building and architectural technology

advertisement
Building and Architectural
Technology
Building Technology: Components and
Finishes
(Higher)
7061
Summer 2000
HIGHER STILL
Building & Architecture
Technology
Building Technology:
Components and Finishes
Higher
Support Materials
CONTENTS
Overview
Teacher/Lecturer Guide
Student Guide
Study Guide 1: Doors, Window and Stair Construction
Assignment no. 1: doors and windows
Assignment no 2: stairs
Study Guide 2: Finishes to Structures
Assignment no. 1: applied finishes
Alternative 1: drawing supplied by centre
Alternative 2: wall (external and internal), floor and ceiling finishes
Assignment no. 2: wall (external and internal), floor and ceiling finishes
Assignment no. 3: roof finishes
Study Guide 3: Selection of Components and Finishes
Assignment no. 1: selection of components and finishes
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
1
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
2
OVERVIEW
These Support Materials are provided to assist teachers/lectures in the delivery of the
Higher Building and Architectural Technology course unit Components and
Finishes.
The teachers/Lecturers guide offers brief advice on teaching approaches for the unit
and this should be read in conjunction with the Subject Guide for DET Construction
(published by SCCC /SFEU 1997).
Guidance is provided on the formative and summative assessment and on use of the
National Assessment Bank materials for the unit Building Technology: Components
and Finishes (published by SQA1999).
Advice is also given on the role of the unit Building Technology : Components and
Finishes in the development and assessment of core skills.
The Student's Guide provides a brief introduction to the unit, offers guidance on
studying the unit and contains details of resources and reference materials. Students
are also directed to the Candidates Guide of the National Assessment Bank's
materials for information on assessment procedures.
Student Support Materials are provided in the form of three study guides, each
covering one outcome of the unit.
Each study guide contains the following:
 a statement of the relevant outcome
 an explanation of what a student should be able to do on completion of the
outcome
 learning and teaching materials including worksheets and assignment task sheets.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
3
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
4
TEACHER/LECTURER GUIDE
Introduction
Building components and materials surround us all. Students at school, college or
employed in junior technician posts in the construction industry deal with components
and finishes every day. The unit Building Technology: Components and Finishes
deals with the fundamental question of why components and finishes are installed and
used in buildings. The unit deals with the major components of a building and
provides the knowledge of materials and technology, combined with the various
installation procedures, allowing students to make informed decisions as to the
appropriate components and finishes for use in low-rise buildings.
The unit is aimed at those students with an interest in construction technology, and
candidates who embark on this unit should be provided with a stimulating challenge
in order to further their knowledge of specialist construction components and finishes
used in low-rise buildings.
Teaching and learning
The unit Building Technology: Components and Finishes is a component unit of the
Building and Architectural Technology Higher and it is likely that candidates
undertaking this unit will already have completed the unit Building Technology:
Principles and Processes. The Subject Guide for Higher Building and Architectural
Technology provides information on the arrangements for delivery of the course.
Centres may wish to integrate delivery of the two units of Building and Architectural
Technology, although it is likely that most centres will complete the unit Building
Technology: Principles and Processes before studying this unit as a great deal of the
content is dependent on the knowledge gained in the unit Construction Technology:
Principles and Processes.
A series of study guides will be made available covering a number of aspects of
Higher Building and Architectural Technology. The study guides in these support
materials cover only the unit Building Technology: Components and Finishes, since
some students may wish to study the unit as stand-alone rather than as part of the
Higher Building and Architectural Technology course.
Each of the three Study Guides contains learning and teaching material which
teachers/lecturers may use selectively or in their entirety during delivery of the unit.
Worksheets and assignment task sheets are also provided. The teaching material
included does not cover all the detailed content of the unit. Sufficient information is
provided to enable students to grasp essential principles and undertake the assignment
research tasks to gather further information and acquire skills.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
5
Teachers/lectures are likely to add to the materials through use of local or national
case studies and by further illustrations of construction details. The subject guide
stresses that students learn in different ways and that a variety of teaching approaches
is likely to be required to meet students individual needs. Site visits, video
presentations and contacts with professional bodies will also help students apply their
learning to practical situations. Such methods will stimulate learning and promote
further study.
Study guide 1
Outcome 1
On completion of this Study Guide and assignment tasks the candidates be able to
produce details of components within a structure with reference to current legislation
and the appropriate use of materials.
This guide covers the content of Outcome 1 and provides the knowledge needed to
make decisions regarding the position and fixing of the major components in low-rise
buildings. The intention is to provide the student with the knowledge to sketch
sections through components and indicate their position within the structure. The
content of this outcome builds on the principles studied in the unit Building
Technology: Principles and Processes and requires the candidate to produce accurate
details of components within a building structure. The implication is that when
deciding on the appropriate location of the component and producing accurate
sketches, candidates will ensure that the details produced are in accordance with good
practice and current legislation. The assignment sheets included should be used
selectively to encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning.
Students will be required to communicate technical details related to the various
components used in buildings with reference to research material, manufacturer’s
literature, British Standards, Current Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations and
any technical literature available.
The assignment subject's are:
 doors and windows
 stairs.
Study guide 2
Outcome 2
On completion of this Study Guide and assignment tasks students will be able to
select and specify external and internal finishes with reference to appropriate British
Standards and methods of application.
This guide covers Outcome 2 and deals with the application of finishes to the building
structure. It covers the technology and materials used in the provision of finishes to
walls, ceiling, floors and roofs. The finishes studied in this outcome relate to the
different types of low-rise construction.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
6
On completion the student should be able to communicate the technical details of
external renders, internal renders, plaster finishes, ceiling finishes, floor finishes and
roof finishes as well as provide information with regard to their application within
different types of low-rise structure.
An important part of student activity for this outcome is the need to locate and use
appropriate British Standard specifications for materials and finishes.
Assignment task sheets are included and may be used selectively as with Study
Guide 1. The assignment subjects are:
 wall finishes
 floor finishes
 ceiling finishes
 roof finishes.
The Study Guide makes reference to the use of construction industry publications and
British Standards which students will locate and use in order to provide information
on the specification and application of various finishes to the structure. The guide
contains a number of typical structural details and these are included to exemplify the
level of detail that students are required to produce. Teachers/lecturers should avoid
issuing students with full sets of construction details and should encourage students to
complete the assignments provided by carrying out appropriate research. This
approach is preferable to one based solely on classroom sessions, in which students
are presented with sets of alternative details for each element of the building. It
should be noted that the details issued in the study guides are typical examples and
regional differences may apply.
Study guide 3
Outcome 3
On completion of this study guide and assignment tasks, students will be able to
produce reports in order to justify their choices of components and finishes
recommended for use in low-rise structures.
Study Guide 3 covers the content of Outcome 3 and deals with the justification of a
candidate’s selection of components and finishes for a given situation. The purpose
of this outcome is to integrate the learning from the first two outcomes and requires
students to use the knowledge gained in the previous outcomes to make decisions with
respect to different situations.
The emphasis in Outcome 3 is on a student centred approach rather than a lecture
programme. Students will be presented with an exercise in selecting building
materials and components for the construction of a building in a given location and
asked to prepare a report justifying their selection.
The study guide in this case will be limited to advice on the type of exercise to be
carried out and the presentation format of a report of the type which could be used in
this situation.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
7
Assessment
Internal unit assessment
The National Assessment Bank materials for the unit Building Technology:
Components and Finishes contains three instruments of assessment. The first
instrument of assessment covering Outcome 1 is a two-part question paper requiring
candidates to carry out two separate tasks.
Task 1 requires candidates to draw horizontal and vertical sections through a building
component within a structure.
Task 2 requires candidates to design a stair within a given building to comply with
current Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations.
The second instrument of assessment covering Outcome 2 is a two-part question
paper requiring candidates to carry out two separate tasks.
Task 1 candidates are given the details of a structure and are required to select an
appropriate applied finish in a given situation and identify relevant British Standards
for materials and mixes from lists provided.
Task 2 requires candidates to provide details of the methods of application for various
finishes including the preparation of backgrounds and protection of finishes on
completion.
The instrument of assessment covering Outcome 3 requires candidates to produce a
report justifying a selection of components and finishes for a building specified in the
task.
The National Assessment Bank materials for the unit provide guidance on the times,
which should be made available for each assignment task. These times allow for both
formative and summative stages.
External course assessment for higher building and architectural technology
The external assessment for a Higher Building and Architectural Technology will be
carried out using:
 a three-hour question paper
 a project devised by the centre, based on an SQA specification. The project will
be internally assessed and externally moderated.
The project specification explains how internal unit evidence for certain outcomes
may be gathered from the project mandatory tasks. The result will be to reduce the
total amount of assessment, and teachers/lecturers are advised to read the National
Qualifications Project Specification for Higher Building and Architectural
Technology prior to commencing delivery of the unit Building Technology:
Components and Finishes.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
8
Core skills
The unit Building Technology: Components and Finishes carries the embedded core
skill components Critical Thinking at Int 2. Successful completion of the unit will
result in automatic certification of this component.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
9
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
10
STUDENT GUIDE
Introduction
The technology related to the components and finishes of a building is an area of
continuous development, as clients become more aware of the importance of choosing
the correct components and finishes for their buildings. The industry has developed
components and finishes to meet client's needs.
The increasing sophistication of client’s, the drive for less energy consumption and
lower maintenance buildings has meant that construction component manufacturers
have become more innovative in their approach to production and fixing within a
building structure. Modern components are required to meet strict insulation and life
span requirements as well as to be secure and easily installed on site.
Construction companies are more aware of the environmental impact of construction
projects and the constraints of Building Standards in the way components are
introduced into the building shell. The need for lower maintenance structures in order
to increase value for money is well documented and clients will specify the life span
of both components and finishes.
Study of this unit will enable you to look at the performance of the main components
and finishes used in modern low-rise construction. This will include consideration of
the range of components and finishes available as well as the technical requirements
for their installation.
You will learn of the requirement to comply with Building Standards and
Specifications in the installation and application of components and finishes as well as
the need to choose appropriate components and finishes for use in small domestic and
commercial buildings.
You will be required to use your knowledge of components and finishes to make
informed choices as to the most appropriate components or finishes to be applied in
given situations.
Studying the unit
It is important that you approach study of the unit with the aim of developing problem
solving and vocational skills rather than with the aim of acquiring facts. Your
teacher/lecturer will help you with this approach by using a variety of methods, which
will encourage you to apply the knowledge you acquire during classroom sessions.
To assist you in learning, a series of study guides will be made available. Each of
these will contain the following:
 a statement of the relevant outcome
 an explanation of what you should be able to do on completion of the outcome
 learning materials including work sheets and assignment task sheets.
Site visits and video presentations on recent building projects will help you relate to
the construction principles and techniques enabling you to apply them to practical
construction situations.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
11
You will be required to complete a number of short assignments, either as part of a
team or individual. In order to complete these you are encouraged to make use of
resources and Support Materials available through the centre at which you are
studying. Your teacher/lecturer will issue you with the list of such local resources.
Assessment
You are encouraged to read the Candidate Guide, which forms part of the National
Assessment Bank material for the unit Building Technology: Components and
Finishes. This explains that most of the assessment for the unit will be based on a
series of assignment tasks covering all of the outcomes. The tasks will form the basis
of both ongoing and final unit assessment. They will be based on proposals for a lowrise building and will focus on the provision of components and finishes for the
building.
Classroom time will be allocated to each of the written and graphical tasks of the
