Earthquakes What Causes Earthquakes Earthquakes occur when rock beneath the earth’s surface moves The movement of plates creates stress in the rock, when the stress builds up the rock breaks or changes shape releasing energy in the form of vibrations (waves) Seismic Waves Seismic waves are what earthquakes produce They ripple out in all directions from the point where the earthquake occurred (epicenter) Waves can travel from one side of the earth to the other 3 types of seismic waves P waves Primary waves (P waves): fastest moving of the three seismic waves They are Longitudinal waves (waves move back and forth with compression, think pushing a spring) They can travel through all parts of the earth (can show up on the direct opposite side of where the earthquake was) S waves Secondary waves: are transverse waves (up and down) Can not travel through the liquid part of the earth Surface waves Combination of P and S waves These are the waves you feel during an earthquake Cause the most ground movement Detecting Seismic Waves Seismograph records the ground movements caused by seismic waves Seismogram are the lines recorded by the seismograph Richter Scale: measures the magnitude (power) of the earthquake Richter scale Richter Earthquake Magnitudes Effects Less than 3.5 Generally not felt, but recorded. 3.5-5.4 Often felt, but rarely causes damage Under 6.0 At most slight damage to well-designed buildings. Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small regions. 6.1-6.9 Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 kilometers across where people live. 7.0-7.9 Major earthquake. Can cause serious damage over larger areas. 8 or greater Great earthquake. Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred kilometers across.