Results of Selected Studies 2009-10
Wheat Situation Survey in the Rainfed Pothwar, 2010
This study was undertaken in the rainfed Pothwar of the Punjab to assess the wheat crop situation
and anticipate the wheat production under the current drought condition in order to suggest
policy options to ensure food security. The rainfed Pothwar mainly comprises Attock,
Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Islamabad and Jhelum districts. Overall, 322 farmers were interviewed
from 9 tehsils of the area. The operational area of the sample respondents was rainfed in all
sample districts except Jhelum where almost 46 percent operational area was found irrigated.
Average operational holding of the sample respondents was 5.46, 7.29, 8.04 and 13.42 acres in
Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Chakwal and Attock districts respectively.Wheat plantation was delayed on
most of the sample farms during 2009-10 as compared to last year due to drought conditions and
low moisture in the soil. The area under wheat crop decreased on sample farms in Rawalpindi
and Chakwal while it increased in Jhelum and Attock as compared with last year.Area allocated
to various varieties was recorded as Inqlab-91 (35%), Chakwal-86 (18%), Bhakar-2002 (13%),
Sehar (8%) and Uqab (3%) during 2009-10. During 2008-09, the wheat varieties grown on
sample farms were Inqlab-91 (48%), Chakwal-86 (17%), Bhakar-2002 (13%), Sehar (5%) and
Uqab (3%). The area under wheat variety of Inqlab-91 declined from 48 percent in 2008-09 to
35 percent in 2009-10 which was mainly replaced by Sehar and Chakwal-86 wheat varieties.
This was attributed due to availability of seed of Bhakar-86.The sample farmers used to replace
the seed being used on their farms after two to three years and main source of the replaced seed
was seed dealers followed by fellow farmers. No difference was observed in the planting method
in both years as almost all of the area was planted through drill with the exception of only about
1-2 percent. The majority of the farmers (75%) reported that there was no shortage of DAP or
NP during this year. Farmers were expecting a yield loss of more than 50 percent this year due to
moisture stress as compared with a yield loss of only 3 percent last year due to low moisture.
Farmers reported yield losses ranging from 18 percent in Jhelum to about 69 percent in
Chakwal. This decline in yield was largely due to very low precipitation levels at booting and
grain formation stages (mid-February to early March).Total production loss on the basis of
decreased yield would be about 47 percent as compared to last year. In quantitative terms there
would be less wheat production of about 60 maunds per farm. In monetary terms the loss per
farm from the less grain production is estimated at Rs.56638 per farm. With low grain
production, there would also be less wheat straw production and shortage of dry fodder for
livestock. The price of wheat straw is expected to increase this year resulting in feed shortage for
livestock in the study area. There was no significant difference in the cost of production as the
total cost of production was Rs.13305 in 2008-09 as compared to Rs.13348 per acre in 2009-10.
The gross income during 2008-09 was Rs.21230 per acre resulting in net income of Rs.7924 per
acre. During the current year due to low expected yield depending upon the crop situation the
gross income was to the tune of Rs.11216 resulting in a loss of Rs.2132 per acre to the farmers in
the rainfed Pothwar. The majority of farmers (74%) were of the view that current rainfall in
March, 2010 would have good impact on this year wheat, 15 percent reported no impact, 7
percent less than normal and 4 percent said that it would have normal impact on wheat. The
sample farmers were worried about their food security due to low wheat production this year.
They have to purchase wheat from the market. Only few farmers (4%) reported that they have to
purchase it from other fellow farmers with surplus wheat. A small proportion of sample farmers
(10%) reported that they have to purchase dry fodder also as the wheat straw would also be
insufficient to meet their requirement for livestock. Keeping in view the expected high prices of
wheat straw, few farmers (5%) reported that the present dry spell will compel them to sell their
animals. One fifth of the sample farmers reported that they would have to do more labor work
and struggle hard to secure food for their families and fulfill feed requirement of their livestock.
Overall upgrading rainfed agriculture requires integrated approaches to social and ecological
management. The integrated approach to rainwater management must address links between
investments and risk reduction and between rainwater management and land and crops
management. There is also need for innovations in management of water that requires novel
technologies and practices. Strategies for upgrading, including technologies such as water
harvesting and conservation agriculture are generally well known, but need proper demonstration
and promotion for adoption in the rainfed areas. Keeping in view the scarcity of water in rainfed
areas there is need to harvest more crops per drop of water available in the form of dug wells,
mini dams and small dams by installing the high efficiency irrigation systems and going for
precision agriculture.