assignment but you will need to spend additional time in research. Spend time in the
resource centre or library; you will find a wealth of material, in both printed and
electronic formats which will assist in development of your assignment material.
During the time in which you are involved in research your teacher/lecturer is there to
provide feedback on your progress at regular intervals and to point you in the right
direction. Although your completed assignments will form the basis of the unit
assessment, the development of your proposals will become an essential part of your
learning.
Core skills
The assignment and assessment tasks of this unit will also be tailored to allow you to
develop a number of core skills including Critical Thinking and Planning and
Organising. Completion of the unit may result in automatic certification of core skill
components. Successful completion of the Higher course in Building and
Architectural Technology will result in the automatic certification of other
components and successful completion of a Scottish Group Award at Higher will lead
to certification of further components. You should be aware of the evidence that you
must gather to demonstrate attainment of core skills and your tutor will guide you in
this area.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
12
STUDY GUIDE 1: DOOR, WINDOW AND STAIR CONSTRUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Outcome 1
Produce annotated details showing the position and fixing of components in buildings.
Component List:
 doors
 windows
 stairs.
This outcome may be introduced by the use of a visit to either a construction site or
college workshops. Alternatively, the use of models or examples of various door or
window frames in the classroom will allow you to familiarise yourself with the
materials and sections commonly used in door and window construction.
A range of manufacturer’s literature, photographs and section details should be
available within the classroom for reference during lectures.
It is beyond the scope of this pack to supply manufacturer information and
photographs but all centres will have access to literature locally.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
13
Doors
We are all aware of the main function of doors, they provide access to buildings or
between rooms in buildings. In addition to this doors also provide:
 privacy
 security/strength
 thermal insulation
 sound insulation
 weather tightness (if required)
 fire resistance.
The importance of these functions depends on the position of the door in the building
and the use of the room it provides access to.
A simple example is the difference between internal and external doors in a domestic
property.
Internal door: important functions:
 privacy
 fire resistance.
External door: important functions:
 security
 weather tightness
 thermal insulation.
As you can see from the example above, the main priorities are dependent on the type
and position of the door within the building.
Student task
Prioritise three main functions of a door used in the following situations.
Situation 1
The door between a college classroom and the corridor outside.
1
2
3
Situation 2
The bathroom door in your home.
1
2
3
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
14
Situation 3
The door between a utility room attached to a domestic property and
the garage.
1
2
3
Now we are aware of the importance of choosing the right door for each situation we
will look at door types and their terminology.
Door types:
 panelled doors
 flush doors
 framed, ledged and braced doors.
Panelled doors are constructed using a series of rails with infill panels placed between
the rails, they are used both internally and externally.
You will have seen many panelled doors in housing, manufactured in either timber or
plastic often with panels made from glass.
Panel doors are usually described using the number of panels.
The examples below show 2 and 4 panel doors.
TOP
RAIL
STILE
TIMBER
OR
GLASS
PANEL
MID RAIL
MUNTIN
BOTTOM
RAIL
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
15
Panel doors are normally manufactured in 2, 3, 4, 8 or 16 panels but other
constructions are available, manufactured to the buyers requirements.
Internal doors manufactured from compressed fibre are available and are much
cheaper to buy than external grade doors.
Flush doors are constructed using a skeleton frame or solid core with sheet timber or
hardboard faces applied to the surfaces.
The majority of internal doors in domestic property are flush doors. They vary in
quality and construction between manufacturers but most fall into two distinct
categories.
Solid core doors
A softwood frame with a solid core of laminated timber, high density chipboard or
compressed fibre suitable for internal or external use.
HARDWOOD LIPPING
TO COVER THE JOINT
BETWEEN SHEET
TIMBER AND TIMBER
CORE
LAMINATED TIMBER
SOLID CORE
SHEET TIMBER FACING
GLUED TO DOOR
CONSTRUCTION
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
16
Hollow/skeleton core doors
The sheet surface to these doors is applied in the same way as solid core doors, they
are lighter, cheaper and not as strong as solid core doors, but are much more
commonly used internally.
The core may consist of either a softwood timber frame on its own or a frame with
intermediate rails to provide extra strength and support.
A lightweight filling material such as flaxboard, cardboard egg box construction or
fibreboard is provided between the frames.
Note: When using a hollow core door care must be taken to ensure the correct use of
specially strengthened areas for hinges and locks during hanging.
TOP RAIL
CARDBOARD
INFILL
STILE
LOCK BLOCK
RAILS
LIPPING
DOOR FACE
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
17
Framed ledged and braced doors
Framed ledged and braced doors are not normally associated with modern domestic
buildings but were extensively used for rear doors in the past Their use in modern
construction is likely to be restricted to warehouse construction where strength is a
priority.
As their name suggests, they are constructed of a frame with braces for added strength
and a tongue and groove boarded finish.
TOP RAIL
T T&G &VEED BOARDING
STILE
MIDDLE RAIL
BRACE
BOTTOM RAIL
Student task
Mark the correct hinge positions on the door shown above to allow the braces to
function correctly.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
18
Fixing doors within the structure
Doors have to be fixed with provision for locks and hinges and, as with door types,
the position and use of the door is important when choosing the method of
installation.
Internal doors
Most internal doors are hung using a timber frame fixed within the door opening.
CONCRETE LINTEL
SUPPORTING MASONRY
DOOR
FRAME
Fixing for the frame can be provided by nailing or screwing into timber pads
(billgates) built into bed joints of the masonry, screwed directly into the masonry
using screws and plugs or by the use of steel cramps fixed to the door frame and built
into the masonry as the work proceeds.
FIXING CRAMP / OR
NAILING POSITION
2 COAT PLASTER
OR PLASTER BOARD
BLOCKWORK
DOOR
PLANTED STOP
FRAME
ARCHITRAVE
Note: Frame detail is exactly the same when fixing to timber frame panels.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
19
External doors
In order to provide the security and weatherproofing required external door frames are
used in place of linings, forming a much stronger unit when completed.
The treatment of door and window openings is one of the most fundamental
differences between Scottish construction and that of the rest of the United Kingdom,
the construction differs due to the degree of exposure expected. In most areas of
Scotland it is presumed that construction will be in conditions of severe exposure. In
most textbooks and manufacturers details you will see door frames treated in the way
shown below, this method is acceptable for the areas not designated as conditions of
severe exposure. You will find a map of the designated areas in the NHBC handbook,
which maps the United Kingdom by post code.
PLASTER
INTERNAL WALL
DOOR FRAME
DOOR
INSULATION
BACKED dpc
EXTERNAL BRICKWORK
In areas of severe exposure (which includes most of Scotland) the frame is set in a
rebated opening giving additional support and weatherproofing suitable for exposed
conditions. This method is common to nearly all Scottish building construction.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
20
PLASTER
INTERNAL WALL
DOOR
DOOR FRAME
INSULATION
BACKED dpc
EXTERNAL BRICKWORK
The rebate is provided to both styles of the door frame as well as the door head. Care
must be taken to provide a suitable damp proof course to the door frame and at the
junction of the internal and external masonry walls. The junction between the
external masonry and the door frame should have the damp course trimmed and a
suitable sealant applied to prevent the ingress of water.
Treatment of external door frames at the threshold
The threshold is the term used to describe the bottom horizontal part of the door frame
and given the exposure likely for an external door, it is important to provide adequate
waterproofing arrangements.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
21
Timber Threshold
Plastic Threshold
DOOR
DOOR
WATER BAR
DOOR
FRAME
THRESHOLD
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
THRESHOLD
22
Windows
Windows, like doors, are normally constructed of timber, plastic or aluminium.
Damp proofing and fixing details are similar to those detailed for external doors with
durability and security being the most important of the characteristics required.
Timber (traditionally the material used to construct windows). Hardwoods or
softwoods are used, with hardwoods being more durable and more expensive of the
two, although softwood s is more widely used, as it is seen as a sustainable resource
and therefore, timber component manufacturers are encouraged to use softwoods as a
more environmentally friendly product.
Plastic. A large percentage of replacement windows are manufactured using modern
extruded sections which can be cut and welded into any size of unit giving flexible,
maintenance free windows. Plastic is particularly useful when replacing non-standard
sizes, as manufacturing costs per unit tend to be less expensive than the equivalent in
other materials. Plastic frames require relatively large sections in order to resist
movement which sometimes makes units look cumbersome.
Aluminium. Largely used as an alternative to timber in the 1970s and 1980s to
achieve a light relatively maintenance free construction. The market for aluminium
has largely been taken over by plastics. Plastic coated aluminium frames are widely
available as an alternative to plastic frames, as they have the advantage of a relatively
small section frame with a coating of plastic internally.
Windows are placed in buildings to:
 allow natural light into the rooms
 allow natural ventilation
 allow occupants to see outside
 provide escape in case of fire.
Windows have to perform these functions whilst remaining wind and watertight,
providing adequate sound insulation and maintaining the U-value required for the
wall.
Student task
Sketch the symbols used to illustrate window openings. You will find
them in manufacturer’s literature.
FIXED LIGHT
TOP HUNG
SIDE HUNG (LEFT)
PIVOT (HORIZONTAL)
SLIDING SASH
(HORIZONTAL)
SIDE HUNG (RIGHT)
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
23
Casement windows
Casement Windows are the most common types of window used in domestic
property. They are simple to manufacture, fit and use.
Typical casement window
A
HEAD
SIDE
LIGHT
TOP LIGHT
TRANSOME
JAMB
FIXED
LIGHT
MULLION
CILL
A
The casement window is hinged to open outwards. Casements can be constructed
using timber, steel, aluminium or plastic.
Student task
Sketch a cross-section through the Casement window at A-A. Suitable cross sections
can be found in technical literature and manufactures catalogues.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
24
Typical sliding sash window
Sliding sash windows are common in older properties and in modern properties which
are constructed to look like period property.
FRAME
SASH
SASH
Many older properties require replacement windows and sliding sash replacement
windows which are manufactured in various sizes are often specified. Original sliding
sash windows were built in timber with boxes containing weights and a series of cords
and pulleys were used to allow the windows to open and close easily.
Modern windows have replaced weights and pulleys with spring balances to allow the
windows to open and close easily.
Vertical sash windows are also available with the sashes running in tracks to allow
opening and closing.
Typical pivot window
Pivot windows have been available since the 1960s and are extremely useful when
considering a window which is inaccessible for cleaning either due to height or
buildings blocking the use of ladders. Modern pivot windows pivot either
horizontally or vertically. Pivot windows are widely used where fire escape routes
have to be provided across rooftops.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
25
The common term used to describe this type of window is tilt and turn.
FRAME
SASH
Provision of damp proof courses within door and window openings
We have dealt with the position of door and window frames within openings. One of
the most important factors when providing construction details is the provision of
damp proof courses (DPCs) in order to avoid water penetration and cold bridges.
Water penetration
The passage of water from the exterior of the building to the interior causing damage
to the internal structure and decoration.
Cold bridges
The loss of insulation, for example where cavities are closed to provide fixings for
door or window frames.
Typical construction details at door/window head, and sill
275mm MIN
TIMBER CILL
BRICKWORK
BLOCKWORK
INSULATION
STEEL LINTEL
/ TRAY
REINFORCED
CONCRETE
LINTEL
CONCRETE
SUB-CILL
CILL BOARD
PLASTER
dpc
BLOCKWORK
WEEPHOLE
BRICKWORK
Student task
Using resources available to you, for example texts, manufacturer’s information,
NHBC Standards, provide sill and head details using other types of sill and lintel,
indicate the position of insulation and DPCs in order to prevent cold bridges and
water penetration. One head detail should be suitable for conditions of severe
exposure.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
26
Fixing windows
Windows are fixed in a similar manner to doors using screws and plugs or are secured
by fixing cramps built into the masonry wall.
Fixings should be provided no more than 600mm apart and not more than 150mm
from the top or bottom of the frame to ensure adequate strength and stability.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
27
Stairs
The construction of stairways in buildings has been the subject of a great deal of
research over many years mainly due to the large number of falls and other accidents
which occur on staircases every year.
Regulations covering stairways have undergone many changes so do not be surprised
if during the tasks associated with this work you find that stairways you use every day
do not comply with current Building Standards. If you find a stairway that does not
comply with current regulations it does not mean that it is constructed wrongly, it is
almost certain that the stairway complied with the standards in force at the time it was
constructed.
Modern stairways are very simple and designed to try to avoid accidents, which
means that they have become standardised to a great extent and most builders will buy
standard softwood stairways from the merchants just like buying a door or window.
Specialist stair manufacturers or joinery workshops can manufacture non-standard
stairs if required. However any replacement stair built in a workshop would be
required to comply with the current Building Standards.
At the time of writing, these regulations are the Building Standards (Scotland)
Regulations 1990 Part S.
Stairways-general information
The Technical Standards provide information with regard to dimensions of stairs and
distinguish between public and private stairways. British Standards have produced
many documents which apply to stairways with BS 5395: stairs, ladders and
walkways, being the most important, and the National House Building Council
produces a Standard for Technical Requirements for Staircases in Domestic
Buildings.
Stair terminology:
 private stairway:
 access stairway:
 flight:

