclusive, and nurturing learning environment for students, staff, and families and use strategies designed to prevent or resolve problems that could limit or diminish the capacity of students to learn and achieve at their highest levels. 31. Advocates for a safe, inclusive, nurturing, and intellectually stimulating learning environment; 32. Demonstrates knowledge of current law and best practices in the prevention of bullying/harassment, violence, and substance abuse as barriers to student learning; 33. Can articulate the school counselor’s role as an active participant in the school improvement planning process to ensure a school climate that supports equitable learning for all students; 34. Understands the site’s comprehensive safe schools plan and the role of staff, students, families, and community in this process, including peer helper and student leadership programs; 35. Facilitates new student integration into the school environment; 36. Demonstrates knowledge of the strategies and methodologies designed to prevent or resolve problems that could limit or diminish the capacity of students to learn and achieve at their highest goals; 37. Collects and analyzes data regarding physical, social, psychological, and intellectual safety of the school environment; 38. Models caring, acceptance, communication, and human relations skills to students, staff, parents, and community; 39. Demonstrates knowledge of ways to identify child physical, sexual, emotional abuse, and child neglect. Knows mandated child abuse reporting laws. Understands the impact of abuse on student learning and behavior. Has knowledge of child abuse prevention programs. Can provide teachers with information the effects of abuse on the classroom environment and best practices for teaching children who have been the victims of child abuse. STANDARD 7: Collaboration with School Staff, Family, and Community Certified school counselors work collaboratively with school staff, families, and community members to achieve common goals for the education of students, improvement of schools, and advancement of the larger community; know appropriate Standards for School Counseling Page 4 behavior management strategies and can team with staff and families to improve student achievement; and use their knowledge of community resources to make appropriate referrals based on the needs of students. 40. Recognizes and fosters the value of community involvement in the schools and the design of effective methods for formal and informal written and oral communication; 41. Demonstrates knowledge of effective methods for consultation; 42. Accesses appropriate social service providers; 43. Develops appropriate strategies to promote effective, positive support plans for students; 44. Reduces barriers to student learning through direct referred services and/or in-district options; 45. Provides support for students in crisis situations with a calm, effectual, and ethical manner consistent with school policies and procedures; 46. Works with teachers and administrators to promote and support behavior management strategies; 47. Regularly attends counseling staff meetings and other counseling related meetings; 48. Demonstrates knowledge of commonly used medications for school-aged children; 49. Adheres to laws and regulations governing limits of information sharing. STANDARD 8: Information Resources and Technology Certified school counselors select and use informational resources and technology to facilitate delivery of a comprehensive school counseling program that meets student needs; and skillfully uses technology to enhance communication. 50. Demonstrates proficiency in word processing, presentation software, database use, and utilization of search and navigation skills related to school counseling; 51. Selects and utilizes technology to facilitate delivery of a comprehensive school counseling program that meets student needs; 52. Utilizes technology to strengthen communication with staff, families, and community. STANDARD 9: Student Assessment and Program Evaluation Certified school counselors understand the basic principles and purposes of assessment; collection and use of data; regularly monitor student progress and are able to communicate the purposes, design, and results of assessments to various audiences; know basic principles of research design, action research, and program evaluation for purposes of program improvement and accountability. 53. Assesses, interprets, and communicates results to students, faculty, and parents and community with respect to aptitude, achievement, interests, and learning styles; 54. Utilizes assessment tools, individual planning skills, and counseling to facilitate informed choices (aptitude, interest, academics, and careers); 55. Collaborates with staff concerning assessment of students with special needs; 56. Interprets results of Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) and/or other informal/formal assessments to a variety of audiences; 57. Uses data to identify and support students at risk of school failure; 58. Articulates the basic principles and purposes of program evaluation; 59. Identifies a “closing the gap” activity, articulates a tentative hypothesis, and proposed a research-based intervention. STANDARD 10: Leadership and Advocacy Certified counselors support practices and policies that promote academic rigor—skills for learning, living, and working; provide leadership that enhances student academic, Standards for School Counseling Page 5 career, and personal/social development and advocate for guidance as an integral