Estimation of Optimum Field Plot Size and Shape in Paddy Yield Trial
This study was to estimate the optimum plot size with the shape for field research experiments
on paddy yield trial considering the effect of plot size on variability in yield of crop as well as
studying the coefficients of variation of different plot sizes and shapes of plots. The data were
collected from Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, Punjab on rice line T5 in close
collaboration with Rice Program, PARC. A single rice line T5 crop area of 12m x 24 m was
selected randomly to consider all management practices as uniform as possible. Yield data were
recorded separately from each basic unit of 1m x 1 m. Grains from each of the 288 basic units
were harvested, bagged, threshed, cleaned, dried, and weighed separately. Yield difference
between these basic units was taken as a measure of the area’s soil heterogeneity. Soil
productivity contour map was drawn to see graphically the productivity level of the experimental
site based on moving averages of adjacent units. Measures of central tendency and dispersion
were computed for different combinations of basic units to determine the effect of plot sizes on
variability in yield. Variance among plots, variance per unit area and coefficients of variation of
various plot sizes and shapes were worked out for the determination of plot size and shape. The
values of mean squares among horizontal strips and vertical strips indicated that direction of the
fertility gradient was more pronounced from North to south. The results of contour map showed
the trend of soil fertility from north to south rather than east to west. The comparable variance
(V) and relative information (RI %) revealed that comparable variance and relative information
increases with each unit increase in the plot size. Maximum curvature technique described the
relationship between coefficients of variation and plot sizes. In this technique, the coefficients of
variation decreased rapidly up to 18 basic units with each unit increase in the plot size .This
implies that the plot of rectangular shape that is (6mx3m) basic unit was the most effective in
reducing soil variation and is therefore considered the optimum plot size. This estimated plot size
is larger than the plot size of 3mx5m generally used for paddy yield trial at research Station. The
value of soil heterogeneity index was found to be (0.12) which showed a degree of low
relationship among the experimental units. The low value of soil heterogeneity index (b=0.120
indicated a little bit heterogeneity among 288 basic units. The study results indicated that the
coefficients of variation (35.24, 23.80, 21.50, 19.49 and 17.86 percent) decline with square shape
of plot sizes (1m2 , 2m2, 3m2, 4m2, 6m2 ) respectively and this decrease is maximum with the
square shape plot of size (6mx6m) basic units. As a result, square shape seems better for large
plot sizes in the study area. The square shape plots are suggested when the researchers are not
familiar with the fertility pattern of the experimental area. As regards shape, square shape plots
are suitable and improve the quality of research to the generation of more sound and viable
technologies which will ultimately help to reduce the productivity deficit.
Agricultural Development and Rural Poverty Linkages in Pakistan
Poverty alleviation, particularly rural poverty, is a serious issue currently faced by the
highly populous and developing nations of the world. The issue of rural poverty is difficult to
comprehend without a thorough examination of interrelated aspects of changes in the agriculture.
The primary objective of this study is to generate a comprehensive empirical base about the
determinants of rural poverty alleviation in Pakistan for the agricultural research planners, policy
makers and development practitioners in the country.
The results show that Pakistan’s agriculture sector has poverty reduction potentials in the
long-run. The positively contributing factors are average operational holding, area shifting from
major to minor crops, increasing land use intensity and enhancing agricultural credit amounts.
The factors negatively affecting rural poverty alleviation efforts were rural population growth
and rising inflation. The role of livestock productivity enhancement in poverty alleviation was
unexpectedly negative.
There is a need of breakthrough in major crops’ production technology for generating
more employment opportunities as well as saving area from major crops for its shifting to minor
crops. The results provide useful indications for the R&D efforts in Pakistan. For instance, the
declining average farm size will result in increasing poverty, perhaps due to negative farm size
and productivity relationship needs to be checked by devising new agricultural technologies best
suited to small sized farms. The poverty alleviation discouraging results of major crops indicates
a need of breakthrough in their production technology in order to generate more employment
opportunities as well as saving area from major crops for its shifting to minor crops. On the other
hand, the poverty alleviation discouraging results of livestock productivity enhancement also
need due consideration of both the researchers and development planners. The research needs to
devise more cost-effective means increasing livestock productivity while strong and effective
public policy support in the form of implementing market regulations is required for integrating
countrywide spread livestock farmers with the market for selling their products (live animals and
the milk) in a more remunerative way.