landing:
a stairway within a private dwelling (house)
a stairway serving more than one property
a series of steps between either two floors of a building, a
floor and a landing place, between two landing places
a level constructed between flights of stairs.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
28
LANDING
STAIRWAY
 tread:
 step going:
 nosing:
 riser:
 step rise:
horizontal part of the stair, where you tread!
horizontal distance between two risers
the front edge of the tread projecting beyond the face of the raiser
below
the vertical face of a step
the vertical distance between two treads.
GOING
TREAD
NOSING
MARGIN LINE
STRINGER
R
I
S
E
RISER
MARGIN
 stringer:
 pitch line:
 margin line:
the wider outer board of the stair
an imaginary line which runs along the nosings of each tread
the intersection of the tread and riser not including the nosing –
the margin is the distance from this line to the top of the stringer.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
29
Types of stairway
Stairways in domestic property are normally straight flights of stairs which rise from
floor to floor without changing direction.
Straight flight of stairs
FL
UP
FL
Note: a landing may be provided and if there is no change of direction the stair is still
classified as a straight flight.
Where a change of direction is required the stairway has a landing place incorporated
in the change of direction.
Quarter turn stair
LANDING
UP
UP
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
30
Stair dimensions
The Technical Standards Part S sets out the requirements for dimensions for stairs.
The following are the main dimensional requirements a stairway must meet.
Requirements
Item
1
2
3
width of stair
pitch of flight
risers per flight
4
rise of steps
5
6
going of steps
gap between treads
(open rise)
7
going of landing
8
headroom over
stair and/or landing
(measured
vertically from the
pitch line)
Private stairway –
serving one domestic
dwelling
Min 800mm
Max 42°
Min 3
Max 16
Min 75mm
Max 220mm
Min 225mm
smaller than 100mm
(should not permit a
100mm diameter sphere to
pass through it)
not less than the width of
stair
Min 2m
Access stairway – serving
two or more domestic
dwellings
Min 900mm
Max 34°
Min 3
Max 16
Min 75mm
Max 190mm
Min 240mm
Min 2m
Student task
Using the information given in the previous note insert the appropriate names and
dimensions in the following sketches
Handrails and balustrades
No stairway would be safe to use unless handrails are provided on enclosed stairways
and protective barriers (balustrades) are provided on open stairways.
Note:
 Handrails and balustrades are required on any stair rising 600mm or more from a
landing area.
 Where a stairway is over 1m wide handrails will be required on both sides of the
stairway.
 Clearance for regulations is measured between the two handrails after fitting.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
31
Terminology
 Handrail: provided to give assistance on an enclosed stairway.
MIN GAP 25mm

Balustrade: construction required to support a handrail on an open stairway.
(stair width is measured between the handrails)

Open balustrade: a balustrade using rails or vertical posts to form the support for
the handrail. This type of construction should have no gaps which would allow a
100mm diameter sphere to pass through.
100mm SPHERE DOES
NOT PASS THROUGH
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
32

Closed balustrade: a balustrade using solid panels of timber, glass, perspex etc to
support the handrail.
HANDRAIL
NEWEL
POST
SOLID
PANEL
MUNTIN
STRINGER

Newel: posts provided at the top and bottom of flights to support handrails.

Drop newel: post provided at landing level which projects below the string
providing added strength and stability.
DROP NEWEL
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
33

Ballusters: timber or metal uprights used to provide intermediate support to the
handrail.

