Chapter 02 IR

Instructor Resources
Chapter 2: Hydrosphere: One Dynamic Water System
Purpose of Chapter 2
For the student to understand:
the source of water that is used for hydrotherapy treatments, for the hydration of the
human body, and the water that makes up 60% of the human body.
that the source of all water, for whatever purpose, is the hydrosphere. The hydrosphere
represents the total amount of water on planet Earth, which is found to exist naturally in
liquid, vapor, and frozen states, and which remains relatively constant at 332 million
cubic miles. This entire amount of water is part of one interconnected system, with many
different expressions in the natural environment, including the oceans, rivers, waterfalls,
hot springs, geysers, snow, rain, glaciers, and ice caps. Internet Educational Resources:
HyperPhysics (Distribution of
Water), (Seawater).
that the hydrosphere is a dynamic system with constant evaporation of water,
precipitation in the form of mainly rain and snow, and constant circulation of this water
from higher to lower elevations. This dynamic activity is known as the hydrologic cycle.
Internet Educational Resources: HyperPhysics Link (Hydrologic Cycle); Poland
Springs Water: visit, ( choose the “Know H2O tab” and then select “Our
Sources” for information on the hydrologic cycle; U.S. Geological Survey (Hydrologic Cycle).
that the behavior of water in the hydrosphere, and as it is expressed in the hydrologic
cycle, is according to the basic principles of the natural behavior of water as described
in Chapter 1.
that human beings are a natural part of the hydrosphere; they are not separate from the
hydrosphere. At any given time, approximately 66 billion gallons of water are inside the
total population and approximately 4 million gallons of water per minute are flowing into
and out of the total population.
that experiences of the healing and therapeutic nature of water in the natural
environment—for example, at hot springs, the oceans, and waterfalls—have provided
insights into the use of water as a therapeutic modality.
that certain activities of human beings have a negative impact on the hydrosphere,
including toxic chemicals, dumping of garbage, overuse of water, destruction
of wetlands, and the potential negative effects of global warming.
that certain activities of human beings have a negative impact on our drinking water.
Internet Educational Resources: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA;
(Safe Drinking Water), AP Research on Drugs in Drinking Water: use your favorite
search engine to find articles on “research on drugs in drinking water.”
Lesson Plan: The Hydrosphere and Hydrologic Cycle
Have the students read the chapter and then discuss the chapter in a classroom session. Refer to
the textbook for detailed information for the discussion and teaching exercises discussed next.
Discuss the nature of the hydrosphere, that it has a relatively fixed amount of water that is
found in different natural expressions in the environment, including the oceans, rivers,
waterfalls, hot springs, geysers, snow, rain, glaciers, ice caps, and so
Discuss why the hydrosphere is one dynamic, integrated system. See
accompanying NASA photos that show the Earth and the hydrosphere.
The photos provide a visual understanding of the hydrosphere.
Discuss the hydrologic cycle and its role in purifying and distributing
water to all regions of the globe.
Discuss the behavior of water in the hydrosphere and as it is expressed
in the hydrologic cycle; it behaves according the basic principles of the natural behavior
water. Have the students provide as many examples of this as possible. For example, it is
the principle of gravity operating on water that brings water from higher to lower
elevations. It is the principle of evaporation of water that brings water from lower
elevations to higher elevations. It is the principle of water as a solvent that allows
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and minerals to dissolve in the water as water passes through the
atmosphere and soil. Figure 2–2 The hydrologic cycle (courtesy of U.S. Department of
the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey).
Discuss why human beings are a natural part of the hydrosphere. Why are all living
systems connected to the hydrosphere, the one water system on the planet?
Discuss how people can gain experience and knowledge of the therapeutic value of water
from experiences of water in natural settings—for example, hot springs, the ocean, rivers,
waterfalls, snow, and ice. Have the students give some examples as
well as any experiences they may have. Figure 2–5 Body surfing
(courtesy of Greg Rice, Sandy Beach, Oahu, Hawaii).
Exercise: Have the students create a dynamic model of the hydrologic
cycle as described in Teaching Exercise 2−1. Discuss how each aspect
of the hydrologic cycle can be found in this model.
Exercise: Have the students research the source, treatment procedures, distribution, and
other important aspects of the local municipal water supply. Discuss what home water
purification systems should be used to further purify the local municipal water coming
into residential homes to make it safe for drinking. There is really no one correct
approach for this, and there are many opinions on what is needed, but it is an interesting
topic that can provoke a meaningful discussion.
Exercise: In a classroom setting, or on a home computer, have the students view the
different NASA photos of planet Earth’s key elements of the hydrosphere and the
hydrologic cycle. (These photos are also in the student/reader section.)
1. The hydrosphere is one interconnected system.
2. Show the dynamic elements of the hydrologic cycle: surface water (for example,
oceans, rivers, lakes, ice caps) and clouds. Using examples in the photos—for example,
the rainforest in the Amazon—show how all living systems are connected to the same
3. Show how pollution of the hydrosphere by people in any country can affect the total
hydrosphere and all living systems connected with it.
NASA Photos of the Hydrosphere
South America,
Africa, Middle
Central America, East, Europe
North America,
Northern Ice Cap
com/EarthAfrica com/south_2.jpg EarthforHydroTour.
*All Links to HyperPhysics appear courtesy of: Copyright HyperPhysics (©C.R. Nave, 2006)
1. Describe the hydrosphere. Answer: The hydrosphere refers to all the water on Earth, which is
a fixed amount of approximately 322,500,000 cubic miles. All this water is part of one
interconnected system, with different natural dynamic expressions—for example, the oceans,
lakes, rivers, waterfalls, hot springs, snow, rain, and ice caps.
2. Describe the hydrologic cycle. Answer: All of the water in the hydrosphere is involved in a
continual dynamic process of evaporation (purification), condensation (clouds), rain and snow
(precipitation), and flow of water from higher to lower elevations.
3. Why is the hydrosphere considered one interconnected water system? Answer: Because there
is a fixed amount of water on Earth that behaves as one system. The functioning of the
hydrosphere is an example of this.
4. Why are human beings a natural part of the hydrosphere? Answer: All living organisms,
including human beings, are mainly made up of water. Approximately 66 billion gallons of water
are inside the total population of human beings at any given time.
5. Give an example of how knowledge of the use of water for hydrotherapy could have been
gained from the experience of water in natural settings. Answer: Bathing in natural hot springs
could produce the healing benefits of detoxification and increased speed of healing.
6. What are some everyday uses of water from sources in the hydrosphere? Answer: See
Figure 2-6. A few examples are for agriculture, hydration, bathing, and cleaning.
7. What are some of the recreational uses of water? Answer: See Figure 2-6. A few examples are
swimming, skiing, and boating.
8. List several ways human activity is damaging the hydrosphere. Discuss different ways to
reduce or eliminate these problems. Answer: Toxic chemical pollution of water from industry
and dumping of garbage in water systems, including the ocean, is harming the hydrosphere.
Education and government regulation are two main ways to control these problems.
9. Discuss how water, on a global scale, is purified by the hydrologic cycle and is naturally
distributed to every region on Earth. Answer: Evaporation of water from surface water on the
Earth causes all of the water molecules to separate and rise into the atmosphere, where they will
later condense to form pure water in the form of rain and snow. However, as the water comes into
contact with pollution in the air and land, these substances may dissolve or mix with the water.
10. List several ways water is treated to make it safe for drinking, both by municipal treatment
plants and by residential water purification systems. Answer: Municipal water treatment removes
sediment in the water and chemical treatment kills germs in the water.