Role of Agriculture in Pakistan’s Economy: An Intersectoral Linkages Analysis
Under the doctrine of developing urban industrial sector using human and agricultural
marketable surpluses, Pakistan’s planning history shows that agriculture is mostly ignored, but it
has drawn attention of the policy makers when the country has faced either extensive crop
failures due to insect/pest or disease attack or food production fell short of demand.
There is a need to strengthen inter-sectoral linkages Pakistan on the grounds like: a)
increase in demand for high value processed agricultural products induced by increase in per
capita income, urbanization and internationalization in food consumption habits; b) substantial
advancements in crop production, post-harvest and food processing technologies, refrigeration
facilities, transport, supply chain technologies and methods; c) enormous expansion in
international trade in high value food products; and d) emphasis on promotion of agricultural
diversification towards high value agricultural products in development policy documents of the
country. All these also call for adopting a well-coordinated inter-sectoral approach towards
achieving high economic growth. Understanding the inter-sectoral linkages could shed important
insights to policymakers in identifying the optimal policies to continue further economic growth
in these countries.
The objectives of this study are: i) to understand the linkages between agriculture and rest
of the economy; ii) to investigate the existence of long-run growth relationships among different
sectors; and, iii) to determine the impacts of the transition on agriculture and other sectors.
About the role of agriculture, a long-run relationship with other sectors of the economy like
manufacturing services and trade was found. The trade and services also have long-run cointegration with agriculture. But such integration was not found with manufacturing. For
enhanced agriculture growth, Pakistan has to reform manufacturing and export promotion bureau
in line with the agriculture sector. The opposite policy shall not work.
Export Competitiveness of Horticulture Sector of Pakistan
This Study examines Pakistan’s export competitiveness of horticultural produce by using tradebased indices. Under horticultural crops, fruits plus vegetables, fresh fruits and vegetables were
selected as groups and tangerines, mandarins, and Onion were selected as individual crops for
empirical study. The study aimed at assessing the comparative and competitive advantage of
Pakistan in the selected commodities. The results showed that Pakistan does not have a
comparative and competitive advantage for fruits plus vegetables category during 1990 to 1998,
however Pakistan attained comparative and competitive advantage in 1999 and maintained it up
to 2006 with few exceptions but net trade advantage for fruit plus vegetable category was
achieved in 2004. In the fresh fruits net category the results demonstrated that Pakistan has
relatively higher comparative and competitive advantage as compared to fruits plus vegetable
as whole, all relevant indicators were encouraging and explained Revealed comparative
advantage and net trade advantage with few exceptions for the whole period depicted in the
analysis. In vegetables fresh category, fruits plus vegetable category and onion Pakistan showed a
transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive
advantage during the period under analysis. The analysis for individual crops i.e., Tangerines,
mandarins, depicted that it maintained relatively higher export competitiveness as compared to
other categories for the whole period under analysis. Pakistan’s comparative and competitive
advantages showed an increase in all commodities for the period under analysis.
Feasibility of Sugarcane Juice Manufacturing in Pakistan’s Punjab
The project cost estimates for the proposed “Sugarcane Juice Business” have been formulated on
the basis of discussions with industry stakeholders and experts. The projections cover the cost of
land, machinery and equipment including office equipment, fixtures, etc. The operations have
been calculated for 300 days on annul basis. The financial analysis reveals that sugarcane juice at
the scale of 100 tones per day crushing will yield 691.20 million rupees annually with total
variable cost of 435.84 million per annum. The analysis further narrowed down on per pack
level that yields Rs.3.00. As about 90 percent of the ingredients is sugarcane juice, therefore, the
margin might be less as compared with other fruit juices because fruit juice contain only 4
percent Fruit Pulp and 80 percent treated water while 10 -16 percent Citric Acid, Fruit Flavor
and Preservative.