Spandrel: panelling provided below the stairway.
BALUSTERS
HANDRAIL
CAPPING
NEWEL
STRINGER
SPANDREL
Landings
Landing areas must be provided at the top and bottom of stairways and must be at
least as wide as the stairway they serve.
If a door is positioned opposite or adjacent to a stairway the minimum gap between
the door and the stair is 400mm.
LANDING
NOT LESS THAN
FLIGHT WIDTH
UP
UP
400 MIN
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
UP
400 MIN
34
Winding stairs
In some buildings (mainly older property) it is necessary to provide a change of
direction without a landing area, this is achieved by installing tapered steps called
winders.
270
270
MIN GOING 75mm
Modern construction avoids this type of stair wherever possible but restrictions in
space may result in their use.
If winding stairs are used the following rules should be applied:
 at the inner end of the tread the going must not be less than 75mm
 in a flight less than 1m wide the aggregate of the going and twice the rise must not
be less than 550 and not more than 700mm measured at the centre line of the stair
 the going of tapered treads must not be less than the going of the straight treads
 in a flight 1m wide or more 2r + g measured at the two points 270mm from each
end of the tread. r = rise, g = going.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
35
Stair design
Remember when designing a stair every tread and every rise must be the same size.
In order to design a staircase we require a knowledge of the regulations and a
minimum of two measurements:
Total rise and total going of the stairway.
LANDING
FFL
2m MINIMUM
HEADROOM
TOTAL RISE
FFL
TOTAL GOING
Total going: is the measurement between the face of the first and last risers measured
horizontally.
Total rise: is the measurement between the finished floor level at the lower floor and
the finished floor level of the upper floor measured vertically.
The normal procedure to carry out the calculations is as follows:
 divide the total rise by 220 (max rise for a step)
 where the answer is not a whole number go to the next whole number above and
divide the total rise by this number
 the size given is the rise for each step in the flight
 to calculate the going take the number of rises and deduct one giving the total
number of treads required
 divide the total going by the number of treads giving the size of each tread
 check tread size is greater than minimum 225 mm.
Note: standard measurements for a private stairway have been used.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
36
Example
A stairway is to be constructed using the following dimensions:
Total Rise:
Total Going:
3.2m
3.6m
Rise  max rise for a step 220mm
3.2  0.220 = 14.545, say 15 rises
3200  15 = 213.3mm
15 rises of 213.3mm
Going = 3.6m  14 (no of treads) = 257mm
Stairway 15 rises of 213.3
14 treads of 257mm
Using the following formulae we can check that our stair complies with regulations.
2r + g = 550 - 700mm
Where r is the rise and g is the going.
for our stair (2 x 213.3) + 257mm = 683.6
683.6 falls between 550-700mm so our stair is okay.
Student exercise
Design a stairway for the following dimensions:
Total Rise:
Total Going:
2940mm
3460mm
After design is complete check the proportions using the standard formula.
Note on use of the formula:
R = Total Rise
r = Step rise
G = Total Going
g = Step going
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
37
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
38
STUDY GUIDE 1: DOOR, WINDOW AND STAIR CONSTRUCTION
ASSIGNMENT NO. 1: DOORS AND WINDOWS
Select doors and windows for the following situations and produce detailed sketches
related to the incorporation of the components into the structure. Sketches should
includes details at the following points:
 head detail
 jamb detail
 threshold detail
 sill detail.
Details should include information on damp prevention and fixing arrangements.
a)
An internal door between the garage and utility room in a domestic property.
b)
An external door in a traditionally built domestic property.
c)
A timber window in a timber framed building with a tile sill incorporated in
the external masonry wall. The external wall is to be rendered.
d)
A sliding sash window incorporated in a new traditionally built extension to an
old property, with a facing brick external wall and lightweight block internal
wall.
Reference should be made to appropriate British Standard Codes of Practice, Building
Standards and manufacturers literature during the production of assignment material.
Note: This reference material may be used in the assignment task for Outcome 3.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
39
STUDENT GUIDE 1: DOOR, WINDOW AND STAIR CONSTRUCTION
ASSIGNMENT 2: STAIRS
Using appropriate standards, design a stair incorporating a quarter turn in the middle
for use in the construction of a two-storey domestic building.
Stair design information:
Total rise 2.8 metres
Total going ……………..?
Check that the design complies with the Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
40
STUDY GUIDE 2: FINISHES TO STRUCTURES
INTRODUCTION
Outcome 2
Specify the application of finishes to the structure.
Introduction.
This study guide deals with the provision of finishes to external walls, internal walls,
floors, ceilings and roofs.
Finishes to external walls.
The use of external rendering has been common for many years. The use of renders
has changed over the years and in today's industry render is applied as a finishing
material and weatherproofer. In the past, render was used as a cheap finish which
could be used to represent more expensive finishes such as stonework. Original
renders were made from sand and lime but the introduction of Portland cement
developed a render with good waterproofing qualities.
The modern construction industry uses renders in order to cover blockwork and/or
common brickwork in order to provide a decorative finish or a base coat for an
applied finish for example pebble dash. Render is widely used in Scotland with the
prime motive for its use being the provision of a waterproof coat in severe exposure
areas.
In recent years renders have suffered from a poor reputation and are thought to
contribute to the most common building defects. This reputation is hardly deserved as
most failures are caused by poor workmanship, poor detailing, incorrect specification
and the use of renders on unsuitable backgrounds.
The modern construction industry uses renders for a wide range of applications:
 to prevent damp penetration
 to cover common brickwork and blockwork
 to provide a smooth background for paint application
 to provide a key for a pebble dash finish
 to improve the thermal insulation value of a wall from the exterior.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
41
What is render?
Renders are surface coatings, usually based on a mixture of sand, cement and lime
with the addition of either chemicals or aggregate. In certain cases renders contain
additives such as resin or binders. Rendering involves the application of layers of
mortar applied to the face of the wall. In most cases this will include the base coat
and the finishing coat.
Appearance.
The type of finish applied to render will vary with location, particularly in relation to
adjacent footpaths and driveways. The general requirements for resistance to abrasion
or impact affect both the strength of the mix specified and the type of the finish that is
appropriate, since rough textured finishes are more liable to damage than smooth
finishes.
Other constraints to be considered when choosing the finish to render will include:
 the degree of exposure
 the appearance required
 the nature of the backing material
 the presence of any pollutants.
Types of the finish.
1. Dry dash / pebble dash
These give a rough finish of exposed pebbles or crushed stone graded from 6 to 13
mm and are produced by throwing the aggregate on to the surface of the freshly
applied coat of mortar. In some cases the aggregate can be lightly pressed into the
mortar to improve bonding.
2. Roughcast, wet dash or harling
This is a rough finish is produced by throwing on a wet mix containing coarse
aggregates and a cement binder.
The aggregate in the finish coat is composed of sand and crushed stone or gravel
from about 6 to 13 mm, the proportions of sand and gravel being adjusted
according to the effect required. Roughcast finishes are applied on an undercoat
with a spattered coat beneath it, like pebbledash finishes they are satisfactory for
use in severe conditions.
Mixes: Proportions should be: 3 parts of aggregate to 1 part of matrix (cement,
lime).
Coarse
Pebbles
6
4
6
3
3 Parts Aggregate
Medium Granite
Chippings
3
1
1
1 Part Matrix
Fine Sand
2
2
2
Cement
1
2
2
1
2
Lime
1
1
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
42
Permutations are infinite, provided they agree with the proportion of 3 to 1 and the
cement content is at least 50% of the matrix.
In many areas of Scotland the process of wet dashing is known as harling.
3. Smooth floated finishes
Smooth finishes to render are achieved by using a wood, felt or cork faced float to
provide the surface finish. Coarse sand is recommended for this type of rendering
especially in exposed conditions where rain and frost are likely to be severe.
This type of surface is one of the most difficult to achieve because when a smooth
finish is used on any surface imperfections are always more noticeable. If not
applied properly smooth finishes can give a patchy appearance with the risk of
cracking and crazing greater where cement rich, mixes and fine sand are used.
4. Artificial masonry
The position of the random joints is marked onto the render coat. A band of sand
cement mix is laid onto the marks and then cut to a width of 12mm with a 12mm
wide straight edge rule so that both edges are cut at the same time. These joints
are left overnight to harden. The stones are then filled in with each one being
tucked into the joints, to give them a boldness to their appearance. The thickness
of each stone will vary and their surfaces 'rubbed up' with either a newspaper, wire
brush or similar implement to give them their own individual appearance.
5. Textured finishes
Textured finishes are produced by treating freshly applied finishing coats with
various tools to produce a variety of patterns and textures.
Typical finishes are English cottage, torn, stucco, stapled stucco, fan textures and
scraped finish.
The final coating of mortar is levelled and allowed to set for several hours before
being marked or scraped with the appropriate tool. Textured and scribed finishes
are suitable for all backing materials and conditions of exposure and are less prone
to craze than smooth finishes. This is especially true of scribed or tooled finishes
because the surface layer of very fine particles of sand and cement, which are
likely to shrink and crack, is removed by the scraping action.
In industrial areas more heavily textured finishes will tend to get dirty more
quickly than the other types due to the increased amount of pollution. Highly
textured finishes should be applied to a reasonably low suction coat otherwise the
workability of the various coats tends to be lost before the required finish is
achieved.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
43
Machine applied finishes such as tyrolean, have the final coat thrown or spattered
on by machine. Textures vary depending on the roughness of the material used
and the type of machine. These finishes are suitable for all backing materials and
all conditions of exposure. Proprietary materials are available in various colours
and can be supplied either ready mixed or as a powder to be mixed with water. If
no special undercoat is supplied or specified by the manufacture, a 1:1:6 cement:
lime: sand mortar will normally be satisfactory.
6. Other finishes
These can be based on a variety of organic binders. They can range from artificial
stone paints and sand textured paints to coloured textured compositions applied by
spraying. This type of finish will normally will be applied by a specialist
contractor. These finishes may be used as a decorative medium on cement based
undercoats or applied directly to other suitable backgrounds such as concrete
blockwork.
Cement based undercoats should be three or four weeks old before applying an
organic finish. The life of organic renderings is less than that of cement based
renders and may need maintenance at intervals between 7 and 15 years.
Background characteristics.
The type of undercoat used, number of coats and the type of finish will depend on the
characteristics of the background material. Normal backgrounds are categorised as
follows and they vary considerably in strength, suction rate and mechanical key.
High density
Dense clay or concrete bricks and blocks or closed surface lightweight aggregate
concrete. These units have low porosity and limited suction rates and will frequently
have smooth surfaces providing little mechanical key. They must be treated to
improve the bond between the undercoat and the surface coat. Traditionally this has
been achieved by raking out the joints between bricks or blocks. Alternatives are
bush hammering or fixing mesh to the surface of the wall before the render coat is
applied.
Moderately strong and porous
Clay, calcium silicate or concrete bricks and blocks may be in this category. The
background normally offers some suction and mechanical key. As before, joints
would normally be raked out unless the suction was irregular or too high, in which
case a spatterdash coat of cement and sand should be used.
Moderately weak and porous
This background would include lightweight aggregate concrete, aerated concrete
blocks and relatively weak bricks. Care is needed in selecting rendering for these
backgrounds as shrinkage of unduly strong rendering is liable to lead to shearing of
the surface of the background material. It is important that the render is weaker than