part of a school's educational system; model practices that help students, parents, teachers, and policy makers understand how curriculum, instruction and assessment can help students see the relationship between effort, performance, and success beyond high school. Certified school counselors help promote understanding of graduation requirements, WASL scores, and development of the high school and beyond plan. 60. Contributes to the school improvement planning process; 61. Facilitates understanding the link between curriculum, instruction, and assessment to student effort, performance, and success beyond high school; 62. Works with colleagues to provide an effective learning climate within classrooms and the school; 63. Promotes active student and parent/guardian engagement in educational planning; 64. Practices effective listening, conflict resolution, and group facilitation skills as a team member; 65. Conducts meaningful trainings, in-services, or presentations based on assessed needs; 66. Promotes best practices in, and advocates for, professional school counseling; 67. Advocates for balanced interventions that support needs of the whole child. STANDARD 11: Professionalism, Ethics, and Legal Mandates Certified school counselors develop a professional identity congruent with knowledge of all aspects of professional functions, professional development, and state and national school counselor organizations. They adhere strictly to the profession’s codes of ethics, especially those that have been established by the American Counseling Association (ACA), the American School Counselor Association (ASCA), the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), and other relevant codes of ethics. They are familiar with state and federal policies, laws, and legislation relevant to school counseling. 68. Writes and speaks effectively in formal and informal communications; 69. Demonstrates professional and responsible work habits; 70. Follows the current ASCA Guidelines For Practice and ACA Code of Ethics; 71. Demonstrates knowledge of local, state and federal policies, and laws relevant to school counseling including FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) and HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act); 72. Maintains current knowledge and skills through on-going reading, professional development, and participation in professional organizations; 73. Provides for a safe, confidential setting in which students can present their needs and concerns; 74. Promotes appropriate use of assessment tools and presentation of relevant, unbiased data. STANDARD 12: Reflective Practice Certified school counselors integrate knowledge, skills, and life experiences to respond effectively to new or unexpected critical events and situations; serve as change agents by using their understanding of schools as social, cultural and political systems within a larger organizational context; monitor practice with continuous, in-depth reflection; and make adjustments as needed. 75. Reflects on and provides thoughtful rationales for his/her school counseling decisions; 76. Actively solicits and uses feedback for continuous improvement on his/her school counseling practice; 77. Evaluates critical events and responds effectively and efficiently; Standards for School Counseling Page 6 78. Demonstrates knowledge of systems and organizational change theory to promote engaging learning environments; 79. Develops a Draft Professional Growth Plan. Standards for School Counseling Page 7 The following are the school counseling standards for the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). These are the 2009 stadnards. CACREP Standards Students who are preparing to work as school counselors will demonstrate the professional knowledge, skills, and practices necessary to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of all K–12 students. In addition to the common core curricular experiences outlined in Section II.F, programs must provide evidence that student learning has occurred in the following domains. FOUNDATIONS A. Knowledge 1. Knows history, philosophy, and trends in school counseling and educational systems. 2. Understands ethical and legal considerations specifically related to the practice of school counseling. 3. Knows roles, functions, settings, and professional identity of the school counselor in relation to the roles of other professional and support personnel in the school. 4. Knows professional organizations, preparation standards, and credentials that are relevant to the practice of school counseling. 5. Understands current models of school counseling programs (e.g., American School Counselor Association [ASCA] National Model) and their integral relationship to the total educational program. 6. Understands the effects of (a) atypical growth and development, (b) health and wellness, (c) language, (d) ability level, (e) multicultural issues, and (f) factors of resiliency on student learning and development. 7. Understands the operation of the school emergency management plan and the roles and responsibilities of the school counselor during crises, disasters, and other trauma-causing events. B. Skills and Practices 1. Demonstrates the ability to apply and adhere to ethical and legal standards in school counseling. 2. Demonstrates the ability to articulate, model, and advocate for an appropriate school counselor identity and program. Standards for School Counseling Page 8 COUNSELING, PREVENTION, AND INTERVENTION C. Knowledge 1. Knows the theories and processes of effective counseling and wellness programs for individual students and groups of students. 