Impact of Escalating Energy and Fertilizers Prices on the Productivity of Rice Crop in the
Farm level survey of rice growing areas was conducted during November 2008 and four
districts namely: Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad were purposively selected.
From each district, 20 rice growers were selected through purposive sampling technique. Thus,
the total number of sample respondents was counted to be 80. Data regarding variables of
interest were collected through personal interview method in order to meet the objective of this
The impact of escalating prices was observed in the use of cultivators as large farmers
used 12.68 percent less cultivator in 2008 than 2007, where as small and medium farmers used
15.74 percent and 14.46 percent less cultivators respectively in 2008 than 2007. About 10
percent less use in terms of average number of ploughing were observed by the small farmers’
category while by medium and large farmers it remained about 4.52 percent and 2.31 percent
less as compared during the crop years of 07 and 08. Regarding fertilizers, lower use of fertilizer
was observed by all the farmers’ categories over two years period. The small farmers have used
about 9.76 percent less quantity of weedicide while medium and large were found to be using
4.76 percent and 2.83 percent less quantity of weedicides for the eradication of weeds from the
rice crop for the consecutive crop years of 07 and 08. The insecticide prices were found higher to
the tune of 42 percent during 07 and 08 years of rice crop cultivation.
Canal water was not available as against the requirements of the farming community for
rice crop. The use of irrigation water through tube well water was found 10% less for all the
category of farmers during 2008 as compared to 2007 use. The application of tube well water to
rice crop was affected severely (13%) due to escalating prices of diesel especially on the small
farms of the area, while the least (5.6%) impact was observed on large farms.
The highest cost increase change to the extent of 48 percent was observed in case of small
farmers compared to large farmers who exhibited 32 percent change over one year period. The
overall use of diesel was found declining (27%-20%) for different categories of the farmers for
the two consecutive years 2007-2008 due to rising prices of diesel. Prices data indicated that
price discrimination was also prevailing in the rural areas. Small farmers were observed paying
higher prices than large and medium farmers. Water pumped out by electrical pumps was
cheaper than the diesel operated tube wells. In this case, it is recommended that joint installments
of electrical tube well for small farmers should be practiced. Data regarding prices of combine
harvester indicated a wide variation ranging from 38 percent to 33 percent. Discrimination in
rates paid for combine harvest per acre by small, medium and large farmers were also noticed.
Maximum difference in combine harvest rates was observed in case of small farmers than
medium and large farmers. Overall, it was noticed that yield per acre of supper basmati rice
declined by 5 percent during 2008 when compared with 2007. This reduction in yield per acre
was noticed maximum (5.43%) in case of small farmers and the least (4.55%) in case of large
farmers during 2007 and 2008. This decline in yield was most probably due to less use of inputs
partly as a result of rising prices of diesel.
Overall, the output price of supper basmati rice rose by 12 percent over and above the
speculated period of one year, 2007-2008. Again price per mond received by small farmers was
found 14 percent lower in 2007 than 2008, while larger farmers had received 11 percent less
price for Supper Basmati rice for the same period in the rice belt of Punjab province. Thus the
small farmers were being exploited due to output price discrimination. Overall cost of production
of rice crop in the rice belt indicated that total cost per acre (Rs. 32921.9) was higher for the year
2008 than 2007 (Rs. 24605 per acre). Simultaneously, the cost benefit ratio analysis revealed that
farmers were better off in 2007 compared to 2008 as they were getting higher returns to the
magnitude of Rs. 1.62 as against the investment of Rs. 1 in year 2007 than 2008 where return
was Rs. 1.29 against an investment of Rs. 1 on rice production. Since small farmers were getting
technical information from the fellow farmers while medium and large farmers were acquiring
advanced technology of production information as they are more influential and continuously in
touch with the extension and research organizations.
Assessment of Harvest and Post Harvest Losses of Selected Fruits in Pakistan
The present study was planned to quantify the post harvest losses and bifurcate them at
different stages of fruit handling to determine the most crucial stage of post harvest losses in
Citrus, Mango and Date fruits, and to devise policies for minimizing harvest and post harvest
losses based on empirical evidences/information. To achieve this, a sample of 606 stakeholders
at different levels of fruit harvesting and marketing was taken to investigate the extent of post
harvest losses at different levels of fruit handling through a survey by employing a wellstructured series of questionnaires.