the background material.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
44
Metal lathing
Expanded metal lathing or welded mesh backgrounds are frequently used for remedial
work, particularly when the background material is friable. Stainless steel is the ideal
material but ferrous metal may be used if three coat work is to be applied. In this case
a dense impervious first coat should be used to prevent rusting of the ferrous metal.
High sulphate backgrounds
Some bricks contain appreciable amounts of soluble salt including sulphates which
can also be found in old walls during renovation work. The salts can attack elements
of Portland cement and will require the use of specialist cements in order to prevent
damage to the render after application.
Walls which appear damaged due to sulphate attack of the mortar joints should not be
rendered.
Background preparation
Before render is applied the background must be free of dust, dirt, loose particles, old
plaster, efflorescence, fungi or algae. Holes and depressions (other than raked out
mortar joints) should be filled before applying the first coat.
Where a background has excessive or uneven areas of suction it should be dampened
in order to provide a consistent surface for application.
The use of bonding agents, usually based on the Polyvinyl acetate emulsion (P V A)
may be used to provide a key but there is no substitute for a good mechanical key.
Choice of mix.
As a general rule renders are porous and low strength in order to reduce the risk of
large cracks occurring due to drying shrinkage. During the initial drying out period
this porous render will absorb some rainwater but will not readily pass it on to the
background and it will quickly dry out during dry periods. Weak porous renders are
usually adequate in all but the most exposed areas. Any walls exposed to driving rain
and wind will need at least one coat to be reasonably impervious and this should
always be the first coat.
Frost damage to render will only occur if the material is saturated and this is unlikely
if the walls are protected by the eaves of the building. In exposed situations where
walls are likely to be exposed to hard frost and continuous driving rain the use of
pebble dash, rough cast, or harling is recommended.
Water proofing admixtures can be used but are not generally recommended for use in
intermediate coats as they may be responsible for the loss of bond.
Mixes for external work should generally be porous and of low strength in order to
reduce the risks of large cracks occurring due to drying shrinkage during the initial
drying out period. (Heavily cemented mixes tend to crack).
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
45
EXTERNAL CEMENT WORK
External Finish
Plain Face Render
Ashlar
English Cottage
Roughcast
Dry Dash
Tyrolean
Undercoat Render Coat Or Floating Coat
Cement 1:
Sand 3
Cement 1:
Lime 1:
Sand 5
Masonry Cement 1:
Sand 6
Cement 1:
Sand 6 with Plasticiser
Cement 1:
Lime 1:
Sand 6
Masonry Cement 1:
Sand 5
Cement 1:
Sand 6 with Plasticiser
Waterproof Cement 1: Sand 3
Cement 1:
Sand 3 with Waterproofing Additive
in Powder of Liquid Form
Cement 1:
Lime 1:
Sand 6
Masonry Cement 1:
Sand 5
Cement 1:
Sand 6 with Plasticiser
Finishing Coat
Cement 1:
Sand 3
Cement 1:
Lime 1:
:: Sand 5
Masonry Cement 1:
Sand 6
Cement 1:
Sand 6 with Plasticiser
Cement 1:
Lime 1
Sand 2:
Stone or Crushed 4
Single mixed to a slurry
Cement 1:
Lime 1:
Sand 5
Plus a suitable Dry Aggregate
Graded between 6 mm and 12 mm
*5 parts Cullamix:2 parts Water
* Cullamix is a mixture of Portland Cement, Silver Sand and a Colouring Pigment.Sand
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
46
Sand
The choice of sand is extremely important as it affects the working properties of the
mix, its water demand, performance and the appearance of the finished rendering.
Sand should be well graded to B S 1199. Aerated render mixes are particularly
sensitive to the grading of the sand. The suction of the background removes water
from the mix and tends to break down the bubble structure during working. Sand for
aerated mixes should therefore contain sufficient fine material to help stabilise the
bubble structure and maintain workability if the air content is reduced.
Undercoats require the coarsest and sharpest sand and the grade of sand used for the
final coat will depend on the finishing treatment.
Undercoats
The undercoat should always be weaker than the background. As a general rule the
same mix should be used for the finishing coat as for the undercoat. However if you
depart from this rule, the undercoat should be stronger than the finishing coat. A
stronger finishing coat can lead to serious cracking and loss of adhesion.
Thickness and number of the coats
One coat work is sometimes used but not recommended. External rendering should
consist of not less than two coats. One undercoat and a finishing coat are normally
adequate but extra coats are necessary on metal lathing, to level an uneven surface or
in severe exposure areas.
Spatterdash coats are normaly 3-5 mm, undercoats 8 - 16 mm and final coats 8-10 mm
but some finer textured machine applied finishes may be as thin as 3mm.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
47
Render detailing
Stop bead used at the bottom of render panel.
70
Metal Stop Bead
In order to stop render covering
the DPC it is normally stopped
above the DPC to prevent cracking
70mm
BELLCAST IN ORDER
TO RUN WATER
FROM THE WALL
AWAY
25mm
20mm
50mm
Alternative bead
without bellcast
DRIP TO PREVENT
WATER REACHING
BRICKWORK
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
48
Movement beads
6mm MOVEMENT
600mm+
RENDER
600mm+
VARIABLE
MASONRY
MASONRY
Movement beads are
incorporated into render
preventing expansion/
contraction cracking.
WHITE PVC
EXTRUSION
RENDER
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
49
Corner stop beads
MASONRY
RENDER
60mm
STAINLESS STEEL
ANGLE BEAD
Movement beads
CORNER BEAD SUITABLE
FOR USE WITH VARIOUS
THICKNESS OF RENDER
PVC NOSING
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
50
INTERNAL WALL FINISHES
Plastering
Plastering is another modern finish developed over many years and like render has
undergone many changes from its original use in medieval times.
Plastering on traditional buildings was used to cover the irregularities in brick or stone
walling and to provide a surface suitable for decoration.
The development of modern plasters means that, as well as the traditional functions,
plaster can be used to improve fire resistance, resist impact damage, improve
durability, help prevent damp penetration, improve thermal insulation and reduce the
effect of condensation within a building.
One of the most important advantages of plaster is it is cheap and can provide a high
quality surface finish.
In the last 40 years plaster has almost exclusively been manufactured using gypsum
although traditional lime plasters can still be found in many older properties. Gypsum
plasters are quick setting and can be applied in relatively thick coats as well as being
resistant to shrinkage cracks. The manufacture of gypsum plasters will not be dealt
with in this pack.
The most commonly used plaster in the last 25 years has been carlite lightweight
plaster which is produced in a number of different grades to suit differing situations.
Gypsum plasters classified according to their use
Class A plaster
Plaster of Paris which is unsuitable for most jobs other than small repairs as it has a
very short workability and setting time.
Class B plaster
These are retarded and dehydrated plasters which give a hard surface and are
sufficiently resistant to impact for normal use. They set quickly and expand during
setting.
Class C plaster
These are anhydrous plasters produce a harder surface than class B plasters and are
slow setting.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
51
Class D plaster
Keen's plaster produces a very hard smooth surface and is resistant to impact damage.
It is slow setting and expands on setting allowing ample time to achieve a fine finish
and is particularly suitable for high gloss paint finishes.
Gypsum plasters can be applied to most backgrounds without any special
consideration for the provision of a key. They are particularly good on lightweight
aggregate blocks. Care should be taken to minimise the effect of drying shrinkage on
dense concrete brickwork or blockwork. Where plaster is to be applied to smooth
surfaces it is a worthwhile precaution to rake out the joints of the brick or a blockwork
in order to strengthen bond.
PLASTER FINISH
JOINT RAKED OUT TO
ALLOW PLASTER KEY
INCORRECT RAKING OUT
NOT ALLOWING GOOD KEY
FOR PLASTER
Plasterboard
Plasterboard in one form or another has been used for around 100 years and was
originally developed as a ceiling finish, although today plasterboard is used to line
ceilings and walls as well as being built into non-load bearing partition walls. The
common name for plasterboard walls is dry lining. Plasterboard is made up from two
layers of heavy paper with a gypsum core. The introduction of timber frame
construction brought about a revolution in the use of plasterboard and although it
tends to be slightly more expensive than a wet plaster finish it offers some worthwhile
advantages to the builder. The advantages seen in the development of timber frame
have led to changes in the way plaster is applied to traditionally built homes. The
main advantage of plasterboard walling is the removal of a great deal of water from
the internal finishes of buildings. This allows less drying time, quicker decoration
and therefore a higher turnaround in the completion of each unit.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
52
As well as allowing a dry construction, plasterboard may be used to improve the
thermal insulation of a wall and plaster boarding requires less skill than traditional
plastering making it less likely to suffer from faulty materials or workmanship.
Plasterboard is available in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses as well as different
surfaces depending on choice of decoration. Most boards have a grey surface for
plastering and a white surface for direct decoration. Boards come with either square
edges suitable for the use of cover strips or more commonly tapered edges to allow
taping and filling which will result in the seamless construction (most common in
domestic housing).
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
53
Plasterboard detailing
Jointing
TAPERED EDGE
PLASTERBOARD
TAPE
JOINT FILLING
JOINT TAPE
SQUARE EDGED
PLASTERBOARD
FINISH PLASTER
TAPERED EDGE OF BOARD
PAPER TAPE
JOINTING COMPOUND
FEATHERED OUT
(NORMALLY IN THREE
LAYERS)
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
54
Fixing dry lining
1) Use of Plaster Dabs
INTERNAL WALL
EXTERNAL WALL
CEILING HEIGHT WALL
BOARDS SET ON
PLASTER DABS
PLASTER DABS
APPROX 450 CENTRES
BASE PLASTER TO
ALLOW FIXING OF
BOARDS AND SKIRTING
2) Timber Straps
ALTERNATIVE METHOD
USING TIMBER STRAPS
TO SUPPORT BOARD
EDGES
Note
Timber straps can
be nailed (no dabs)
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
55
3) Special adhesives
CONTACT ADHESIVE ON WALL
AND BACK OF BOARD SO
THAT THEY MATCH
MASONRY
WALL
LINING BOARD
PRESSED ONT0
ADHESIVE
Treatment at corners
PLASTER OR ADHESIVE
TO PREVENT DEFLECTION
INTERNAL
MASONRY
WALL
PLASTERBOARD
DABS
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
56
EXTERNAL WALL
FRAME
DPM
PLASTER OR
ADHESIVE DABS
METAL ANGLE BEAD USED
AT EXTERNAL CORNERS OF
PLASTERBOARD WALLS
ANGLE BEAD
JOINTING
COMPOUND
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
57
Wall tiles
Wall tiles made from clay or clay /ceramic mixtures for internal use are commonly
used in modern kitchens and bathrooms. Tiles are applied directly to render, plaster
or a plasterboard, using a suitable adhesive.
Wall tiles are generally used to prevent moisture reaching the wall surface and in most
cases the adhesive used is not waterproof. The glazed tile is waterproof but joints
must be waterproofed by filling with waterproof grout in order to provide a
waterproof finish to the wall.
The most common method of bedding tiles is to use a proprietary tile adhesive,
applied in a thin bed with a notched trowel before each tile is pressed into the
adhesive. Once the tile is bedded it should be left up to 24 hours before grout is
applied to complete the waterproofing process.
Some tiles can be bedded using cement mortar instead of an adhesive and this is
normally achieved by buttering the backs of the tiles with the mortar before
positioning them on a rendered wall surface.
Floor finishes
There are many types of floor finish used in modern construction. Some finishes are
applied to the structural floor and will serve no structural purpose while other finishes
such as floorboards may form part of the structural floor as well as the finished floor.
The choice of floor finish will depend on the use of the room, level of comfort or
decoration required, the amount of traffic envisaged for the room and the available
budget. When choosing a floor covering for a domestic property the choice tends to
be relatively easy. For normal rooms in everyday use such as lounge, bedroom,
hallway and staircase, it is normal practice to use carpet or carpet tiles. Some rooms
such as porches, bathrooms and kitchens are more likely to require special
consideration when choosing an appropriate floor finish.
Non-domestic finishes require further consideration mainly due to the nature and
proposed use of the building.
Whatever the application, the main considerations when choosing a covering will be:
 appearance
 resistance to wear
 safety
 hygiene.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
58
Other considerations such as the availability of materials, cost and availability of
labour will also be considered but these become secondary to the main considerations
previously listed.
Consideration of appearance is important in that the finish chosen, especially in light
