80SG/2A Original: English 25 May 2012 ANIMAL HEALTH STATUS WORLDWIDE IN 2011 AND EARLY 20121 There were a number of major regional events involving OIE-listed diseases in 2011 and early 2012. This report begins with an overview of the trends observed in 2011 and early 2012 regarding exceptional disease events, reported in the form of immediate notifications by Member Countries and disseminated by the OIE. It then reports on the current situation worldwide concerning livestock populations and veterinary personnel. Lastly, it reviews the current situation regarding infection with Schmallenberg virus, foot and mouth disease (FMD), highly pathogenic avian influenza due to virus serotype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) and glanders in terrestrial animals, and infection with Xenohaliotis Californiensis and Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) in aquatic animals. 1. Exceptional epidemiological events reported to the OIE Between 1 January 2011 and 25 May 2012, 258 immediate notifications of exceptional epidemiological events were received by the OIE; they were submitted by 86 countries and involved 63 different diseases. Fifty-seven percent of these exceptional events related to 11 diseases: FMD (16%), HPAI (10%); low pathogenic avian influenza in poultry (6%); Newcastle disease (5%); anthrax (4%); peste des petits ruminants (3%); bluetongue (3%); rabies (3%); Schmallenberg virus infection (3%), reported as an emerging disease; white spot disease (2%) and sheep pox and goat pox (2%) (Figure 1). Figure 1. Main exceptional epidemiological events reported between 1 January 2011 and 25 May 2012 Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE 1 Prepared by the OIE Animal Health Information Department OIE • 12, rue de Prony • 75017 Paris • France Tel.: 33 (0)1 44 15 18 88 • Fax: 33 (0)1 42 67 09 87 • www.oie.int • firstname.lastname@example.org 2. Farmed animal populations and Veterinary Services 2.1. Farmed animal populations OIE Member Countries and various non-member countries report their animal population figures to the OIE through the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) annual reports. These data have been used to analyse the average population by livestock category in the world during the period 20052011 (Table 1). To avoid bias, only countries that have provided data for at least four of the seven years between 2005 and 2011 have been included in the analysis. When data were missing for one or two years, we used an estimate of the missing information 2 . On this basis, the animal population was calculated using the following numbers of countries for the various categories of livestock: birds, 154 countries; swine, 148 countries; sheep and goats, 168 countries; cattle (bovine and buffalo populations, as applicable), 172 countries. The largest category of livestock consisted of birds (average of 35 102 335 230 animals), followed by sheep and goats (average of 2 186 913 704 animals), swine (average of 1 601 642 232 animals), and cattle (average of 1 594 191 606 animals). The main trends in each of these four categories, taking 2005 as the reference year, were as follows: the bird population decreased in 2006 (impact of the HPAI epizootic crisis) and then increased in the following years; the swine population decreased in 2007, because China (People’s Rep. of), the largest pig producer, decreased its production that year, and since remained quite stable; the sheep and goat population and the cattle population remained quite stable (Figure 2). Table 1: Distribution of the livestock population in the world during the period 2005-2011 Population Category Average 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Birds 33 566 324 436 32 738 709 620 33 512 062 107 34 935 909 324 36 061 572 006 37 275 260 731 37 626 508 388 35 102 335 230 Sheep/ Goats 2 202 079 365 2 278 022 667 2 140 155 192 2 094 604 654 2 169 667 450 2 203 953 683 2 219 912 921 2 186 913 704 Swine 1 631 498 883 1 650 885 180 1 493 347 296 1 558 308 703 1 609 683 075 1 628 284 211 1 639 488 275 1 601 642 232 Cattle 1 596 601 199 1 591 031 289 1 562 055 553 1 566 827 873 1 588 320 463 1 629 480 891 1 625 023 974 1 594 191 606 According to the data provided during this period, two countries, China (People’s Rep of) and Brazil, (presented in decreasing order) accounted for 57% of the total farmed bird population. Three countries, China (People’s Rep of), India, and Nigeria, accounted for around 43% of the sheep and goat population. Five countries, China (People’s Rep. of), United States of America, Brazil, Vietnam and Germany, accounted for 78% of the swine population. Three countries: India, Brazil and China (People’s Rep. of), accounted for 41% of the cattle population. Figure 2: Variation (%) in livestock populations in the world since 2005, by category Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE 2 2 The estimate was the average between the year before and the year after of the missing value. Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Worldwide, aquatic animal production was reported by 100 Member Countries (56%) during the period 2005–2011, though not on a regular basis. The absence of aquatic animal production figures for 78 Member Countries (44%) added to a lack of updated figures for a number of countries, limits the possibility to compare aquatic animal production trends across the world. The importance of Member Countries’ regularly reporting animal production figures, including those for aquaculture and fisheries, in their annual reports to the OIE needs to be highlighted. 2.2. Veterinary Services OIE Member Countries and various non-member countries report to the OIE, through the WAHIS annual reports, the number of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals 3 from Veterinary Authorities and those accredited from the private sector that are involved in public sector veterinary activities. This information can be used to analyse the human resources of Veterinary Services 4 worldwide and to compare different countries and regions. First, an analysis of the distribution of veterinarians in the different fields of activity was made, based on data provided in the annual reports for 2011. When data for 2011 were missing, data from the annual reports for 2010 were used. A total of 855,523 veterinarians were thus reported by 159 countries: 64% (546,198 veterinarians) were reported to be engaged in animal health activities and 26% (223,376 veterinarians) in veterinary public health activities; 6% (47,265 veterinarians) were reported to be working in laboratories and 5% (38,684 veterinarians) in academic and training institutions (Figure 3). Based on the data from countries that provided information on all categories of veterinarians, a comparison was made between the various regions. In North America (2 countries) and Oceania (7 countries), between 88% and 89% of veterinarians were involved in animal health activities, while between 2% and 5% of veterinary professionals were involved in veterinary public health activities (abattoirs, food hygiene, etc.). In South America (12 countries) and Africa (49 countries), 76% of veterinarians were involved in animal health activities, whereas between 9% and 15% of veterinary professionals were involved in veterinary public health activities. In Europe (46 countries), 66% of veterinarians were involved in animal health activities, while veterinary public health activities accounted for 21% of veterinarians. In Central America (14 countries) and Asia (39 countries), between 55% and 61% of veterinarians were involved in animal health activities, while veterinary public health activities accounted for 4% and 37% of veterinarians, respectively. The percentage of veterinarians working in laboratories ranged between 1% in North America and 32% in Central America. Figure 3: Percentage of veterinarians involved in the different fields in 2011, by region Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE 3 A “Veterinary para-professional” is defined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code as “a person who, for the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, is authorised by the veterinary statutory body to carry out certain designated tasks (dependent upon the category of veterinary para-professional) in a territory, and delegated to them under the responsibility and direction of a veterinarian. The tasks for each category of veterinary para-professional should be defined by the veterinary statutory body depending on qualifications and training, and according to need”. 4 OIE definition for “Veterinary Services” (extracted from the Terrestrial Animal Health Code): means the governmental and nongovernmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code and the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code in the territory. The Veterinary Services are under the overall control and direction of the Veterinary Authority. Private sector organisations, veterinarians, veterinary paraprofessionals or aquatic animal health professionals are normally accredited or approved by the Veterinary Authority to deliver the delegated functions. Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 3 As expected, animal health activities accounted for the highest number of veterinarians in all regions. However, this field of activity also relies heavily on veterinary para-professionals, especially in developing countries. A second analysis, based on data from the 155 countries that provided information on the categories of veterinary personnel involved in animal health activities, was made to assess the relative importance of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals in animal health activities in that field in the different regions. The results indicate that, worldwide, 52% of animal health activities were covered by veterinary paraprofessionals and 48% by veterinarians (Figure 4). However, differences were observed between regions. In Oceania (7 countries), animal health activities were mainly covered by veterinarians (93%), with a smaller involvement of para-professionals (7%). The situation was similar in Europe (35 countries), where 14% of veterinary personnel involved in animal health activities were veterinary para-professionals. In the Americas (28 countries), veterinary para-professionals had a proportionately higher involvement in animal health activities, since they represented 42% of the veterinary personnel involved in this field in North America, 47% in Central America, and 55% in South America. Finally, in Asia (36 countries) and Africa (47 countries), animal health activities relied mainly on veterinary paraprofessionals rather than on veterinarians: in these two regions, veterinary para-professionals accounted for 69% and 80%, respectively, of all veterinary personnel involved in these activities. Figure 4: Categories of veterinary personnel involved in animal health activities in 2011, by region Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE The distribution of veterinary personnel, in terms of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals, varied considerably between regions, as shown in Figure 4. A third analysis assessed the relative involvement of veterinarians and para-professionals in animal health activities in the different countries within regions, to have a clearer understanding of the organisation of national Veterinary Services. For the 156 countries that provided figures for veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals involved in animal health activities, the ratio was calculated by dividing the number of veterinary para-professionals by the number of veterinarians: a ratio below 1 thus indicates that animal health activities relied mainly on veterinarians, and a ratio above 1 indicates that animal health activities relied mainly on veterinary para-professionals. A special category was created for countries presenting a ratio above 10, indicating that animal health activities relied almost exclusively on veterinary para-professionals. As shown in Figure 5, almost all European countries presented a ratio below 1. However, other regions presented greater contrasts. In Oceania, although the overall regional result shows that animal health activities relied mainly on veterinarians; many countries presented a ratio above 1. There were also contrasting situations in the Americas, since 14 countries had a ratio below 1 and 14 countries presented a ratio above 1. In Asia, a large majority of countries had a ratio above 1, indicating that animal health activities were mainly reliant on para-professionals; a few countries showed a ratio above 10, indicating that animal health activities relied almost exclusively on para-professionals. 4 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Lastly, in Africa, almost all countries presented a ratio above 1, with a significant number of countries with ratios above 10 (and some up to 120). These results reflect the importance of para-professional in the veterinary services of these regions. Figure 5: Ratio of veterinary para-professionals to veterinarians involved in animal health activities in 2011 Quantification of the human resources available to Veterinary Services provides a useful indicator of a country’s disease early warning, detection, surveillance and control capabilities. Considerable differences exist between regions and between countries within regions, especially when one compares the contribution made by veterinarians with that made by veterinary para-professionals in terms of animal health activities. In some countries, and especially developing countries, Veterinary Services rely mainly on veterinary para-professionals rather than on veterinarians. A more exhaustive analysis would have been possible had all countries provided data on their veterinary human resources. 2.3. Livestock population in relation to Veterinary Services Taking into account the livestock population figures and the number of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals working for animal health activities presented above, it is possible to analyse the relationship between livestock population and the available veterinary personnel by country. This is important in order to evaluate the availability of veterinary human resources to deal with the existing livestock population and obtain an indication of the zoo-sanitary coverage of this population. To avoid introducing a bias inherent in the use of data on different animal species, the population figures are converted into livestock units (LSU). To obtain the livestock population equivalent in LSU, the conversion coefficient taken into account by WAHID5 has been used. Figure 6 shows the distribution of the world’s livestock population, by LSU. The world’s livestock population consists mainly of poultry, swine, cattle (bovine and buffaloes), sheep and goats. 103 Member Countries provided information on their bird, swine, cattle and sheep/goat populations in 2011. 49 Member Countries did not provide the information in 2011 and therefore an estimate based on their data from previous years has been used. Five Member Countries did not provide any information on their livestock populations during the period 2005-2011. Data provided by a total of 152 Member countries and nine non-member countries/territories have been used in this analysis. 5 Estimation of LSU: 1 LSU = 250 kg; 1 bird = 1.5 kg; 1 bovine animal = 250 kg; 1 buffalo = 350 kg; 1 sheep = 20 kg; 1 goat = 20 kg; 1 pig = 30 kg. Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 5 Figure 6: Worldwide distribution of the livestock population by LSU in 2011 The number of veterinarians and the number of veterinary para-professionals involved in animal health activities in 2011 were considered for this analysis. In this field, 546,198 veterinarians and 582,664 veterinary para-professionals were reported by 153 countries. The number of veterinarians working in the animal health sector by country varied from 0 to 111,100 (median: 296). The number of veterinary para-professionals working in the animal health sector by country varied from 0 to 269,000 (median: 220). If we match the livestock population figures (expressed in LSU) with the number of veterinarians involved in the animal health sector per country, we obtain the map shown in Figure 7. However, in some countries animal health activities rely heavily on veterinary para-professionals and the figures for veterinarians do not therefore reflect the true capacities of the Veterinary Services. If we match the livestock population figures (expressed in LSU) with the combined number of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals involved in the animal health sector per country, we obtain the map shown in Figure 8. Figure 7: Worldwide distribution of veterinarians involved in animal health activities by 100 000 LSU in 2011 6 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Figure 8: Worldwide distribution of veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals involved in animal health activities by 100 000 LSU in 2011 The workforce of the Veterinary Services in relation to the existing livestock population is a parameter that needs to be taken into consideration when assessing the animal health situation of a given country. 3. Selected animal diseases 3.1. Terrestrial animal diseases 3.1.1. Schmallenberg virus infection In December 2011, reports from a number of European countries alerted the OIE to the occurrence of a new, previously unknown disease associated with the presence of a virus belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. The virus was named “Schmallenberg” after the German village where the first laboratory confirmed cases were detected. The route of transmission of Schmallenberg virus was determined as being associated with biting midges (Culicoides) and vertical transmission via the placenta To date, Schmallenberg virus infection has only occurred in ruminants, with cases reported in sheep, goats and cattle. The presence of the virus appears to be associated with congenital abnormalities (such as limb deformities, hydrocephalus and scoliosis) in stillborn and newborn lambs, kids and calves. Dystocia and abortions have also been observed, associated with malformed foetuses. The Netherlands was the first country to notify the disease to the OIE, with episodes starting on 19 December 2011. Up to 25 May 2012, 631 cases in 345 farms had been reported (369 in sheep, 252 in cattle and 10 in goats), with affected farms widespread across the country (Figure 9). Belgium was the second country to notify Schmallenberg virus infection, with outbreaks starting on 14 December 2011; up to 25 May 2012, 15 farms were reported to have been affected with 27 cases in sheep and 1 in cattle. Germany was the third country to notify the first cases having started on 27 December 2011; up to 25 May 2012, 3,073 cases in 1,222 farms had been reported, with 2,498 cases in sheep, 497 in cattle, 55 in goats and 23 in mixed herds of sheep and goats. As in The Netherlands, the affected farms were widespread across the country (Figure 9), suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of the virus/vector. On 14 January 2012, the United Kingdom had its first outbreaks, which occurred on the southeast coast of England. Up to 25 May 2012, 266 farms were reported to have been affected (481 cases in lambs and 49 in calves). The farms affected were located in ‘at risk’ areas for vector incursion from continental Europe, mainly along the south coast of England (Figure 9). Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 7 In France the first outbreak started on 20 January 2012 in the north-east of the country (Figure 9). By 25 May 2012, a total of 1,471 farms had been affected. On 6 February 2012, Italy had a case of Schmallenberg virus infection, in Veneto region in the north of the country (See Figure 9), with a goat that presented with a dystocic malformed foetus that tested positive for the virus. By 25 May 2012, four additional cases were reported in goats and one in cattle. Luxemburg (7 February 2012) joined the list of affected countries and by 25 May 2012, 12 farms were affected, five cases occurring in sheep farms, one case occurring in a mixed production sheep and goat farm and six in cattle. On 6 March 2012, Schmallenberg virus infection was detected in Spain, in Andalucía region (south of the country (Figure 9), in an aborted lamb from a mixed production sheep and goat farm. Figure 9: Distribution of outbreaks of infection with Schmallenberg virus infection reported between December 2011 and 25 May 2012 The overall morbidity/mortality for the presentation of congenital abnormalities found across the different countries is low. In particular, specific data from Belgium and Germany place withinherd morbidity and mortality at around 3% of newborn lambs. The diagnosis so far is being carried out by real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and viral sequencing, but the recent development of rapid tests and serology would enable faster detection of the presence of the virus and contributes to an increase in the sensitivity of virus detection. So far, no vaccine is available and there is no known effective antiviral treatment. Control of arthropods as potential vectors is the main control measure applied by the affected countries. To date, no cases have been found in humans. The risk assessments and the conducted epidemiological studies in animals and humans ruled out a zoonotic potential. 8 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 3.1.2. Foot and mouth disease There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMD virus, namely A, O, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3, and Asia 1. Their geographical distribution around the world may vary, as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: Foot and mouth disease distribution by serotype during 2011 and early 2012 According to the exceptional events reported between 1 January 2011 and 25 May 2012, the following 11 countries/territories notified the reoccurrence of FMD: Botswana, Bulgaria, Israel, Kazakhstan, Libya, Namibia, Paraguay, Russia, South Africa, Tajikistan and Zambia. The following eight countries/territories had on-going outbreaks: Angola, China (People’s Rep. of), Chinese Taipei, Korea (Dem. People’s Rep. of), Korea (Rep. of), Mozambique, Myanmar and Zimbabwe, as well as Palestinian Autonomous Territories and Vietnam, where the disease is endemic. In 2012, Egypt notified the first occurrence of FMD due to serotype SAT 2. Africa FMD is present in many parts of the continent and five serotypes (A, O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and C) were reported in 2011 and the beginning of 2012. Some exceptional epidemiological events relating to FMD were notified from the northern and southern parts of the continent due to serotypes O, SAT 1 and SAT 2. In North Africa, Libya reported in February 2011 the reoccurrence of FMD with two outbreaks in cattle near Tripoli; the OIE FMD Reference Laboratory at Pirbright, United Kingdom, confirmed the presence of FMD virus serotype O. In December 2011, Libya notified the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O, with 38 outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goat in the eastern and western parts of the country. The spread of the disease resulted from the movement of animals being brought to a local market from the west to the east of the country. Libya also experienced the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype SAT 2 in February 2012, the first occurrence of this serotype since in July 2003. The first outbreak was observed in a farm with feedlot animals coming from Sub Saharan Africa. Five animals from the new stock suddenly died three days after they were introduced. Egypt notified the first occurrence of FMD serotype SAT 2 in the country on 14 March 2012. The event started on 18 February 2012 in cattle and buffaloes in Kafr Qeretna, Al Gharbiyah. By 4 April 2012, 43 outbreaks had been reported in cattle, sheep, goats and buffaloes. Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 9 In February 2011, Botswana reported FMD due to SAT 2 in Maun (outside the officially recognised FMD free zones). This event was declared closed in June 2011. Another outbreak due to the same serotype occurred in Francistown in April 2011; this outbreak was located in the eastern part of Botswana, in one of the two OIE-recognised FMD free zones without vaccination. Botswana indicated that the last recorded clinical case in the containment zone was in cattle on 31 July 2011. As part of the programme to ascertain the absence of FMD infection in the containment zone, the first round of clinical and serological surveillance in pigs, goats and sheep, following the implementation of a stamping out policy for cattle, started in February 2012. Another round of district sero-surveillance of small stock was carried out between 22 March 2012 and 5 April 2012. In this phase, pigs were excluded from sero-sampling, based on the previously obtained negative serological results. Another outbreak due to SAT 2 was reported in May 2011 in Selibe-Phikwe district (zone 7). Zone 7 is an OIE stand-alone zone (FMD-free without vaccination) separate from the other zones in Botswana; therefore, an outbreak of FMD in zone 7 has no effect on the movement of cloven-hoofed animals in the rest of the country. Movement of cloven-hoofed animals and fresh products derived from them out of zone 7 is placed under restriction; additionally, a total ban on the movement within or into zone 7 of all cloven-hoofed animals and fresh products derived from them has been instituted. Extensive surveillance is on-going to determine the extent of disease spread in the district. An additional outbreak due the same serotype was reported in September 2011 in Ngamiland district, Maun, in the FMD vaccination zone. The animal and animal product movement protocol introduced before the reoccurrence of FMD did not allow cloven-hoofed animals and fresh products derived from them to be moved out of the zone. Therefore, the reoccurrence of FMD in zone 2d 6 does not affect the disease status in other zones. Following extensive surveillance conducted during six months without recording any case, the outbreak has been resolved and closed on 15 May 2012. Between May and June 2010, Zimbabwe reported five outbreaks with 204 cases (due to the same serotype) in a zone near the border with Botswana; the infection with SAT 2 was linked to contact with infected animals at a grazing/watering point. The source of the outbreaks was illegal movement of cattle from an endemic area. The outbreaks were brought under control using vaccination and movement control. This event was declared closed in May 2011. Mozambique reported eight outbreaks due to SAT 2 in September 2010, in cattle and sheep in Gaza province; the source of the outbreaks appears to have been illegal movement of animals. Three more outbreaks were reported. The event was reported to be continuing and the last followup report was submitted on 17 June 2011. In South Africa, 46 new outbreaks were reported between February and April 2011, following the identification of subclinical infection (serotype SAT 1) in cattle in KwaZulu-Natal. The affected area was partially situated in the FMD free zone of South Africa. This event was declared closed in July 2011. Between 30 December 2011 and 24 April 2012, three FMD outbreaks due to serotype SAT 2 were identified in cattle in Mpumalanga, with 22 cases among 2,751 susceptible cattle. Namibia reported the reoccurrence of FMD with an outbreak due to serotype SAT 1 being observed in cattle in Caprivi in November 2011; three outbreaks were subsequently observed in the same area up to 5 January 2012. There were 282 registered cases among a total of 5,523 susceptible cattle. The Caprivi area was already considered as an infected zone by the Namibian Veterinary Authorities because of its geographical location. The outbreak was due to contact with African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Cattle in the affected area are being vaccinated. Zambia reported a reoccurrence of FMD, with an outbreak in cattle notified in January 2012 in Mbala District, Mwamba Kaka, Northern Province, near the border with Tanzania. Laboratory confirmation has not yet been provided. 