The study identified that losses at farm level (both harvesting and handling) and at
different stages of marketing are huge in all types of the sample fruits. Although the harvesting
of citrus fruit was generally done with scissor while mango was mostly harvested with hook and
basket and date was harvested with axe and brought down with the support of rope.
The other crucial area of losses was at packing stage when the fruit is further damaged
due to pressing and got fungal infestation. In citrus fruit, the complete loss was estimated to the
tune of 81.91 kgs./ ton while the partial loss was 279.89 kgs/ton which decreased the value of
fruit from 30 to 60 percent at different stages under variant levels of partial losses. The losses
were very high at wholesale and retail levels for all the fruits. On an average mango fruit
complete losses were estimated to the tune of 115.10 kgs/ton while, 153 kgs/ton were partially
damaged resultantly, reducing the price ranges from 15 to 50 percent.
The total loss was estimated by adding complete and partial losses. In mango and citrus,
there was an overall loss of 30 and 37 percent respectively while, in fresh and dried dates it
accounted for 26 and 36 percent, respectively.
Therefore, there is need to develop technologies compatible with the resources, needs and
manpower available to reduce the substantial post-harvest losses associated with fruits at
different stages.
However, indeed, the efforts are required for up-scaling the capacity building of growers
and contractors through imparting skill amongst the targeted groups of citrus, mango and date
pickers and packers. Lot of efforts are required to educate and train the farmers, labour involved
in handling these fruits at different stages and the businessmen involved throughout the supply
chain regarding post harvest management.
There is need to develop technologies that should not be capital intensive enabling that
these may within the purchasing power of small entrepreneurs/farmers. Such technologies will
help to generate the employment opportunities for the rural masses. For developing such
technologies both the research and development agencies should work in coordinated for
incorporating the expertise from engineering, biological (commodity experts), food technology
experts, social scientists and extension agents. All these efforts are in great demand for up
scaling the capacity of the stakeholders under the desired cost effective means as well as socially
acceptable to the rural community of Pakistan.
Contractual Maize Production: A Case Study of Rafhan Maize Products
The study was conducted in two pioneer areas of maize contract farming (Chiniot and
Okara) and one emerging area of maize contract farming (Lodhran) developed by the Rafhan
Maize Products. The data were collected from 106 maize growers (52 contracts and 54 noncontracts) to estimate the cost of production of Maize for both contract and non-contract
Initially, one crop of maize was harvested in Pakistan during winter season with an
average per acre yield ranges from 10 to 15 maunds. Through contract farming system of Rafhan
Maize Products, spring maize as a second crop is becoming a great contribution towards
agricultural growth. The per acre yield of spring maize crop is 60-100 maunds. Better yield of
hybrid maize as compared to conventional crop is the major factor for cultivation of hybrid
maize. Ensured/better price of maize, provision of inputs (seed and pesticide) and packing
material were the major factors for adopting contract farming system. Majority of the farmers
were satisfied with the services provided by the company. However, in some cases, complaints
of shortage of packing material, delay in payment, less payment of transportation charges and
long hours waiting at mill gate for disposal of output were reported. This implies that Rafhan has
to take necessary steps for rectifications of farmers’ complaints. The contract farmers received
comparatively higher output prices as compared to non-contract growers. The difference was
significantly higher in Lodhran site.
The total cost of production for an acre of spring maize under contract and non-contract
farming was Rs. 36626.97 and Rs. 37841.92 respectively. The costs on seed & sowing, plant
protection and harvesting & threshing operations were higher on non-contract farms as compared
to contract farms. The reason may be due to supply of these items by the Rafhan Maize on
control rates. This implies that entering into contract farming decreases the total production cost.
The gross revenue for planting an acre of spring maize for contract farming was Rs. 52237.39,
which is Rs. 678.81 ac-1 higher than non-contract farms. These results imply that contract
farming in hybrid maize is more profitable as compared to non-contract farming.
The total cost of production for an acre of autumn maize under contract and non-contract
farming was Rs. 34751.50 and Rs. 33645.29, respectively. The gross revenue for planting an acre
of autumn maize for contract farming was Rs. 35335.76, which is Rs. 6344.01 ac-1 higher than
non-contract farms. These results imply that autumn maize crop cultivation was profitable
enterprise in contract farming. Overall, economic gains in contract farming for both crops (spring
and autumn maize) were higher as compared to non-contract farming.