2. Knows how to design, implement, manage, and evaluate programs to enhance the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. 3. Knows strategies for helping students identify strengths and cope with environmental and developmental problems. 4. Knows how to design, implement, manage, and evaluate transition programs, including school-to-work, postsecondary planning, and college admissions counseling. 5. Understands group dynamics—including counseling, psycho-educational, task, and peer helping groups—and the facilitation of teams to enable students to overcome barriers and impediments to learning. 6. Understands the potential impact of crises, emergencies, and disasters on students, educators, and schools, and knows the skills needed for crisis intervention. D. Skills and Practices 1. Demonstrates self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and the skills needed to relate to diverse individuals, groups, and classrooms. 2. Provides individual and group counseling and classroom guidance to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. 3. Designs and implements prevention and intervention plans related to the effects of (a) atypical growth and development, (b) health and wellness, (c) language, (d) ability level, (e) multicultural issues, and (f) factors of resiliency on student learning and development. 4. Demonstrates the ability to use procedures for assessing and managing suicide risk. 5. Demonstrates the ability to recognize his or her limitations as a school counselor and to seek supervision or refer clients when appropriate. Standards for School Counseling Page 9 DIVERSITY AND ADVOCACY E. Knowledge 1. Understands the cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and political issues surrounding diversity, equity, and excellence in terms of student learning. 2. Identifies community, environmental, and institutional opportunities that enhance—as well as barriers that impede—the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. 3. Understands the ways in which educational policies, programs, and practices can be developed, adapted, and modified to be culturally congruent with the needs of students and their families. 4. Understands multicultural counseling issues, as well as the impact of ability levels, stereotyping, family, socioeconomic status, gender, and sexual identity, and their effects on student achievement. F. Skills and Practices 1. Demonstrates multicultural competencies in relation to diversity, equity, and opportunity in student learning and development. 2. Advocates for the learning and academic experiences necessary to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. 3. Advocates for school policies, programs, and services that enhance a positive school climate and are equitable and responsive to multicultural student populations. 4. Engages parents, guardians, and families to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. ASSESSMENT G. Knowledge 1. Understands the influence of multiple factors (e.g., abuse, violence, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood depression) that may affect the personal, social, and academic functioning of students. 2. Knows the signs and symptoms of substance abuse in children and adolescents, as well as the signs and symptoms of living in a home where substance abuse occurs. 3. Identifies various forms of needs assessments for academic, career, and personal/social development. Standards for School Counseling Page 10 H. Skills and Practices 1. Assesses and interprets students’ strengths and needs, recognizing uniqueness in cultures, languages, values, backgrounds, and abilities. 2. Selects appropriate assessment strategies that can be used to evaluate a student’s academic, career, and personal/social development. 3. Analyzes assessment information in a manner that produces valid inferences when evaluating the needs of individual students and assessing the effectiveness of educational programs. 4. Makes appropriate referrals to school and/or community resources. 5. Assesses barriers that impede students’ academic, career, and personal/social development. RESEARCH AND EVALUATION I. Knowledge 1. Understands how to critically evaluate research relevant to the practice of school counseling. 2. Knows models of program evaluation for school counseling programs. 3. Knows basic strategies for evaluating counseling outcomes in school counseling (e.g., behavioral observation, program evaluation). 4. Knows current methods of using data to inform decision making and accountability (e.g., school improvement plan, school report card). 5. Understands the outcome research data and best practices identified in the school counseling research literature. J. Skills and Practices 1. Applies relevant research findings to inform the practice of school counseling. 2. Develops measurable outcomes for school counseling programs, activities, interventions, and experiences. 3. Analyzes and uses data to enhance school counseling programs. ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT Standards for School Counseling Page 11 K. Knowledge 1. Understands the relationship of the school counseling program to the academic mission of the school. 2. Understands the concepts, principles, strategies, programs, and practices designed to close the achievement gap, promote student academic success, and prevent students from dropping out of school. 