Study questions for Quiz 3, Monday, Nov. 1 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the importance of kinship to social organization? Vertical function of kinship Horizontal function of kinship Types of kinship descent: bilateral, patrilineal, matrilineal How would you describe the kinship system of the Bari tribe of Venezuela? (article How Many Fathers Are Best for a Child?) 6. Common types of residence after marriage: patrilocal, matrilocal, neolocal 7. Types of marriages: monogamy, polygamy, polygyny, polyandry 8. Endogamy and its social purposes (see chapter 7 of Culture Counts) 9. Exogamy and its social purposes (see chapter 7 of Culture Counts) 10. Bride wealth and its function (see chapter 7 of Culture Counts) 11. Dowry and its function (see chapter 7 of Culture Counts) 12. How do the Na of China practice marriage? (see chapter 7 of Culture Counts) 13. Be able to describe gender ideologies and marriage practices among the Awlad ‘Ali Bedouin Tribes, according to anthropologist Lila Abu-Lughod (as discussed in class) 14. In reference to the exercise you did as a class to arrange the marriages of your children: be able to explain what you learned about the functions and ideologies connected with arranged marriage in many Arab cultures 15. What is infrastructure, social structure, and super structure and their relation to each other? 16. What are the Hijras’ roles in India? (see chapter 8 of Culture Counts) 17. Give an example of a male rite of passage. Give an example of a female rite of passage. (chapter 8 of Culture Counts) 18. What is a patriarchy? What is a matriarchy? (chapter 8 of Culture Counts) 19. Be able to describe gender relations in foraging societies, horticultural societies, pastoral societies and agricultural societies. (chapter 8 of Culture Counts) 20. How are gender differences accommodated in various indigenous North American groups, according to the article Strange Country This? What is the importance of male and female roles for Berdache identity? What are third and fourth genders among Native Americans? 21. According to Michael Kimmel, is dominance of one gender over another learned or biological? (lecture) 22. According to the authors of Why Sex Matters, what are the reproductive imperatives of males compared with females and what might those differences have to do with patterns of gender dominance? (lecture) Why have there been no apparent matriarchies? 23. What do reproductive imperatives have to do with war, according to the authors of Why Sex Matters? Are current wars still hooked to reproductive imperatives the way they were in the distant past, according to Bobbi Low and other biological anthropologists? (lecture) Essay question: Marvin Harris and Cultural Materialism as partial explanation for marriage differences • The lowest level he called the infrastructure – this includes a group’s subsistence strategy for making a living from its environment. (Foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, industrialization, etc.) • The middle level he called the social structure – this includes the ways societies organize themselves through kinship, gender roles, political systems, systems of work and systems of collaboration or trade, etc. • The top level he called the superstructure – this includes the ideational concerns of culture, its social values, religion, myth, art, norms etc. • The superstructure developed out of the social structure which developed out of the infrastructure. The social structure supports the infrastructure and the super structure supports the social structure. • When the infrastructure changes, the superstructure is usually the last to change in response to those changes. 24. Describe how the theory of cultural materialism can help explain the reasons for kinship systems and marriage practices for the Na of China (Culture Counts), polyandry in Tibet (article), the Awlad ‘Ali Bedouins (lecture), Kyrgyzstan bride kidnapping (video), and the Maasai pastoralists (video). For full points, briefly describe the infrastructure for each group and explain possible reasons why the kinship system and marriage rules (social structure) support the infrastructure. Discuss what you know about the ideologies and beliefs (super structure) that motivate people in these groups to follow their kinship rules and marriage practices. Ideology Anthropologist Clifford Geertz effectively explains ideology as “shared meanings” and as “maps of problematic social reality and matrices for the creation of collective conscience” (Geertz 1973:218-219). In this sense, ideology is a worldview and a belief system (Gerring 1997:969).