Rafhan Maize Products only contract and buy output of their varieties having
comparatively low yield as compared to other companies’ hybrid varieties from the Lodhran site
while these conditions are not applicable to Chiniot and Okara sites. It is suggested that uniform
contract terms and conditions should be followed for all over the country. Moreover, Rafhan
should introduce new maize hybrid having more yield potential as compared to existing varieties.
The problem of timely availability of packing material was observed especially in Lodhran site,
it is therefore suggested that availability of packing material should be insured and long hours
(up to two days) waiting at mill gate for disposal of output may be minimized. Rafhan should
raise transportation charges of farmers’ output according to the actual payment made by them to
the transporters. Un-necessary delay in payment should be minimized for timely payment to the
growers which was pointed out by the growers of Lodhran site.
Economic Analysis of Hybrid and Open Pollinatedvarieties of Maize in the Khyber
The study was planned to cover maximum districts of the province but due to law and order
situation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa six districts including Haripur, Swabi, Mansehera, Bannu,
Nowshera and Peshawar were selected for the study. The study included both primary and
secondary data. Primary data were collected through field surveys using a structured
questionnaire while secondary data were collected by consulting the published data from
government and other documents.
The findings of the study revealed that more than fifty percent of the total area was devoted to
maize crop in the study area with allocation to open pollinated varieties. The study revealed that
large number of respondents purchased maize seed from seed dealers. It is remarkable that more
than fifty percent of the respondents knew name of maize varieties and they had planted hybrid
varieties. It was found that 30/25 (hybrid) variety was very popular and grown by majority of the
farmers. It was astonishing to learn that unknown hybrid was the top yielding varieties in the
study area with an average yield of 42 maunds per acre. However, the overall average yield of
the maize crop in the study area was 28 maunds per acre. The average per acre cultivation cost of
hybrid and open pollinated varieties were Rs. 16925 and Rs. 10782 per acre, respectively. Seed
price and its sowing were the most costly operations of hybrid cultivars’ production. Overall, per
acre production cost in the study area was Rs. 15904. The survey results revealed that hybrid and
open pollinated cultivars gave net income worth Rs.10011/acre and Rs. 2678/acre, respectively.
However, per acre net income of maize crop was estimated to the tune of Rs. 5856/acre. The
highest benefit cost ratio was that of hybrid 1:1.59 against 1:1.24 for open pollinated cultivars.
Majority of the farmers reported that non availability of quality seed was the major problem.
However, low price of maize, water shortage and high price of inputs were the other major
problems restricted to the farmers in achieving high yield from the maize crop.
It is suggested that government should fix support price of maize crop before sowing like wheat
crop. The production of hybrid and open pollinated cultivars are very low in the study area. The
major reasons of low production in the study area reported by the farmers were inferior quality of
maize seed, non availability of improved seed and its high cost. Therefore, the farmers suggested
that government should strictly check the quality and ensured the timely availability of improved
seed. Efforts should be made to control the price of seed. Maize researchers of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa have released a number of maize varieties. However, it is widely recognized that
lack of seed multiplication system and poor extension system has adversely affected the adoption
of these improved varieties. Keeping in view the importance of the crop, number of
demonstration plots and field days for broader varietal coverage should be increased at village
Assessing Maize Production Constraints in AJK
This study was conducted to investigate into various issues regarding maize productivity
enhancement in AJK. For this purpose, a comprehensive checklist was used to gather
information on all related issues from popular maize areas of AJK, through interviewing 100
maize growers, group discussion and experts’ opinion. Land holdings were found to be small in
the area ranging from an acre to 3 acres, while maize farms were 0.6 acres (6 kanals) on average
in the area and almost all the farm operators were owners in the sample. More than 90 percent of
the farmers in the area were using inbred seed and only 7 percent were using hybrid maize seed.