3. Understands curriculum design, lesson plan development, classroom management strategies, and differentiated instructional strategies for teaching counseling- and guidance-related material. L. Skills and Practices 1. Conducts programs designed to enhance student academic development. 2. Implements strategies and activities to prepare students for a full range of postsecondary options and opportunities. 3. Implements differentiated instructional strategies that draw on subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge and skills to promote student achievement. COLLABORATION AND CONSULTATION M. Knowledge 1. Understands the ways in which student development, well-being, and learning are enhanced by family-school-community collaboration. 2. Knows strategies to promote, develop, and enhance effective teamwork within the school and the larger community. 3. Knows how to build effective working teams of school staff, parents, and community members to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. 4. Understands systems theories, models, and processes of consultation in school system settings. 5. Knows strategies and methods for working with parents, guardians, families, and communities to empower them to act on behalf of their children. 6. Understands the various peer programming interventions (e.g., peer meditation, peer mentoring, peer tutoring) and how to coordinate them. Standards for School Counseling Page 12 7. Knows school and community collaboration models for crisis/disaster preparedness and response. N. Skills and Practices 1. Works with parents, guardians, and families to act on behalf of their children to address problems that affect student success in school. 2. Locates resources in the community that can be used in the school to improve student achievement and success. 3. Consults with teachers, staff, and community-based organizations to promote student academic, career, and personal/social development. 4. Uses peer helping strategies in the school counseling program. 5. Uses referral procedures with helping agents in the community (e.g., mental health centers, businesses, service groups) to secure assistance for students and their families. LEADERSHIP O. Knowledge 1. Knows the qualities, principles, skills, and styles of effective leadership. 2. Knows strategies of leadership designed to enhance the learning environment of schools. 3. Knows how to design, implement, manage, and evaluate a comprehensive school counseling program. 4. Understands the important role of the school counselor as a system change agent. 5. Understands the school counselor’s role in student assistance programs, school leadership, curriculum, and advisory meetings. P. Skills and Practices 1. Participates in the design, implementation, management, and evaluation of a comprehensive developmental school counseling program. 2. Plans and presents school-counseling-related educational programs for use with parents and teachers (e.g., parent education programs, materials used in classroom guidance and advisor/advisee programs for teachers). Standards for School Counseling Page 13 Conceptual Framework Standards Conceptual Framework and Assessment The conceptual framework for school counseling and school psychology outlines specific competencies based on our national accreditation bodies. CWU school counseling candidates value and have demonstrable skills in nine identified content areas. These are derived from the National Model and the content domains recommended by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP): Contextual Dimensions: Candidates must possess the knowledge of strategies and the skills that promote, develop, and enhance effective teamwork within the school and the larger community. Knowledge and Skills for the Practice of School Counseling: o Guidance Curriculum – Candidates can present instruction through K-12 classroom and group activities. o Individual Student Planning – Candidates can coordinate ongoing systemic activities designed to assist students individually in establishing personal goals and developing future plans. o Responsive and Preventive Services – Candidates run activities that meet individual students’ immediate needs through counseling, consultation, referral, peer helping or information. They will also create preventive services to potential problems at their campuses (Brown, 2006) Research and Evaluation: We expect CWU school counselor candidates will not only become knowledgeable about the design and delivery of comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs, but they will also develop the research and evaluation skills necessary to design and implement outcome evaluation studies. Human Growth and Development: School counselors will be able to create ageappropriate interventions for children, adolescents, and adults according to their physical, emotional, and intellectual needs. Social and Cultural Foundations: School counselors are aware of diversity issues in all groups and successfully identify the ways in which cultural factors change group dynamics. The school counselor has the skills and knowledge to adapt an intervention to meet the needs of diverse students. Counseling Relationships: Successful candidates will demonstrate successful interventions for individuals, groups, and families. Lifespan Career Development: Successful candidates will demonstrate appropriate ways to identify student interests, abilities, and motivation for career development. Appraisal: Candidates will demonstrate the appropriate interview, testing, diagnosis, and treatment plan skills. Professional Orientation: Candidates can articulate the role of school counselors in Washington State and are advocates for our profession.