industrial situations, will mean providing a floor finish which will serve the other
considerations without becoming unduly tarnished. Resistance to wear is one of the
most important considerations when choosing a floor finish. Floors with high-levels
of foot traffic or machines running over them are liable to suffer from wear problems.
As well as resistance to wear, floors in light industrial situations may be subjected to
aggressive processes or aggressive cleaning materials during their working life, and
the finish chosen will be required to protect the structural floor from these effects.
Safety considerations are important when choosing a floor covering in both domestic
and industrial property. Examples include the provision of non-slip surfaces where
required in kitchens and factories.
The final consideration is that of hygiene. Both in domestic and light industrial
applications certain areas where germs are likely to breed should have special
precautions taken. The need to choose finishes which are easy to clean is important
especially when dealing with food preparation areas like kitchens etc.
Floor finishes which contribute to the structure.
Concrete floor screed
Concrete floor screeds are used to provide a floor finish capable of receiving
coverings but in some non-domestic applications the screed will also provide the
finish. Examples of screeds used as floor finishes include workshop or storeroom
floors. Screeds from 40 to 75 mm thick, depending on provision of insulation, may be
used. Screed finishes are hard-wearing and as shown below can be separated from the
structural floor and treated as a replaceable wearing coat.
1) Sandwich construction
50 - 80mm FLOOR SCREED
INSULATION
DAMP PROOF MEMBRANE
FLOOR SLAB
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
59
2) Insulation below the concrete bed
40mm
FLOOR SCREED
FLOOR SCREED LAID ON
A CONCRETE SUB FLOOR
DAMP PROOF MEMBRANE
RIGID INSULATION BOARD
REINFORCED 65mm SCREED
25mm QUILT
INSULATION
“FLOATING” SCREED DETACHED
FROM BUILDING
Timber flooring
Traditional timber flooring is constructed using boards. The boards incorporate
tongue and groove joints and are cut from softwoods and nailed directly to the floor
joists with cut nails. Flooring boards fixed in this way will normally be covered with
another layer of floor covering such as carpet or carpet tiles.
Board's vary in thickness from 16 to 28 mm depending on the span between the joists
and are from 65 to 138 mm wide.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
60
When considering timber flooring as a material for floor finishes which also
contribute to the structure of the floor we should consider tongue and groove boarding
where the boards are used without a covering material. When used in this manner,
without a surface covering, the boards would be left exposed and treated with stain or
varnish. The use of timber flooring for this purpose is possible however a major
drawback is that excessive drying shrinkage of the boarding will leave unsightly gaps
between the boards. It is more common to use timber strip flooring in this situation.
These boards are less than 100 mm wide, made from hardwood and secret nailed to
provide a high-quality floor finish.
Timber used for this purpose will usually have been kiln dried and treated with spirit
based fungicide during manufacture. When the strip floor is laid it should be sanded
before being treated with sealant and varnished or waxed before use.
Chipboard flooring
Most high volume housing on today's market will use chipboard sheet flooring laid
either on the concrete slab or directly onto floor joists. When laid on concrete slabs
the floor would be battened or an insulation board provided between the slab and the
sheeting. Chipboard is tongued and grooved and in modern construction is often
glued together rather than traditional nailing.
Chipboard flooring has a reputation for being particularly sensitive to moisture and
will require a moisture membrane laid between the floor and a concrete slab.
Manufacturers supply a wide range of boards including boards with an insulation quilt
fixed to a pressure treated, moisture resistant board for use on any type of floor.
Chipboard floors are manufactured with the intention of covering them with other
non-structural finishes such as carpet, carpet tiles linoleum etc.
Student task
Using manufacturers literature or other available resource material provide details of
chipboard flooring suitable for domestic buildings.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
61
Non-structural floor finishes
Timber
The most common applied timber finishes are wood block floors. These are made
from hardwood or softwood blocks laid in a variety of patterns. Wood blocks can be
made from different timbers giving different colours and creating a pleasing floor.
Wood blocks are either laid using a proprietary adhesive or set in hot bitumen. On
completion the wood block floor is sanded and sealed or polished before use. The
most common floor covering of this type used in domestic buildings is parquet
flooring.
TYPICAL SIZE 225 x 75 x 25mm
TONGUE & GROOVE JOINT
T & G JOINT WITH
CHAMFERED EDGE
Wood block floors are common in many non-domestic situations including halls,
dining rooms and workshop floors.
Typical wood block floor pattern
In recent years the domestic market has seen the introduction of sheet materials made
from reconstituted timber which have the appearance of wood block and timber strip
floors but are in fact 6-12 mm thick sheets of reconstituted board for use as nonstructured coverings to timber or concrete floors.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
62
Tile floor finishes.
Tiled floors are normally constructed using PVC tiles (Polyvinyl chloride) or quarry
tiles.
PVC tiles.
PVC tiles are made from a mix of binders and fillers with coloured pigments added to
produce many colour variations. They are suitable for most purposes. PVC tiles were
used to cover concrete floor surfaces throughout properties between 1930 and 1960.
In modern-day construction their use is usually restricted to bathrooms and kitchens in
domestic property and to food preparation areas or corridors in non-domestic
situations.
PVC tiles are normally 300 millimetres square and between 1.5 mm and 3 mm thick.
Purchased in packs they are laid by bonding to a suitable base using a proprietary
adhesive recommended by the manufacturer.
Quarry tiles
One of the more traditional tile finishes used on domestic and industrial floors. Quarry
tiles are manufactured from natural clay formed into various tile sizes, the most
common size being 150 mm X 150 mm tiles, bedded on concrete using a 15 mm thick
cement sand bed with the joints between the tiles grouted in a cement sand mortar.
Quarry tiles have a reputation for being very hard wearing and maintaining a pleasing
appearance over many years. In domestic property they are used mainly in kitchens,
hallways and porches. In non-domestic properties they are often used in main
entrances and industrial kitchens.
In recent years safety considerations have led to the production of a new generation of
quarry tiles with specialist non-slip surfaces for use in steps, kitchen floors and
swimming pools, where the likelihood of slipping on smooth surfaces is a safety
hazard. Quarry tiles are particularly useful in industrial situations where aggressive
chemicals are used, as the inert clay tiles do not absorb chemicals easily. In these
situations however special consideration must be taken with the provision of grout
between the tiles where chemicals are likely to attack the cement binder.
EXTERNAL WALL
INTERNAL WALL
Quarry Tiles bedded on 1:3 cement sand
or laid in proprietary bedding compound
as per manufacturer’s instructions.
DPC
DPM
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
63
Ceiling finishes.
Modern domestic ceiling finishes are almost exclusively based on plasterboard
ceilings with a surface application of plaster or a textured coating. Ceiling boarding
can be carried out using wall boards, although often smaller plaster boards are used as
they are more manageable for the plasterer to lift to the ceiling and fix.
When used on ceilings, plasterboard should be fixed with the long edges running at
right angles to the ceiling joists and strutting between joists provided for the fixing of
board edges.
Where the finished ceiling is to be plastered the boards will be fixed grey side down
and the joints taped and filled to prevent cracking. Where a proprietary finish is to be
used such as artex the plasterboard would be fixed ivory face downwards and the
joints filled and taped before the textured coating is applied.
Plasterboards for ceilings should always be the fixed with staggered joints in order to
lessen the possibility of cracking.
Common ceiling boards.
Baseboard
Normal size 2.4 m X 1.2 m X 9.5 mm supported at centres not exceeding 400 mm or
12.5 mm thick for supports at centres not exceeding 600 millimetres. Baseboards
normally have square edges, the edges being reinforced by placing a 90 mm wide
scrim cloth before filling the joints.
Gypsum lath
1.2 m X 406 mm X 9.5 or 12.5 mm thick lath board with rounded edges eliminating the
need for joint reinforcement. The boards are fixed to the underside of the joists with
plasterboard nails a maximum of 150 mm apart.
Ceiling details
FLOOR
CEILING FINISH
Scrim cloth used
to reinforce the
joints and prevent
cracking
APPLIED
FINISH
ALTERNATIVE: Use feather edge boards & tape
& fill joints to provide surface for
application of finish.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
64
Typical ceiling boarding arrangements
TIMBER
DWANGS
BOARD JOISTS
400 - 600mm
DIMENSIONS TO SUIT
Suspended ceilings
Suspended ceilings are commonplace in modern construction. They are used mainly
in office or light industrial applications and as the name suggests these are ceilings
separated from the main structure of the building by a void. A suspended ceiling is
hung from the structure and is supported by the structural element rather than being a
structural element itself.
Reasons for suspending the ceiling:
 enclosure of services or light fittings in the ceiling space
 provision of a fire protection to floors and beams
 provision of sound insulation
 provision of a modular easy to construct ceiling system.
There are several types of suspended ceiling:
 suspended ceilings which use plasterboards and have the appearance of a normal
boarded ceiling
 modular or panelled suspended ceilings using ceiling tiles
 open ceilings consisting of the networks or grids.
Suspended ceiling are used to fulfill various functions, for instance the jointless
ceiling allows an existing ceiling to be lowered to increase fire resistance or sound
insulation between upper and lower apartments (particularly useful where flats are
being constructed, or older properties being converted to flats).
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
65
Modular suspended ceilings are probably the most widely used suspended ceiling
systems. They can be seen many situations such as offices, shops, schools and in
some cases in domestic buildings. In nearly all cases the ceiling is made up of the
suspended grid of lightweight metal with tile infill to form the finished ceiling. There
are many suspended ceiling contractors who specialise in this type of work and each
ceiling manufacturer produces tiles and support systems for their own designs.
Typical suspended ceiling support system
WALL ANGLE
(FIXING FOR WALL)
Adjustable straps or wires at each
junction to support framework.
MAIN RUNNER
CROSS TEE CLIP
SPLICE CLIP
CROSS TEE
Open ceilings
Open ceilings are normally used for decorative effect only and consist of open frames
of timber, metal or fabric slung beneath the structural ceiling. This will lower a high
ceiling and give a particular decorative effect to the room. The process is often used
in bars, restaurants and old properties with high ceilings where a visual reduction in
height is the desired effect.
Pitched roofs finishes.
Methods of covering roof structures in order to provide a weatherproof finish.
Like most construction processes roof coverings have developed over many years.
Unlike some areas where older materials have disappeared completely, roof coverings
still use the traditional methods of slating, although the use of natural slate has
declined due to cost and environmental concerns over the removal of slate through
quarrying. Over the years alternatives to slate have been developed largely due to the
widespread use of concrete roof tiles which are cheaper and require considerably less
skill to lay.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
66
Covering materials:
 natural slate
 clay tiles
 concrete tiles
 synthetic slates.
Before looking at the alternative roof coverings we should look at the provision of
roof felt and tiling battens.
Roof underlay
The nature of tiles and slates means that there are many small gaps in the roof
covering and although the covering is designed not to allow water penetration there is
the possibility, in certain conditions, (for example high winds) that rain could be
allowed to enter the roof space. This is prevented by inserting a layer of waterproof
material under the slates or tiles.
The waterproof material used can be either reinforced bitumen felt, reinforced
polythene, or waterproof paper.
Scottish roof construction uses sarking boards and therefore differs from the
construction found in many textbooks. Construction details often show the roof felt
sagging between the joists allowing any water to run down the waterproof material to
the gutter. The use of the sarking boards means that in Scottish construction the
waterproof material does not sag between the joists. In this case to prevent the buildup of water behind the tile battens, counter battens are placed on the roof allowing the
passage of water to the gutter.