Sarhad White was the commonly maize variety grown in AJK. Besides this, Kashmir Gold and
Islamabad yellow were the other maize varieties grown in the area. Most of the farmers have
obtained seed from agriculture department and to some extent from fellow farmers; however,
the farmers were not satisfied with the quality of seed. Cultivator was common in the study area
for tillage with 3 to 4 plowings for maize crop before sowing. Sowing with broadcast method
and very low proportion was found with line method of sowing in the area. Maize was cultivated
during the month of April in Danna area and in June after wheat in Bana valley. Farmers kept no
record regarding tillage, sowing dates, sowing method etc. Soil was found to be good with
fertility having no problem of salinity and alkalinity. Soil erosion was controlled through
plantation and retaining walls where, applicable. DAP and Urea were the common inorganic
fertilizers used by the area farmers with 50 kgs each of DAP and Urea per acre on average in
both the areas. DAP has been applied as basal fertilizer and Urea both as basal as well as top
dressing vary from area to area. In rainfed area, Urea was applied as basal and as top dressing on
irrigated farms. It was applied at per plant bases manually at the stage of 2 feet plant size (nearly
at tessling stage). Most of the inorganic fertilizers have been purchased from agriculture
department and from fertilizer dealers up to some extent in the area. Fertilizer either purchased
from department or dealers never have been checked for its certification by the farmers. Organic
fertilizer (FYM and poultry litter) application to maize crop was found very common in the area
with 3 to 4 tractor trolleys per acre. Almost 70 percent of the organic fertilizer was produced at
farmer's fields and 30 percent was found to be purchased. Most of the organic fertilizer was
found stored in open area and very less proportion of farming community covered it or stored in
a pit. None of the farmers had soil analysis and having soil map of nutrients requirements. Stem
borer, cutworm, and army worm were the insects that rarely attack maize crop but not seriously
damaged the crop. No disease was reported in both the areas. Few farmers reported smut attack
but not a substantial damage.
Weeds problem especially ganaar was severe in the area. Farmers were using some conventional
agronomic activities for insect/pest control like removal of previous crop residuals, crop rotation
and plowing the fields. Furadon granules chemical was used for insect control at plant to plant
bases and broad leaves controlling weedicide were sprayed to check the weeds. Only 20 percent
farmers had got training in IPM practices. The area farmers kept no record of chemical use.
Chemical were applied manually as well as through sprayer. Chemicals are recommended by the
agriculture department as well as by the seed/insecticide dealers. The surplus chemicals were
disposed off in the field and also empty chemical containers are thrown in the field openly.
Farmers also thin their crop intensity manually and this could be the reasons that farmers use
high seed rate mainly to averse from low germination risk and also the thinned crop is being used
afterward for livestock as a fodder. The entire crop is harvested manually while threshed with
maize Sheller only by 30 percent in the area, while about 70 percent is threshed manually.
Average grain production was recorded at about 21 maunds per acre for inbred and about 33
maunds per acre for hybrid maize with 15 to 16 maunds of stalk production per acre. The
marketable surplus is stored in gunny bags for 3 to 4 months in a cemented room. Store is
whitewashed and also fumigated with phostoxine and/or DTI. Farmer - extension linkages were
found weak. Farmers usually visit extension staff offices but extension staff rarely visits farmers’
fields during the entire season of crop. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that
soil and water testing laboratory must be established at least at circle level in order to get soil and
water test and complete nutrient map in order to get proper knowledge of input use. Hybrid seed
and certified inbred seed must be ensured. Farmers should be trained in IPM techniques for
learning about judicial use of chemicals, threshold levels for different insect species and
identification between harmful and beneficial insects. An Information Exchange Forum (IEF)
should be established to strengthen farmer - extension linkages through holding fortnightly or
monthly meetings. Extensive training programs are indispensable to increase farmers efficiency
through attaining maximum productivity levels.
An Investigation into Market Integration for Selected Fruits and Vegetables among
Muzaffarabad, Rawalpindi and Mansehra Markets
This study was aimed to examine the market integration for fruits and vegetables among
Muzaffarabad, Mansehra, and Rawalpindi markets. The study was conducted on secondary data
which collected from price control committees of selected markets. The selected fruits and
vegetables included in the study are onions, tomato, potato, cauliflower, and garlic for vegetables;
and Apple (kalakulu), Apple (golden), and banana for fruits. The bi-variate econometric model was
used to find out the market integration. The variation of prices in Rawalpindi market was higher
than other two markets for potato but the mean price in Mansehra market was lower than the other
two. However, the mean prices of tomato among three markets were near about the same. The price
fluctuations of tomato prices in three markets show that the price of Rawalpindi market was on its
maximum level among three markets. The mean price of onion at Rawalpindi market was at the
lowest than of all markets. There was higher change in garlic prices among the three markets. The
maximum price of garlic at Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi markets were the same. The mean prices
of cauliflower in Mansehra market were lower than the Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi markets.
