Second Six Weeks “Identify the cellular organelles associated with major cell processes.” 1. Vacuole – storage of wastes, food, water, etc. 2. Cytoplasm – jelly-like substance that suspends all organelles; holds them in place. Provides a medium for chemical reactions like protein synthesis 3. Cell membrane – controls what enters/exits the cell 4. Lysosome – “Garbage Truck”. contain enzymes that break down old cell parts, wastes, foreign objects, etc. 5. Cytoskeleton – gives the cell shape by pushing out the cell membrane like stakes for a tent 6. Golgi Apparatus – sorts, packages, ships materials 7. Centrioles – pull apart chromosomes during mitosis 8. Nucleus – Controls cell activities. Contains DNA (storage of genetic info) DNA is replicated here 9. Nucleolus – located in nucleus. Makes Ribosomes. 10. Mitochondria – Makes energy for the cell. 1 Glucose = 36 ATP 11. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Makes proteins Outside the cell 12. Ribosomes – makes proteins inside the cell. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) makes proteins reading mRNA three letters at a time. 13. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – makes lipids or fats Differences between Animal and Plant Cells ONLY IN ANIMAL CELLS ONLY IN PLANT CELLS Contains Cillia/Flagella – help Contains Chloroplasts – green organelles that make food for the the cell to move or swim plant. Perform Photosynthesis. Contains centrioles Contains a larger vacuole than animal cells. Stores lots of water for the plant cell. Contains a cell wall – surrounds the cell membrane and gives the plant cell extra protection. “Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.” Cell 1 – PROKARYOTE Cell 2 - EUKARYOTE Prokaryotic Cell contains NO NUCLEUS!! Only has: ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall and DNA but the DNA it is NOT INSIDE A NUCLEUS! Usually bacteria. Eukaryotic Cell HAS A NUCLEUS!! Also has all other major organelles listed above. Animal and plant cells. “Distinguish among proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.” Monomers – “building blocks” to large molecules Polymers – large molecules made up of monomers. 4 main large molecules are: Second Six Weeks 1. Carbohydrates – short term Monomers Polymer Example energy use. Found in fruit, milk, Monosaccharide’s (simple Polysaccharides (Starch) table sugar and more complex sugars) sources like past and bread. Nucleotides Nucleic Acids (RNA & DNA) 2. Nucleic Acids – genetic Amino Acids Proteins information. Instructions for None Lipids making proteins and tells the cell what to do. 3. Proteins – carry out the work in cells. 4. Lipids – long term energy storage. Fats, oils, waxes, steroids. Provides insulation from cold weather and waterproof plants and your skin. Monosaccharide’s: building blocks for polysaccharides. Saccharide means “sugar”. Examples of monosaccharides and disaccharides are glucose, fructose, sucrose (table sugar). Polysaaccharides are starch and cellulose/plant material. Carbohydrates are sugars. They can be simple sugars like monosaccharides and complex sugars like polysaccharides. Nucleotides: building blocks of Nucleic Acids. Consists of 3 parts: Phosphate, Sugar, Base (A,T,G,C) Amino Acids: 20 total. Building blocks of proteins. Peptide Bonds link one amino acid to another. “Identify positive test for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.” Macromolecule Carbohydrates (Starch) Proteins Positive Color/Results Observed Bluish Black Violet, lavender, light purple Lipids Indicator Iodine (yellow/brown) Biurets Reagent (bright blue) Brown Paper Simple Sugars (mono and disaccharides) Bennedict’s Solution (light blue) Orange Brown, Brownish Orange Leaves a clear (translucent) spot on Brown Paper “Identify how enzymes control chemical reactions in the body.” Chemical Reaction – changing one substance into another substance Reactant – a starting material in a chemical reaction Product – the final material in a chemical reaction Activation Energy – energy needed for a reaction to happen Catalyst – chemical that speeds up a chemical reaction Enzymes - a type of catalyst that speeds up biological chemical reactions BY LOWERING THE ACTIVATION ENERGY! Substrate – a reactant that binds to an enzyme Active Site – area where the substrate binds to the enzyme Second Six Weeks The substrate fits into the enzyme like a lock and key. Only one substrate for one enzyme like only one key for a lock. “Predict the movement of water and other molecules across selectively permeable membranes.” “Compare and contrast active and passive transport.” Phospholipid Bilayer: Another name for the cell membrane. Made up of two layers of phospholipids. Heads like water (polar), tails face each other and do not like water (nonpolar). Cell membrane controls what enters/exits the cell! Said to be “selectively permeable” selects what can enter/exit. Movement across the cell membrane can either be PASSIVE OR ACTIVE. Passive – NO ENERGY REQUIRED With the concentration gradient VS. Active – ENERGY REQUIRED Against the concentration gradient Concentration – amount of substance in a solution. The more substance… the more concentrated. A gradient is a HILL. If you move walk down hill, it takes no energy. If you walk up hill, it takes energy. If particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, this is downhill and with the concentration gradient. See the arrows. No Energy Required. Diffusion – is movement from an area of high amounts to low amounts and is a type of passive transport. Osmosis – diffusion of water in or out of the cell membrane. Another type of passive transport. 1. Hypotonic – A solution that makes a Cell swell with water, the cell blows up like a BIG O or HIPPO 2. Hypertonic – A solution that makes water leaves the cell. The cell shrivels. 3. Isotonic – A solution that doesn’t bother a cell. Equal amounts of water on both sides of the cell membrane. Facilitated Diffusion – movement of substances through a protein channel. Energy not needed. Proteins help large or polar molecules across. Still going from an area of high to low or with the gradient. Just need a little help! Active Transport – Movement of substances into a cell with the use of ENERGY. Particles are moving against the Second Six Weeks gradient. See the arrows. It takes energy to pump particles against the gradient so you always use a protein in active transport! Bulk Transport – taking large amounts of particles in and out of the cell. NEED ENERGY TO DO THIS! Endocytosis-Taking large amounts into a cell with the use of Energy. Exocytosis –Taking large amounts out of the cell with the use of energy. Passive Transport-Osmosis, Diffusion, and Facilitated Diffusion. Moving substances into and out of the cell without energy.