6 Zone 2 is subdivided into four subzones, which are 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d from North to South. 10 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Asia In September 2010, Myanmar was affected by FMD serotype A in cattle. The outbreak was resolved in February 2011, after ring vaccination and disinfection of the affected premises. In November 2010, the Republic of Korea reported the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O, with 155 outbreaks occurring up to April 2011. No further information has been provided since April 2011. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea reported the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O in December 2010, with 139 reported outbreaks up to April 2011. This event was declared closed in April 2011. Four important events relating to FMD were observed in Asia in 2011 and the beginning of 2012, three involving serotype O and one involving serotype SAT 2. Chinese Taipei reported several FMD outbreaks due to serotype O starting in February 2009 (the previous occurrence was in 2001) and continued to report outbreaks in 2010, 2011 and early 2012. In March 2011, two outbreaks were notified in P'Eng-Hu Island in two pig farms with 140 cases among 999 susceptible animals. Stamping out was applied. Ten outbreaks of FMD due to the same serotype were reported between March and December 2011. A new outbreak due to serotype O was identified in January 2012 in P'Eng-Hu Island; the source of the outbreak was feeder pigs at a quarantine station, which have been transported from Taiwan Island to P'Eng-Hu Island and were found to have vesicular lesions. The pigs were destroyed and cleaning and disinfection of the premises were completed. The event was closed on 29 March 2012. The first occurrence of FMD serotype O South-East Asia (SEA) topotype was identified in four pig farms in Kinnen Township. Stamping out was applied. In February 2012, during the routine active surveillance, FMD due to serotype O was detected in three pig farms. Up to 25 May 2012, three additional outbreaks were detected across the territory with 66 cases in pigs. China (People’s Rep. of) reported an event involving several FMD outbreaks due to serotype O. The event started in February 2010 and the last reported outbreak was resolved on 9 January 2012. A total of 26 outbreaks occurred across the country, during which 7,925 cattle, sheep, goats and swine were destroyed. A new event, involving the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O, was notified on 19 February 2012 in a village in Gucheng, Pengyang, Guyuan, Ningxia; the outbreak involved four cases in cattle among a population of 51 cattle and seven small ruminants. Stamping out and ring vaccination in cattle, swine and small ruminants were applied. The Palestinian Autonomous Territories reported the disease as endemic due to serotype O since February 2009. In April 2012, a new strain of FMD was reported with an outbreak due to serotype SAT 2 in Rafah, Gaza Strip, with three cases among 120 susceptible cattle. The farm was located 3 km from the Egyptian border. The outbreak was linked with the introduction of new live animals, and vaccination has been implemented in response to the outbreak. Europe During the period covered by this report, FMD exceptional events due to serotype O were reported by Bulgaria, Israel, Kazakhstan and Russia. Serotype Asia 1 was reported by Tajikistan and an exceptional event involving serotype A was reported by Kazakhstan. Israel reported 21 outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats in Hazafon in 2011; serotype O was identified. On 22 March 2012, Israel notified an FMD outbreak due to serotype O in Hadarom (Rahat, Beer-Sheva). An additional outbreak started on 26 March 2012 in Hadarom. Thirty sheep were affected by the disease. The source of infection was the introduction of lambs of unknown origin into the flock. Vaccination was implemented in response to the outbreak. This event was closed in April 2012. Bulgaria reported the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O in January 2011, in the zone of Burgas, about 2 km from the border with Turkey. The first case was reported in a wild boar that was shot by hunters. The laboratory analysis indicated that the FMD virus was serotype O, topotype ME-SA, strain PanAsia-2ANT-10, which has more than 99.5% affinity with samples isolated in 2010 in Iran and Turkey. Eleven more outbreaks were then reported in cattle, small Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 11 ruminants, swine and buffaloes. Stamping out was applied to these species to control the spread of the disease. This event was considered as closed in June 2011. In March 2011, Russia notified an outbreak caused by serotype O in the village of Us’t-Imalka, located 18 km from the border with Mongolia, in the FMD buffer zone. In this zone, the veterinary authorities vaccinate cattle, sheep and goats, using a trivalent vaccine against serotypes O, A and Asia 1. This event was resolved in May 2011. In March 2012, Russia notified the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O in the villages of Usachevka and Pospelovka, Khorol`sky raion, Primorskiy Kray. The two outbreaks affected 89 cattle and 22 sheep and goats among 609 cattle, 10 swine and 47 small ruminants. According to the results of nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis, the isolate belongs to type O Pan Asia genetic lineage and is genetically close to the isolates involved in the FMD outbreaks in China (People’s Rep. of) and Eastern Kazakhstan in 2011. Primorsky Kray is part of the buffer zone where cattle and small livestock are vaccinated against FMD on an annual basis. The event was closed in April 2012. Kazakhstan reported the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O in May 2011, in the zone of Ural’sk, Western Kazakhstan. There were two outbreaks with 62 cases, all in cattle, among a susceptible population of 972 cattle and 2,974 sheep and goats. Stamping out and ring vaccination were applied to cattle and small ruminants to control the spread of the disease. Another event, apparently not epidemiologically linked with the previous outbreaks, was notified in Eastern Kazakhstan in August 2011, in the zone Karashilik, Kurchumskiy: 1,772 cows and 2,782 small ruminants were affected. Modified stamping out was applied and 19,847 cattle, 53,905 sheep and 72 pigs were vaccinated. The event is not yet resolved. Kazakhstan reported another exceptional event in March 2012, in the zone of Moyinkumsky, Dzhambul. This event was due to serotype A, a new strain in the country. A total of 217 cases were reported in cattle and three cases were reported in sheep. Stamping out and ring vaccination with a trivalent vaccine (against serotypes A, O and Asia 1) were applied. As of 25 May 2012, the event was not yet resolved. Tajikistan reported the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype Asia 1 in November 2011, in Shurobod district, Khalton, close to the border with Afghanistan. The outbreak was detected following anatomo-pathological investigations. Thirty-one cases were detected in cattle and 14 cases in small ruminants. In response to the outbreak, modified stamping out was carried out and 178 cattle and 366 small ruminants were vaccinated against FMD using a trivalent (A, O, Asia 1) vaccine. The event was resolved in December 2011. Americas An FMD exceptional event was notified in the Americas in 2011, with the reoccurrence of FMD due to serotype O in Paraguay. The outbreak occurred in Sargento Loma, San Pedro, in September 2011 and involved 13 cases among 819 cattle. This was the first reoccurrence of FMD in Paraguay since July 2003. Stamping out was applied and the event was closed on 25 September 2011. On 30 December 2011, a new outbreak started in Aguaray Amistad, San Pedro. Stamping out of all susceptible animals was completed on 9 January 2012: 163 cattle (154 cattle in the affected farm and 9 without clinical signs in premises considered to be in contact) and five swine without clinical signs were culled. This event was considered to have ended the same day. The notification of FMD in several parts of the world highlighted the continued spread posed by FMD as a major transboundary disease. Cross-border movements of animals and animal products were contributing to the spread of FMD serotypes. The persistence of FMD serotypes in most continents indicated the need for all countries to put maintain efforts against the disease and its introduction into free zones. 12 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 3.1.3. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) Background information The first recorded occurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to serotype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) was identified in a poultry farm in Hong Kong (SAR-PRC), in 2003. In late 2003 and in 2004, HPAI H5N1 was restricted to South-East Asia, but in 2005 it spread to Central Asia, Russia and Eastern Europe. In 2006, it reached the African continent and the Middle East for the first time and spread to Western Europe, where mainly wild birds were infected. In 2006, 47 countries/territories notified the OIE of the presence of the disease. In 2008, 24 countries/territories notified the reoccurrence of HPAI H5N1 following its previous eradication or reported its presence as an entrenched disease, thus indicating that the virus was continuing to circulate. These countries/territories were as follows: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (People’s Rep. of), Egypt (endemic), Germany (wildlife), Hong Kong (SAR-PRC), India, Indonesia (endemic), Iran, Israel, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Laos, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Vietnam. In 2009, the following eight countries/territories had on-going outbreaks: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Japan, Togo and Vietnam. The following seven countries/territories notified the reoccurrence of the disease: China (People’s Rep. of), Germany (wild birds), Hong Kong (SAR-PRC), Laos, Mongolia, Nepal and Russia. In January 2009, Nepal notified the reoccurrence of HPAI due to serotype H5N1 (two outbreaks in backyard poultry). Germany notified the reoccurrence of the disease in a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Samples taken from other birds at the same time tested negative. The place where the birds were sampled is within a risk zone and free-range holding of poultry is thus forbidden. There are no poultry holdings in the vicinity. In 2010, Bhutan notified the first occurrence in free-range poultry, while the following six countries/territories had on-going outbreaks: Bangladesh, China (People’s Rep. of), Hong Kong (SAR-PRC) and Vietnam, as well as Egypt and Indonesia where the disease is endemic. During the year, the following 13 countries/territories notified the reoccurrence of the disease: Bulgaria (wild bird), Cambodia, China (People’s Rep. of), India, Israel, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Laos, Mongolia (wild birds), Myanmar, Nepal, Romania and Russia (wild bird). HPAI due to serotype H5N1: situation in animals in 2011 and early 2012 In 2011 and early 2012, the following countries/territories reported the reoccurrence of the disease: Bhutan, Cambodia, China (People’s Rep. of), Hong Kong (SAR-PRC), India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Mongolia (wild birds), Myanmar, Nepal and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories. The following countries had on-going outbreaks: Bangladesh and Vietnam, as well as Egypt and Indonesia where the disease is considered endemic. In Africa, the disease is still reported as endemic in Egypt. In 2011, there were 317 reported outbreaks with 218,797 cases. Since the disease first occurred, Asia is the continent that has reported the highest number of outbreaks. In Indonesia, the disease is still reported as endemic; 18 outbreaks with 63,057 cases were reported in the first six-monthly report for 2011. Seventeen countries notified the disease in 2011 and early 2012. In Korea (Rep. of), 39 wild birds were captured and sampled in November 2010 as part of an on-going avian influenza surveillance programme and one mallard duck tested positive. Additional avian influenza testing was conducted in wild birds captured on a site and four further outbreaks were reported in wild birds with 24 cases. Clinical surveillance and disinfection on neighbouring poultry farms were stepped up. Between 29 December 2010 and 16 May 2011, 53 outbreaks were reported in poultry, involving 39,649 cases, and 1,396,376 birds were destroyed. Later, in response to the outbreaks, disease control measures, including depopulation and disinfection, were applied to 6,472,711 birds. Disinfection, monitoring and clinical Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 13 surveillance have been intensified within a 10-km radius of the affected farms and no HPAI (H5N1) or low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) (H5, H7) virus has been found since 23 August 2011. Korea (Rep. of) declared regaining its highly pathogenic avian influenza free country status with effect from 23 August 2011. In Japan, an outbreak of HPAI was confirmed in December 2010 in poultry in Shimane prefecture. The virus is believed to have been carried to the vicinity of the affected farm by migratory birds, as the outbreak occurred in a season when migratory birds fly from the north to Lake Nakaumi near the farm. Between January and March 2011, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, Aichi, Oita, Mie, Wakayama, Nara and Chiba prefectures confirmed 24 outbreaks in farms. All poultry in the farms were destroyed (1,858,844 birds destroyed). The last outbreak was reported on 16 March 2011 and Japan declared itself free from notifiable avian influenza with effect from 25 June 2011. Additionally, in wildlife, another outbreak of HPAI, in a captive wild mute swan (Cygnus olor) in Toyama prefecture, was confirmed in December 2010. A total of 46 outbreaks and 64 cases were reported in wild birds between December 2010 and 9 May 2011 (date of latest laboratory result), corresponding to winter migratory birds. This event was considered as closed in March 2011. In January 2011, Myanmar notified 10 outbreaks involving poultry in Rakhine State and Sagaing. In these outbreaks there were 56,237 cases, 1,935 of which died, and a further 60,831 birds were destroyed. To effectively contain the event, the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department applied the following control measures: culling of poultry (within a 1-km radius around the affected farm), cleaning and disinfection of the infected premises, movement restriction and ban on the sale of poultry or poultry products in infected areas. In February 2012, two outbreaks in poultry were reported, in Bago and Sagaing; there were 144 cases and 2,830 birds were destroyed. No confirmed epidemiological link between the two outbreaks has been established. The event was closed in April 2011. Cambodia reported three events in 2011. The first event was in January 2011 and involved an outbreak in birds in Prek Doung, Kandal province. The second event was in July 2011 and involved an outbreak with 29 cases found in a rescue centre that provides feed for wild birds to prevent undernourishment. The third event comprised three outbreaks reported between 21 July and 7 November 2011 in Banteay Meanchey and Battambang regions. In response to these three outbreaks, a team from provincial and central level was sent to cull poultry; a total of 4,156 birds (53 chickens, 97 ducks, 6 geese and 4,000 broilers) were culled. Hong Kong (SAR-PRC) reported three events in 2011 involving birds and wild birds. The first event started in January 2011. The carcasses of several wild birds tested positive for HPAI H5N1. The species involved were oriental magpie robin (Copsychus saularis), large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchus) and black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus). These species are common and widespread residents or common winter visitors (November to April) to Hong Kong (SAR-PRC). In addition, the carcasses of a chicken and a duck tested positive, the duck having been collected on the shore of Tai O. An intensive surveillance system is in place for all poultry farms, poultry markets, pet bird shops and wild birds in Hong Kong (SAR-PRC). The second event started on 13 December 2011. Another black-headed gull, collected in Yuen Long, tested positive. There was no evidence of any spread of the disease, as this was the only case reported in this event, which was therefore considered to have ended the same day. The H5N1-infected wild birds were all detected within the framework of the ongoing surveillance programme for wild birds. The third event was reported in December 2011, involving one chicken carcass in Cheung Sha Wan and one oriental magpie robin. A total of 19,451 farmed birds, including 15,569 chickens, 810 pigeons, 1,950 pheasants and 1,122 silky fowls were culled in the Cheung Sha Wan Temporary Wholesale Poultry Market on 21 December 2011. Between 1 January and 25 May 2012, five oriental magpie robin (Copsychus saularis), four black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), three little egrets (Egretta garzetta), three peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus calidus), one grey heron (Ardea cinerea), one crested goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus), one crested myna (Acridotheres cristatellus) and one house crow (Corvus splendens) tested positive. Regarding outbreaks in wild birds, these were considered to have ended on the same date that the birds were found. The Palestinian Autonomous Territories reported an outbreak in February 2011, in a turkey farm in the West Bank province involving 2,000 cases. The event was closed in March 2011. 