There is no doubt that although Scottish construction is significantly more expensive,
it is stronger, better insulated and safer for are those working on the roof during
construction.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
67
Typical arrangement for underfelt and tiling battens
1m
SLATE OR TILE
BATTENS
LAP
O
1m
Less than 15 pitch = 225mm
O
O
15 - 34 pitch = 150mm
O
35 & over = 100mm
25 x 15
COUNTER BATTENS
Cross-section at eaves level
TILING BATTEN
UNDERLAY
ROOF TILE
COUNTER BATTEN
SARKING BOARD
TRUSS
VENTILATOR
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
68
Natural slates
Slate has been in use throughout Great Britain for hundreds of years, and widely used
in Scotland because it could be quarried locally. Until the 1940s slate was the most
widely used roof covering material available. Slate is quarried in large blocks and
split, originally by hand and latterly by machine to form the individual roof slates. It
should be noted that slate does not require any manufacturing process in order to use
it as a roof covering.
The advantage of slate is its durability and in the past its wide spread availability,
although with modern roof construction, the cost and weight of slate has seen it
decline in popularity. There are very few working slate quarries in the British Isles,
although it is widely used in the modern construction industry in high specification
property, National Park's or other areas where planning authorities insist on its use to
maintain the character of the area.
Fixing slate
Natural slate should be laid directly onto felt covered sarking or on slate battens and
nailed using non-ferrous nails made from either aluminium or copper. Galvanised
steel nails have been used to fix slates, this is not recommended as driving the nail
through the slate is likely to remove the galvanising coat and allow the nail to corrode.
It is common practice in Scottish construction to lay slates on top of the underfelt and
fix directly to the sarking boards without the use of slate battens.
Clay tiles
Standard clay tiles are 165 mm long and 265 mm wide with the two nibs along the top
edge which allow the tiles to be hung on the tiling battens, making it unnecessary to
nail every tile in position. It is normal practice to nail every 4th course of tiles as well
as the first and ridge courses. However manufacturer's instructions will always
recommend the appropriate nailing position for each tile. Tiles are normally top
nailed in the same way as slates. The main difference between clay tiles and slates is
that the clay tiles are manufactured with a slight curve preventing capillary action.
Minimum roof pitch for clay tiles will be stated in manufacturer's instructions but will
normally be around 40 degrees.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
69
Typical plain clay tile detail at ridge
RIDGE TILE
PLAIN TILES
RIDGE BOARD
COUNTER
BATTEN
TILE BATTEN
UNDERLAY
Concrete roof tiles
Concrete tiles are the most popular roof covering material in today's industry, they are
relatively cheap and are produced a wide range of colours and profiles which can be
used to break up the roof line. Concrete tiles are manufactured as interlocking tiles,
which have tongue and groove joints along the side edges allowing them to be single
lapped, reducing the weight of tiles on the roof.
Concrete tiles are manufactured with nibs to allow hanging on tile battens and in some
cases nail holes are provided, although many manufacturers manufacture tiles which
are secured by metal clips. Concrete roof tiles should be treated as slates when
nailing.
Many manufacturers supply pre-formed dry ridge and verge pieces. These preformed sections clip on to the standard roof tiles and give a good finish to the roof
construction. The use of these proprietary systems saves the traditional pointing of
ridge and verge with mortar.
Tile joint detail
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
70
Typical concrete tile profiles
Typical roof detail showing construction and covering
BITUMINOUS
FELT
SINGLE LAP
INTERLOCKING
TILES
COUNTER
BATTENS
TILING
BATTEN
MOISTURE
RESISTANT
BOARD
TIMBER
BEARERS
MINERAL
WOOL
INSULATION
VAPOUR CHECK
PLASTERBOARD
CAVITY
CLOSER
PLASTERBOARD
DRYLINING
CHANNEL
TRIM
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
SOFFIT
71
Synthetic slate
Synthetic slates are not new to the construction industry. Mixtures of asbestos and
cement have been common for the last 60 years, however, the reduction in the use of
asbestos has meant the introduction of synthetic fibres into their manufacture. The
synthetic slates are nailed in the same way as natural slates but with extra fixings as
they are relatively light. They are less durable than natural slates but in a relatively
sheltered area they are a useful alternative.
The need for a more durable replacement for natural slate has led some manufacturers
to develop a synthetic slate made from either concrete or crushed slate bound together
with resin. Although they look very like natural slate they are interlocking tiles and
can be laid as single lap tiles. The new generation of synthetic slates are much cheaper
than the natural product and when in position on the roof it is difficult to identify them
as tiles.
Nailing for roof tiles
Centre nailing
TILE BATTEN
CENTRE NAILING
COUNTER BATTEN
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
72
Head nailing
HEAD NAILING
TRUSS
TILE BATTEN
LAP
DOUBLE LAP
Head nailing is an alternative method of fixing, the advantage being that the nails are
protected by two layers of tile, although in severely exposed areas there is the danger
of high winds lifting the tiles off the roof.
Flat roof covering
The use of flat roofs (or roofs with a pitch of 10 or less) has been widespread during
the last century. Traditionally the roof covering was metal, lead, copper or zinc but
escalating material and labour cost has resulted in little use of these coverings other
than on high specification work in the last fifty years.
The most common flat roofing materials used in today’s industry are:
 mastic asphalt
 bituminous felt
 rubber
 synthetic polymers.
These materials can be used on all types of flat roof construction.
Flat roof decking is formed using concrete, metal sheeting or timber, with timber the
most commonly used for domestic purposes (garages, porches and house extensions).
Flat roof construction has been widely criticised over the years due to problems of
failure causing leaking, but it should be noted that the lifespan of a modern flat roof is
less than half that expected of other roof structures and many of the failures can be
attributed to poor design, inappropriate use of flat roofs and poor workmanship.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
73
Types of covering
Mastic asphalt
Mastic Asphalt is the traditional covering giving a good performance with regard to
durability and weather protection.
Mastic Asphalt is a mixture of bitumen (binder) and aggregate (filler).
Mastic Asphalt is melted on site from large solid blocks of material and applied in
bays with staggered joints. (Bay sizes are dependent on the size of roof but will be
approximately 2m wide).
The roof covering is normally laid in two layers each layer being 10-12 mm thick
trowelled onto the roof decking.
Bituminous felt
Most modern flat roofs use bituminous felt normally laid in 2-3 layers with high
performance felt laid on either hot or cold bitumen binders.
A vapour barrier or vapour check is used to prevent water vapour condensing under
the layers of felt.
Rolls of felt are normally 1m wide. Special mineral surfaced felt is generally used at
the perimiter of the roof.
Most felt roofs need to reflect the sunlight in order to prevent melting and to stabilise
the temperature avoiding excessive thermal movement which could cause blistering
and cracking, this is achieved by the application of solar reflective paints or stone
chippings.
Student task
Sketch a typical eaves and verge detail showing a felt roof covering in either a
concrete or timber flat roof.
Rubber and synthetic polymer coverings
The failure of traditional flat roof coverings has resulted in the development of new
types of covering including the use of sheet rubber delivered to sites in rolls and fixed
to decking by flexible rubber compounds. Rubber sheeting is less likely to be
affected by thermal movement.
Synthetic polymers are being developed as long life coverings which have the
advantage of reflective colours, high resistance to wear and flexibility, but
development costs are high, making coverings expensive by comparison with the
current alternatives.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
74
Typical flat roof details
Typical warm roof construction (Scotland)
WEATHER PROOFING
INSULATION
DECKING
VAPOUR
BARRIER
JOIST
FIRRING PIECE
Typical cold roof construction
WEATHER PROOFING
DECKING
JOIST
FIRRING PIECE
INSULATION
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
75
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
76
STUDY GUIDE 2: FINISHES to structures
ASSIGNMENT NO. 1: APPLIED FINISHES
Alternative 1: Drawing supplied by centre
The drawing supplied shows a series of rooms within a building. The rooms are
used for different purposes.
Select appropriate external and internal wall floor and ceiling finishes for each room
in the building. The finishes must be appropriate to the rooms in terms of hygiene,
durability, safety and appearance.
Where a finish is specified, justify your selection by providing documentary evidence.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
77
STUDY GUIDE 2: FINISHES TO STRUCTURES
ASSIGNMENT NO. 1: APPLIED FINISHES
Alternative 2: Wall (external & internal), floor and ceiling finishes
You are likely to be undertaking the work for this unit in a large institution such as a
College campus or a School building with a range of facilities which may include the
following areas:
 classrooms
 toilets
 commercial/training kitchens
 corridors
 offices
 workshops
 machine rooms etc
 conference facilities
 lecture facilities.
Carry out an inspection of at least five different areas, record the wall, floor and
ceiling finishes and sketch the likely construction details.
If the finish is inappropriate for the current use of the room, suggest and detail
appropriate changes.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
78
STUDY GUIDE 2: FINISHES TO STRUCTURES
ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: WALL (EXTERNAL & INTERNAL), FLOOR AND
CEILING FINISHES
Using the information produced for Assignment task 1, provide details of the
preparation of backgrounds to receive the applied finishes and suggest suitable
methods of protecting the finishes during the construction phase and whilst the
building is in use.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
79
STUDY GUIDE 2: FINISHES TO STRUCTURES
ASSIGNMENT NO. 3: ROOF FINISHES
1. Suggest suitable roof coverings to be used in the following situations and provide
sketch details at the eaves and ridge:
 a single storey house built in a conservation area
 a two storey domestic dwelling on a modern high volume housing site in your
local area.
2. Suggest a suitable roof covering material for a timber flat roof extension to a
domestic property and provide sketch details at the eaves and the connection to
the adjoining structure:
.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
80
STUDY GUIDE 3: SELECTION OF COMPONENTS AND FINISHES
Outcome 3
Produce a report to justify the selection of components and finishes
This study guide describes a useful approach to writing the report.
The use of reports in construction is usually limited to a technical report which will be
used to address specific issues. A good report will provide information in a standard
format, enabling it to be quickly understood by the reader. Those using a report need
to locate information of particular interest and it is important that the report writer
ensures the information is clear and easy to follow. A report is an important
communication tool and can be used by several people within an organisation to
ensure that problems are solved in a consistent manner. The most important thing for
a report writer to ensure is that those reading the report will be able to identify and use
the important information contained within the report.
The report to be used in this case should be treated as an internal report, which would
normally be used to consider your development proposals. Report formats vary
depending on their purpose and some are more formal than others, within all reports
there are certain common features, as follows:
 information is presented in a logical sequence using numbered sections
 overviews and conclusions should be included
 a contents page is included to help the reader find sections of interest.
Reports are often used as part of a consultation process and draft copies can be
circulated to all those concerned giving them the opportunity to comment and identify
errors or areas of disagreement before the final version is agreed and produced.
Reports provide readers with material that can be read at their leisure enabling them to
consider relevant matters. This will often result in a more constructive decision
making process and the production of the report can be used to help in the problem
solving process.
Report writing
Establishing terms of reference
The first task is to decide on the objective of the report. The writer needs a clear idea
of what the report is to cover and what it is to be used for as well as obvious things
such as the submission date.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
81
Building up a report
 Produce notes to help generate ideas and identify key areas. When this is done all
related points can be brought together under various headings and the sections of
the report will then be produced in a logical sequence. Once this stage is
completed you should check that the content of your report is suitable for its
purpose.

