B82 Animal Genetics Test Name _______________________________________ Date ____________ 1. _____ The physical appearance of the animal. A. DNA 2. _____ The genetic make up of the animal. B. Double Helix 3. _____ Breeding purebred animals with unrelated purebred animals. C. Nucleotides. D. Cross Breeding 4. _____ Breeding animals of the same species but of a different breed. 5. _____ A biological phenomenon which causes crossbreeds to out produce the average of their parents. E. Heterosis F. Chromosome G. Phenotype 6. _____ Long protein strands of DNA. H. Genotype 7. _____ Forms the basic material in the chromosome that contains many genes which control inheritance. I. Cell Differentiation 8. _____ The spiral shaped form of a chromosome. J. Out Crossing 9. _____ Bonds two strands of DNA together defining the coding K. Alleles sequence for DNA. L. Heterozygous 10. _____ Reads the DNA pattern created by the nucleotides and transfers it to the rest of the cell. M. Gametes. 11. _____ A technology that allows specific genetic information to be cut and spliced into the DNA of a cell. N. Homozygous O. Heritability 12. _____ The process where by some cells grow into muscle, bone, skin and organs. P. RNA 13. _____ Sex cells Q. Genetic Engineering 14. _____ A pair of genes that controls a specific trait. R. Additive expression of genes 15. _____ Both genes that control a specific trait and are alike. S. Codominance 16. _____ Both genes that control a specific trait are different. 17. _____ Both alleles are dominant. T. Expected Progeny Difference 18. _____ More than a single pair of genes which are responsible for a trait. 19. _____ The measurement of how much of a trait is passed on genetically to the offspring. 20. _____ A prediction of the expected differences in performance of a sire’s or dam’s progeny when compared to the average for that breed. 21. The nucleotide adenine always bonds with which of the following? A. Adenine B. Thiamine C. Guanine D. Cytosine 22. The nucleotide guanine always bonds with which of the following? A. Adenine B. Thiamine C. Guanine D. Cytosine 23. EPD=s or expected progeny differences compile data about an animal and use complex computer generated formulas to predict the genetic potential of the animal? Which of the following information would not factor into the formula? A. Ancestry Records B. Individual Performance Records C. Progeny Records D. Market Records 24. Of the following records kept on cattle, which provides the most accurate measurement of the genetic merit of the sire? A. Ancestry Records B. Individual Performance Records C. Progeny Records D. Market Records 25. Which of the following is not an economically important trait that would be found on an EPD performance record? A. Birth Weight B. Weaning Weight C. Yearling Weight D. Gestation Length E. Scrotal Circumference F. Marbling G. Ribeye area H. Milking Ability I. They are all information that can be found on an EPD. 26. If you were selecting a bull to breed to first calf heifers, what is one of the most important traits you would want to select for? A. Yearling Weight B. Marbling C. Milking Ability D. Birth Weight 27. In the beef cattle industry, weaning weights are calculated on _________ days of age. A. 150 days B. 205 days C. 250 days D. 365 days 28. To minimize environmental differences in growth, an adjusted weaning weight is factored in which of the following? A. The age of the calf + or - the 205 day weaning weight mark. B. The age of the mother C. Weather conditions D. Feed conditions E. Both A & B 29. Which of the following is not a true statement regarding the importance of scrotal Circumference in bulls? A. It is a good indicator of puberty and hormonal balance. B. It is a good indicator of fertility and semen quality and quantity. C. It will also result in decreased age of puberty in daughters. D. It is a good indicator of the degree of muscling and marbling of the offspring? 30. What is a freemartin heifer? A. A heifer lacking genetic potential that should be culled. B. A heifer of extreme high quality and genetic potential. C. A heifer calf born twin with a bull calf, which often lacks the anatomy to be reproductively sound. D. An open heifer that did not become pregnant during the breeding season. 31. Polled cattle is a dominant trait over horned. Generally, when you cross a polled breed with a horned breed, the result is polled cattle. However, occasionally you will still get a horned animal. Using a Punnett square, cross two heterozygous parents (Pp) and tell me how many polled animals I could expect and how many horned animals I could expect as a result of this cross? Polled ________ Horned _______ 32. What would the expected phenotype be of a cross between a heterozygous polled male crossed with a homozygous horned female? Polled ________ Horned _______ 33. Rank the following traits as being low, medium or highly heritable? A ________ Carcass traits (rib eye area, marbling, yield grade) B. ________ Growth traits (birth weights, weaning weights, yearling weights.) C. ________ Reproductive traits 34. If yearling weights are 40% heritable in beef cattle and I wanted to increase my yearling weights from 950 pound to 1000 pounds, so I selected a bull that achieved a 1000 pound yearling weight. What should I expect the yearling weights of his offspring to be? Review the performance data and EPDs on the attached bulls and select the best bulls for the following situations. Indicate the desired traits you should select for based on the situation. Explain why you selected the bull you did. 35. You are going to AI the best cows in your herd in hopes of keeping the calves as future breeding stock. What EPD traits would you want to put more emphasis on? Which bull did you select? ________________________ Explain your rational? 36. You are going to AI only your first calf heifers. What EPD traits would you want to put more emphasis on? Which bull did you select? ________________________ Explain your rational?