14 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 In India in February 2011, two outbreaks with 2,578 cases were reported in Tripura and led to the destruction of 20,520 birds. Two other outbreaks were reported in August 2011 in rural backyard poultry; there were 3,721 cases and 63,141 birds were destroyed. Stamping out of all domestic birds was applied within a radius of approximately 3 km around the outbreaks, with compensation for the owners. An intensive campaign was launched within a 10-km-radius zone and included: closure of poultry markets and a ban on the sale and transportation of poultry products in the infected zone; disinfection of premises after culling, and sealing of premises where appropriate. In February 2012, India reported the presence of the disease in crows (Corvos macrorhynchos). The outbreaks occurred between October 2011 and February 2012 in four locations in Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Orissa. In January 2012, India reported a new event, with 7 outbreaks that occurred in poultry between 3 January and 7 May 2012 in the eastern part of the country. Epidemiological investigation is ongoing. In March 2011, Israel notified the reoccurrence of the disease (the previous occurrence was in February 2010) with one outbreak in a turkey flock in the western part of the country. In the same settlement, there were two other turkey flocks and these were culled. There were 1,000 cases and 12,800 birds were destroyed. Another outbreak, in Israeli Settlements in the West Bank, was reported in April 2011. A marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) with respiratory signs was found in the wild. The sick bird had no contact with other birds from the time it was discovered until its death. Some other wild birds present in the Wildlife Veterinary Hospital were sampled and placed in quarantine. In March 2012, Israel notified two events in Hadarom (Shalwa, Ashkelon). One of these events was reported as a reoccurrence in birds and involved 19,500 cases and 10,500 deaths. The other event was reported as a change in epidemiology because the disease was found to be present in cats. Cats that had been seen eating the carcasses of infected turkeys presented clinical signs about one week later. There were 12 cases and seven deaths. Eighteen cats were destroyed. The only serotype identified to date has been H5. These last two events related to HPAI were closed in March 2012. Mongolia reported one outbreak in April 2011, involving whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus). A total of 3 cases were notified. The event was closed in May 2011. In October 2011, Iran reported an event discovered within the framework of passive surveillance and involving free-range (backyard) ducks with 1 250 cases and 4 478 birds destroyed in Mazandaran province; this province is host to migratory waterfowl from the North. The control measures applied were: stamping-out of birds in the affected villages, cleaning and disinfection of the infected premises, establishment of protection and surveillance zones around the outbreak area and movement restrictions. During post-outbreak active surveillance and monitoring, all villages in the surveillance zones were visited to ensure the detection of any other infected villages. The event was closed in January 2012. Between November 2011 and March 2012, Nepal reported 13 outbreaks involving poultry and wild birds. In poultry there were 31,429 cases and 12,210 birds were destroyed. There were four cases in wild birds (crows). Crows are widely distributed throughout residential areas in Nepal. Stamping out and cleaning and disinfection operations were completed. Risk-based intensive surveillance for avian influenza is being carried out throughout the country, especially in areas where there are large numbers of wild birds. Post-operative surveillance has been carried out in accordance with the national surveillance plan. China (People’s Rep. of) reported an outbreak in December 2011 in Lhasa, Tibet district, near the border with Bhutan, involving 290 birds. In response to the outbreak, 1,575 birds were destroyed. Another outbreak was then reported in HongTa District, YuXi City, Yunnan, involving two farmed birds; 35,018 birds were destroyed. Two additional outbreaks were then reported in Ningxia and Liaoning with 23,885 cases in birds and 84,809 animals culled. In January 2012, Bhutan reported the reoccurrence of the disease with an outbreak that started in December 2011 (the previous occurrence was in March 2010). A total of 11 outbreaks were reported, with 396 cases in poultry of which 370 died. A total of 5,542 animals were destroyed. The outbreaks occurred in Chukha province, near the southern border with India, and in Thimphu district in the northwest of the country. Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 15 In Vietnam, 38 outbreaks with 35,419 cases were reported in 2011. In 2012, up to 25 May, 22 outbreaks with 12,968 cases and 24,326 birds destroyed had been reported. The control measures adopted in response to the outbreaks include screening, zoning and vaccination. Bangladesh reported 170 outbreaks in 2011 (97,811 cases and 585,958 birds destroyed) and 22 outbreaks between 1 January and 25 May 2012 (12,879 cases and 103,217 birds destroyed). HPAI due to serotype H5N1: main trends In 2004, 254,384 HPAI H5N1 cases were reported. Figure 11 shows the percentage variation in the total number of HPAI H5N1 cases by year, taking the number of cases notified in 2004 as the baseline. The percentage variation between 2005 and 2011 shows that, after a peak in 2006 (3,258,591 cases), there was an initial decline in the number of cases per year worldwide before becoming stable. In 2009 and 2010, the figures have been even lower than the number of cases reported in 2004. It started increasing after 2010. In 2011, a slight increase was noticed in the number of cases compared to those of 2004. Figure 11: Percentage variation in the number of HPAI cases due to serotype H5N1 in animals by year, taking the number of cases notified in 2004 as the baseline Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE Since the beginning of the epizootics, a sufficient quantity of data has been collected to enable the identification of a seasonal pattern in the occurrence of new HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. As shown in Figure 12, the annual trend was for cases to be concentrated between December and April, followed by a decline in the number of cases. Figure 12: Distribution of the total number of HPAI H5N1 cases in animals, by month, for the years 2006 to 2011 Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE 16 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Since the beginning of the epizootics, farmed poultry, backyard poultry and wild birds have been affected. These three categories can be considered as separate epidemiological units. Figure 13 shows the annual distribution of HPAI H5N1 cases, by category of epidemiological unit, for the period from 2005 to 2011. It can be seen that the relative proportion of epidemiological units affected changed during this period. Episodes of HPAI H5N1 in poultry farms have decreased through the years and the level of disease stayed stable in wild birds and backyard poultry. The improvements in biosecurity techniques implemented by the poultry industry as well as early detection, rapid response and good vaccination programmes have helped to reduce the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in certain countries. Figure 13: Distribution of HPAI H5N1 cases reported between 2005 and 2011, by category of epidemiological unit and by year The map in Figure 14 shows the distribution of HPAI H5N1 cases reported in 2011, by category of epidemiological unit affected. Outbreaks were mainly reported in farmed poultry. Figure 14: Distribution of HPAI H5N1 cases reported in 2011, by category of epidemiological unit affected Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 17 HPAI H5N1 has had a significant impact on global poultry production, especially in 2006 at the peak of the epizootics. Since then, the total number of HPAI H5N1 cases in animals has decreased, whereas global poultry production has increased in recent years. Based on the evidence that has accumulated over the years, some interesting observations can be made, such as the seasonal pattern in the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, and the change in the affected populations between 2005 and 2011. HPAI H5N1 epizootics in poultry farms decreased with a trend that began in 2007, and the virus remained at low level in backyard poultry and wild birds. The decrease in the number of cases in poultry could be explained by improved biosecurity by the poultry industry and also by more efficient implementation of vaccination programmes, which are easier to carry out in industrial conditions. 3.1.4. Glanders Glanders is a zoonotic infection caused by Burkholderia mallei, a Gram negative, non-motile, non-encapsulated and non-spore-forming bacillus in the bacterial family Burkholderiaceae. The causative bacterium was previously known as Pseudomonas mallei and is evolutionarily related to the agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Hosts are equidae, humans and occasionally felidae, and other species are susceptible. Donkeys are most susceptible, mules somewhat less so and horses demonstrate some resistance manifested in chronic forms of the disease, especially in endemic areas. Susceptibility to glanders has been demonstrated in camels, bears, wolves and dogs. Carnivores may become infected by eating infected meat. Cattle and pigs are resistant. Small ruminants may also be infected if kept in close contact with glanderous horses (Source: OIE Technical disease card on glanders). Middle East Since January 2011, four countries Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iran and Lebanon have notified glanders as present. In Iran, glanders is considered to have been present since January 2008. In 2011, Iran reported 22 outbreaks with 49 cases, all of which were culled. Bahrain reported the first occurrence of glanders in April 2010, with six horses that tested positive, all of which were culled. Bahrain mentioned in its report that the first two horses, which tested positive without clinical signs of glanders, originated from Kuwait and had arrived in Bahrain six months earlier. In May 2010, 54 positive cases were detected: five horses died and the remaining 49 were culled. The surveillance began firstly in areas where infected horses had been found in the 1st round and samples taken were tested by complement fixation test (CFT) and c-ELISA by the OIE Reference Laboratory (CVRL, Dubai, UAE) and the Bahrain National Veterinary Laboratory. In April 2011, Bahrain reported the reoccurrence of glanders in the North of the country, with three outbreaks in Shakhoura and one in Janosan. They occurred in horses that were being kept under observation because they were initially CFT-negative and c-ELISApositive with no clinical signs; two of these horses died, one in January and the other in February 2011 after presenting clinical signs of glanders. A mallein test was also carried out on the two remaining cases and was positive. The horses were euthanised and B. mallei was isolated. No positive case of glanders has been reported for more than six months since the last case was culled on 20 September 2011 and a comprehensive surveillance programme was implemented demonstrating the absence of the disease in accordance with general recommendations on animal health surveillance of Chapter 1.4. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Therefore, according to Chapter 12.10 on glanders of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (2011), the Delegate of Bahrain declares his country regaining freedom from glanders. Kuwait has initiated an investigation programme for glanders in the country’s entire equine population. As part of this investigation, Kuwait notified for the first half of 2009, 22 positive cases in horses which were subsequently culled. In 2010, 11 cases were detected in horses, three of which died and the remaining eight were culled. Kuwait has micro-chipped horses and improved the capabilities of its laboratory personnel to test for the disease. The last positive case identified in a horse was on 19 December 2010. Six months having elapsed since the last positive case, the Delegate declared that her country had regained freedom from glanders, with effect from 11 March 2012, in accordance with the terms of Article 12.10.2. of the OIE Terrestrial 18 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Animal Health Code. Kuwait has stated that it will continue its glanders surveillance programme during the three coming years and after. In 2011, Lebanon notified the first occurrence of glanders in the country. The outbreak occurred in the Beirut region and started on 14 April 2011. There were three positive cases and 23 horses were destroyed. The source of the outbreak was reported to be the illegal movement of animals. Lebanon started an active surveillance programme. According to the official statistics for 2010, Lebanon had an equine population of 2,278, comprising 1,776 horses and 502 mules and donkeys. A total of 1,235 equine samples were due to be serologically tested and random sampling testing of mules and donkeys was due to be done after tests had been carried out on all horses. More than 750 samples were analysed at an OIE Reference Laboratory for glanders (Friedrich-Loeffler Institute, Jena, Germany), using CFT and immunoblot assay. Since April 2011, 1,618 horses (more than 90% of the horse population in Lebanon) have been serologically tested for glanders by CFT. During this surveillance programme, 23 animals were culled because of positive serological test results and two animals died. No cases having been reported for 6 months following the last culled case on 23 August 2011, and in view of the active surveillance programme put in place demonstrating the absence of the disease in accordance with general recommendations on animal health surveillance in Chapter 1.4. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Delegate of Lebanon declared his country free from glanders, with effect from 23 March 2012. The presence of glanders in Afghanistan had previously been suspected. In August 2011, Afghanistan confirmed the occurrence of glanders in horses in Dahsabaz, Kabul, following investigations undertaken by an epidemiology team, which found two sick horses with clinical signs of glanders and one dead animal. After this first visit, serosurveillance was carried out between October and November 2011 and 240 sera were collected from horses and donkeys in the region. All the collected sera, along with two additional sera collected from the infected farm in June 2011 (i.e. a total of 53 sera from donkeys and 189 from horses), were sent to an OIE Reference Laboratory for glanders (CVRL, Dubai, UAE) on 10 December 2011. The results were released on 25 December 2011. The sera from 10 horses tested positive, indicating a sero-prevalence of 5.3% (10/189) for horses and a 4.1% sero-prevalence (10/242) for all animals, among the samples collected from the eight owners’ premises in the region. In this context it should be noted that, according to the epidemiological information collected in the field, there are movements of horses between Pakistan and the affected region in Afghanistan, with horses regularly spending around 4 months of the year in Pakistan and the rest of the time in Afghanistan. Asia In 2011, Mongolia and Pakistan notified the presence of the disease without providing any quantitative information. In the first half of 2011, India notified three outbreaks with three positive cases in Uttar Pradesh region. In the second half of 2011, Myanmar notified one outbreak with two positive cases in Shan State. Americas In 2011, Brazil reported the presence of glanders in a zone comprising the States of Alagoas, Amazonas, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte. There were 17 outbreaks with 40 positive cases, one of which died. The remaining 39 horses were culled. On 22 May 2012, Brazil reported one outbreak in Minas Gerais with 2 cases which were destroyed in the farm. The outbreak was detected following movement control activities carried out by the Official Veterinary Services. Surveillance and clinical inspections of animals having been in contact with the affected animals as well as investigations in order to identify the source or origin of the disease are being conducted by the Official Veterinary Services. Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 19 Africa Ethiopia reported the suspected presence of the disease in 2011. Eritrea reported the presence of the disease in 2010. No reports have been yet submitted for 2011 and 2012. Figure 15 shows the distribution of glanders reported in 2011 through immediate notifications, follow-up reports and six-monthly reports. Figure 15: Distribution of glanders reported in 2011 Since 2010, the glanders situation has improved in some countries of the Middle East, thanks to the surveillance and eradication programmes put in place. Glanders is most likely still underreported in several countries given the absence of passive and active surveillance for the disease, especially in Asia and in Africa. In view of the potentially severe consequences for humans, it is important to implement regular testing in the event of international movements of equidae and to implement national surveillance plans to assess the situation in countries where the disease is thought to be absent or where the situation is undetermined. OIE Members should make use of the expertise available in OIE Reference Laboratories for glanders which are ready to assist them with improving their own technical expertise on this disease. To this end, an illustrated publication on glanders was prepared by the OIE. 3.2. Selected aquatic animal diseases Between 2005 and 2011, a total of 1,157 immediate notifications of exceptional epidemiological disease events were made to the OIE, involving 96 different terrestrial and aquatic diseases. Of this total, 76 immediate notifications (6.5%) related to aquatic animal diseases, with 28 countries reporting 20 different diseases. Fifty-five percent of these aquatic exceptional events were related to five diseases: koi herpesvirus disease (13%, initially notified as a new emerging disease before being included in the OIE list), ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) (12%) as an emerging disease, white spot disease (12%), crayfish plague (9%) and infection with Bonamia ostreae (9%) (Figure 16). 20 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Figure 16: Distribution of immediate notifications of exceptional epidemiological aquatic disease events reported between 2005 and 2011, by disease Copyright © 2012, Animal Health Information Department – OIE 3.2.1. Infection with Xenohaliotis californiensis Xenohaliotis californiensis is an intracellular bacterium in the family Anaplasmataceae. Infection with X. californiensis in gastrointestinal epithelia causes disease (termed withering syndrome) in wild and farmed abalones Haliotis spp. Gross pathology and signs of the disease include pedal atrophy, mottled digestive gland, anorexia, weakness, and lethargy. In March 2011, Japan notified the first occurrence of the disease in the country with an outbreak in Tottori province. The outbreak started in January 2011 in a Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus discus) farm with a semi-closed production system (salt water). There were 6,600 cases resulting in 6,600 deaths; the remaining 13,400 abalone were destroyed. Between 2005 and 2011, the disease has been reported as present by Chile (since 2006) and by France (since 2009). Ireland has reported the presence of the infection between 2006 and 2009 and suspected presence after 2009. The United States of America reported the presence of the disease in 2006. 