Second Six Weeks

Second Six Weeks
“Identify the cellular organelles associated with major cell processes.”
1. Vacuole – storage of wastes, food, water, etc.
2. Cytoplasm – jelly-like substance that suspends
all organelles; holds them in place. Provides a medium
for chemical reactions like protein synthesis
3. Cell membrane – controls what enters/exits the cell
4. Lysosome – “Garbage Truck”. contain enzymes that
break down old cell parts, wastes, foreign objects, etc.
5. Cytoskeleton – gives the cell shape by pushing out
the cell membrane like stakes for a tent
6. Golgi Apparatus – sorts, packages, ships materials
7. Centrioles – pull apart chromosomes during mitosis
8. Nucleus – Controls cell activities. Contains
DNA (storage of genetic info) DNA is replicated here
9. Nucleolus – located in nucleus. Makes Ribosomes.
10. Mitochondria – Makes energy for the cell.
1 Glucose = 36 ATP
11. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Makes proteins
Outside the cell
12. Ribosomes – makes proteins inside the cell.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) makes proteins reading
mRNA three letters at a time.
13. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – makes lipids or fats
Differences between Animal and Plant Cells
Contains Cillia/Flagella – help
Contains Chloroplasts – green organelles that make food for the
the cell to move or swim
plant. Perform Photosynthesis.
Contains centrioles
Contains a larger vacuole than animal cells. Stores lots of water
for the plant cell.
Contains a cell wall – surrounds the cell membrane and gives the
plant cell extra protection.
“Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.”
Prokaryotic Cell contains NO NUCLEUS!!
Only has: ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall and DNA
but the DNA it is NOT INSIDE A NUCLEUS! Usually bacteria.
Eukaryotic Cell HAS A NUCLEUS!! Also has all other
major organelles listed above. Animal and plant cells.
“Distinguish among proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.”
Monomers – “building blocks” to large molecules
Polymers – large molecules made up of monomers. 4 main large molecules are:
Second Six Weeks
1. Carbohydrates – short term
Polymer Example
energy use. Found in fruit, milk,
Monosaccharide’s (simple
Polysaccharides (Starch)
table sugar and more complex
sources like past and bread.
Nucleic Acids (RNA & DNA)
2. Nucleic Acids – genetic
Amino Acids
information. Instructions for
making proteins and tells the
cell what to do.
3. Proteins – carry out the work in cells.
4. Lipids – long term energy storage. Fats, oils, waxes, steroids. Provides insulation from cold weather and
waterproof plants and your skin.
Monosaccharide’s: building blocks for polysaccharides. Saccharide means “sugar”. Examples of monosaccharides
and disaccharides are glucose, fructose, sucrose (table sugar). Polysaaccharides are starch and cellulose/plant
Carbohydrates are sugars. They can be simple sugars like monosaccharides
and complex sugars like polysaccharides.
Nucleotides: building blocks of Nucleic Acids.
Consists of 3 parts: Phosphate, Sugar, Base (A,T,G,C)
Amino Acids: 20 total. Building blocks of proteins.
Peptide Bonds link one amino acid to another.
“Identify positive test for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.”
Carbohydrates (Starch)
Positive Color/Results Observed
Bluish Black
Violet, lavender, light purple
Iodine (yellow/brown)
Biurets Reagent (bright
Brown Paper
Simple Sugars (mono
and disaccharides)
Bennedict’s Solution
(light blue)
Orange Brown, Brownish Orange
Leaves a clear (translucent) spot on Brown Paper
“Identify how enzymes control chemical reactions in the body.”
Chemical Reaction – changing one substance into another substance
Reactant – a starting material in a chemical reaction
Product – the final material in a chemical reaction
Activation Energy – energy needed for a reaction to happen
Catalyst – chemical that speeds up a chemical reaction
 Enzymes - a type of catalyst that speeds up biological
 Substrate – a reactant that binds to an enzyme
Active Site – area where the substrate binds to the enzyme
Second Six Weeks
The substrate fits into the enzyme like a lock and key.
Only one substrate for one enzyme like only one key for a lock.
“Predict the movement of water and other molecules across selectively permeable membranes.”
“Compare and contrast active and passive transport.”
Phospholipid Bilayer: Another name for the cell membrane.
Made up of two layers of phospholipids. Heads like water
(polar), tails face each other and do not like water (nonpolar).
Cell membrane controls what enters/exits the cell! Said to be
“selectively permeable” selects what can enter/exit.
Movement across the cell membrane can either be
With the concentration gradient
Against the concentration gradient
Concentration – amount of substance in a solution.
The more substance… the more concentrated.
A gradient is a HILL. If you move walk down hill,
it takes no energy. If you walk up hill, it takes energy.
If particles move from an area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration, this is downhill and
with the concentration gradient. See the arrows. No Energy Required.
Diffusion – is movement from an area of high amounts to low amounts and is a type of passive transport.
Osmosis – diffusion of water in or out of the cell membrane. Another type of passive transport.
1. Hypotonic – A solution that makes a Cell swell with water, the cell blows up like a BIG O or HIPPO
2. Hypertonic – A solution that makes water leaves the cell. The cell shrivels.
3. Isotonic – A solution that doesn’t bother a cell. Equal amounts of water on both sides of the cell membrane.
Facilitated Diffusion – movement of substances through a
protein channel. Energy not needed. Proteins help large or
polar molecules across. Still going from an area of high to low
or with the gradient. Just need a little help!
Active Transport – Movement of substances into a cell
with the use of ENERGY. Particles are moving against the
Second Six Weeks
gradient. See the arrows. It takes energy to pump particles
against the gradient so you always use a protein in active
Bulk Transport – taking large amounts of particles in and out of the cell. NEED ENERGY TO DO THIS!
Endocytosis-Taking large amounts into a cell with the use of Energy.
Exocytosis –Taking large amounts out of the cell with the use of energy.
Passive Transport-Osmosis, Diffusion, and Facilitated Diffusion. Moving substances into and out of the cell without