One of the most important things to remember when producing a report is that a
good report is easy to read, is logical and coherent. The task of writing a report
will help you to solve problems and think the subject through. As long as you
understand the subject and think logically and clearly the report will be simple to
write.

The report layout should be clear and easy to follow, with headings clearly
defined and the pages well spaced and easy to read. Most reports have wider
margins then normal pieces of text to accommodate reader's notes placed in the
margin.

Remember when producing a report to use language that suits the reader. For
example, if your report is to be read by a client or someone without specific
construction knowledge it should not be written in technical language. Where the
reader is to be someone with a construction/technical background, who has a
broad knowledge of the subject, then it would be safe to presume that you can use
technical language as they will be familiar with such language.
The standard report will include the following:
 Title page. This includes the name of the author, the title of the report and whom
the report is to be sent to.

Summary. The last part of the report to be written, even though it will be placed
at the start of the report so that the reader, who may not wish to read every section
of the detailed report, can go straight to the summary and read the important
information. A summary should be concise and well presented.

Contents page. Gives the reader a quick overview of the subject the report deals
with. A contents page will be produced as the report is developed and will help
the report writer map out the content. The number of sections of the report will be
listed in sequence so that the reader can choose to read the most appropriate
sections without spending time reading what may be peripheral or supporting
material.

Terms of reference. This outlines the purpose of the report as well as details of
who commissioned the report. Terms of reference can be combined with an
introduction and if the report writer is unsure about the terms of reference these
should be clarified before research begins.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
82

Introduction. A brief background information in order to allow the reader to put
the report into context. This is particularly important if the reader has no prior
knowledge of the subject. The introduction can also be used to explain the
methods of investigation used for the report.

Methodology. Most reports require an element of research and this section
describes the way in which research was carried out. This may include visits to
organisations, technical research, questionnaires, interviews etc.

Findings. Each separate area of information will be dealt with in the findings.
The findings form the basis of any discussion to take place as well as the
recommendations.

Conclusions. A summary of the main points of the report with an overview of the
discussions or options for future development and action.

Recommendations. These are the solutions to the problems, which have arisen
during the process. The recommendations should be positive and persuade the
reader on a particular course of action. Positive, well written recommendations
will instil confidence in the reader that all relevant options have been explored and
that the solutions are both realistic and practical. Each recommendation should be
listed separately so that it is clearly understood by the reader.

Appendix. This will include any supporting material which is referred to in a
report. This might include leaflets, questionnaires, statistical information etc.
This section is the back-up material to your findings and recommendations and is
kept separate to prevent the body of the report becoming too bulky and complex
for the reader. It is important to include the material so that the reader does not
waste time looking for material which the report writer has already provided as
part of the research.

Acknowledgements. All reports will include references to other publications,
pieces of research and books. They should be listed including the author's name,
the publication title and the dates of publication.
Report writing tips
 keep the report brief and concise
 write a report to express a view, you should avoid ambiguity and irrelevance
 you must be prepared to rethink the fundamental points of the report if you get
stuck
 when writing a report keep the main purpose of the report in mind.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
83
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
84
STUDY GUIDE 3: SELECTION OF COMPONENTS AND FINISHES
ASSIGNMENT NO. 1: REPORTS
Prepare brief reports on two of the following:

The alternative types of facing brick to be used in the construction of external
walls for a domestic bungalow.

Alternative types of render finish for a two storey house in an area of severe
exposure.

Appropriate finishes for the internal floor, ceiling and walls in a food preparation
area.

Appropriate finishes for the internal floor, ceiling and walls in a domestic
construction.

The choice of roof covering for a new low-rise school building which is currently
at the design stage in your local area.
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
85
DET: Building and Architectural Technology: Building Technology: Components and Finishes (Higher)
86
Related documents
Download