3.2.2. Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is an emerging disease that has been reported in Europe and Oceania since 2008. The disease is associated with large-scale mortalities of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in different stages of production. Adult mortality varies between 10% and 30%, whereas juvenile mortality is far higher, ranging from 60% to 100%. The cause of infection is still unknown, although it has been suggested that there are many contributing factors, such as variations in climate and aquatic environment. There is no evidence to suggest any food safety concerns with infected oysters. Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1): global situation Since May 2008, French farmers have been observing a high mortality rate in oysters at all stages of production all along the French coastline. In August 2008, nine outbreaks were reported by France and affected only Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Appropriate management measures were taken to contain the disease and prevent its spread. After surveillance had been carried out, with negative results, the French authorities authorised French mollusc culture areas to resume their normal activities as from September 2008. However, since April 2009, 15 new outbreaks have been reported, affecting almost the entire coastline of metropolitan France. The causes appear to be based on a general model of multifactor interactions involving the animal, its environment and infective agents. The two main hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, for the occurrence of the disease are the effects of the environment on oysters and the presence of infectious agents. The mortality rate observed was used as an indicator to decide the Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 21 implementation of movement restrictions on Pacific oysters (oyster larvae and spat) coming from zones and establishments where high mortalities (typically over 50%) had been recorded. In April 2010 high mortalities were reported by France and in July 2011 the disease was reported as endemic in the country. Ireland reported two events related to OsHV-1, one with 15 outbreaks since June 2009 and the other with 17 outbreaks since May 2010. In both events mortalities have been considerable, particularly in seed. Half-grown and adult Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have also suffered low level mortality in some areas. Transmission from site to site as well as through the water is believed to occur. However, the presence of the virus in all of these areas and the possibility of stages of viral latency make it impossible to be sure whether the source was stock from an infected area or the result of latent infections in existing populations. In the United Kingdom, ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) was detected at a shellfish farm in July 2010 in the South of England. It is believed that the infection was introduced via legal movement of seed during 2009. Statutory controls were applied to prevent the movement of live oysters from the affected area. A comprehensive surveillance programme for OsHV-1 in shellfish harvesting areas that cultivate Pacific oysters was conducted in 2010 and 2011 all around the United Kingdom. In January 2012, the event was closed since there was no further evidence of the presence of OsHV-1 in any of the shellfish harvesting areas. In December 2010, New Zealand reported the disease in the farmed oyster population. The disease was reported following an increased mortality in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) that was more severe in younger oysters and, potentially, at elevated water temperatures. The baseline mortality on farms was between 5% and 10%, but losses between 50% and 80% in spat were observed when the virus was present. The die-back has only been observed in farmed oysters and has not been found in wild populations, including the Bluff oyster (Tiostrea chilensis). In these events, the cause of mortality in juvenile oysters was considered to relate to a combination of environmental factors and infection with OsHV-1. In January 2011, ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) was reported by Australia. The event started in November 2010 with an outbreak in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), detected on oyster leases in Woolooware Bay, Botany Bay, New South Wales. Unhealthy oysters were observed after a plume of discoloured water was seen in the area following rainfall. The die-off was also observed in wild Pacific oysters in the nearby area. Mortalities were not observed in other mollusc species, including in adjacent Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). Mortality in Pacific oysters reached 100% for spat. The control measures applied were quarantine and movement control (the estuary was formally closed to all movements of shellfish and associated equipment, except for the movement of products to market). In June 2011, The Netherlands reported an outbreak in Zeeland in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the wild. This event was closed in November 2011. 22 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 Figure 17 shows the outbreaks reported through immediate notifications and follow-up reports from 2008 to 2011. Figure 17: Distribution of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) reported between 2008 and 2011 Economic impact of the disease In France, Europe’s largest producer, oyster production declined from 130,000 tons to 80,000 tons (38% fall) in 2010, driving up wholesale prices by 20 percent 7. France, whose oyster industry was worth about EUR 400 million in 2010, planned to import and breed young Miyagi oysters from Japan, which are more resistant to infectious diseases than other species. That was not possible due to the tsunami that in March 2011 destroyed the fishing industry in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan). The virus does not just hit France, but the whole industry globally, which in 2009 was worth at least USD 3.3 billion7. In Ireland, Europe’s second largest producer, about half of the bays where Pacific oysters are grown were affected by the virus between 2008 and 20107. The Australian oyster industry includes 550 businesses located mostly in three states, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania 8. Australian production of oysters was estimated at 16.446 million dozen, with production worth $ 100 million in 20078. Significant economic losses were experienced by affected farms in Georges River 9. In New Zealand, annual production is around 3 million dozen a year 10. A lower impact was observed in New Zealand because the industry is mostly reliant on wild spat, which have experienced lower mortalities. Nevertheless production has been reduced by between 25% and 33%9. The virus has mostly affected oysters under one year old. Since oysters need 3 years to mature, the 2010-2011 winter was the first to show the effect on the supply and the problem may worsen after 20127. 7 Bloomberg News [summarised, edited] (http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-17/japan-quake-dashes-effort-to-overcome-oysterherpes-in-france.html) 8 Oyster Australia (http://www.oystersaustralia.org.au/who-where-how) 9 Final report OsHV-1 μVar Ostreid herpesvirus-1 μVar International workshop (http://www.oysterstasmania.org/downloads/Oyster-HerpesVirus-Workshop-Final-Report-111107.pdf) 10 Aquaculture New Zealand, Pacific oyster (http://aquaculture.org.nz/industry/pacific-oysters/) Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 23 The occurrence of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) has forced the affected countries to implement surveillance and strategies to avoid the disease spreading into other areas. This disease illustrates the importance for the oyster industry of applying the necessary measures when importing oyster seed and spat, particularly when they are sourced from areas that have been affected (bearing in mind the latent nature of OsHV-1). Surveillance for the presence of the disease in periods of water temperature increase could help to detect any presence of the infection. _______________ 24 Animal Health Status Worldwide in 2011 and Early 2012 © World Organisation for Animal Health (O IE), 2012 This document has been prepared by specialists convened by the OIE. Pending adoption by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE, the views expressed herein can only be construed as those of these specialists. All OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) publications are protected by international copyright law. Extracts may be copied, reproduced, translated, adapted or published in journals, documents, books, electronic media and any other medium destined for the public, for information, educational or commercial purposes, provided prior written permission has been granted by the OIE. The designations and denominations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the OIE concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries. The views expressed in signed articles are solely the responsibility of the authors. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by the OIE in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.