The mean prices of Apple (kalakulu) among the three markets were found different. The price
fluctuations of Apple (kalakulu) in three markets show that the prices at Rawalpindi market goes on
its maximum level among three markets. However, the mean price of Apple (Golden) in Mansehra
market is lower than the other markets, whereas the mean price of Banana in Muzaffarabad was
higher than the other two markets.
Econometric analysis revealed that potato prices were partially transmitted from Muzaffarabad to
Rawalpindi market and there was no difference in the transshipment cost between the two markets.
Like Muzaffarabad, the price transmission from Rawalpindi to Muzaffarabad market was also
partial. It was also observed that Rawalpindi Muzaffarabad markets were not fully integrated for
The flow of price information from Rawalpindi, Mansehra and Muzaffarabad markets was partial.
For example, these markets are partially integrated with each other for fruits and vegetables and not
fully integrated for banana and Apple (golden) in Mansehra but the markets of Muzaffarabad and
Rawalpindi are fully integrated.
It is suggested that governments should examine and disseminate market information especially
prices on daily or weekly basis to improve marketing efficiency and consequently fetching of fair
product prices. The poor market integration reveals that markets are not quite competitive. This
necessitates extensive government interventions to improve competitiveness and enhance market
efficiency. Since there is no single regular fruits and vegetables market in AJ&K, so government
should establish fruits and vegetables market in public sector for the betterment of producers and
An Assessment of Absolute Poverty: A Case Study of District Muzaffarabad, AJK
In this study the caloric intake concept under absolute poverty was used for assessment of
poverty in District Muzaffarabad. In this approach, poverty is defined in-terms of a food
poverty line that reflects the minimum food expenditure needed to achieve the minimum
required level of caloric intake. For this purpose, monthly data on food consumption was
collected from the respondents. The results indicate that the average per capita energy intake
in District Muzaffarabad was 2298 kilo calories per day. The percentage difference with
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of District Muzaffarabad was -2.2 percent, which
means that District Muzaffarabad is 2.2 percent deficient in energy. The average per capita
protein intake in AJK was 60.7 gm. per day whereas; Recommended Dietary Allowance is 55
gm. per day. The percentage difference with RDA of District Muzaffarabad was 10.4
percent, which means that in District Muzaffarabad the intake is 10.4 percent higher than
RDA. The average per capita calcium intake in District Muzaffarabad was 582.3 mg. per day
while the per capita Recommended Dietary Allowance of calcium is 983.3 mg. The
percentage difference with RDA of District Muzaffarabad was -40.8 percent, which means
that 40.8 percent deficiency is noticed in calcium intake in District Muzaffarabad. The results
also show that except Punjab all the provinces including District Muzaffarabad are deficient
in calcium intake. In District Muzaffarabad, the average per capita vitamin-A intake was
1097.8 micro gram per day whereas, their percentage difference with RDA was -76.9
percent. This shows that District Muzaffarabad is 76.9 percent deficient in vitamin-A. It is
evident from the study that the intakes of energy, Iron, calcium and vitamin-A in District
Muzaffarabad were below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) whereas, protein
intake was above the RDA. It shows that AJK is deficient in intakes of energy, Iron, calcium
and vitamin-A except protein. The percentage difference with RDA of energy, protein, Iron,
calcium and vitamin-A were -2.2, 10.4, -25, -40.8 &-76.9, respectively. The people of
District Muzaffarabad should concentrate on such foods items which contain abundant of
energy, Iron, calcium and vitamin-A, whereas they should reduce protein rich foods. The
exceeding maximum daily protein intake could reduce the athletic performance and have an
undesirable effect on health. In short, the people should eat balance food items to maintain
their good health. For this purpose government of District Muzaffarabad should create
awareness among the people though training, seminars/workshops and electronic media as
well as print media.