ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY RUBRIC Definition Classroom Modifications Assistive Technology Resources When a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her voice, then he or she has a speech disorder. Difficulties pronouncing sounds, or articulation disorders, and stuttering are examples of speech disorders. When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder. Modify assignments, such as one-toone presentation, use of computer with voice synthesizer, and reduced assignments. Shortened tests. Substituting written papers or a project for oral class report Alter traditional classroom games or activities to reinforce concepts for review First Words is a language program that has a number of applications for teaching those who are developing or reacquiring language functions. The program uses graphic presentations combined with synthesized speech to teach highfrequency nouns, and is one of many software packages that can help develop both speech and language. There is also an array of computer software packages. Augmentative or alternative communication (AAC). AAC is the use of symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques to enhance the http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ (definition) http://www.niu.edu/success/accommodations.shtml#speech (classroom modifications) http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/207_Common_SLP_Terms.pdf (classroom modifications) http://www.projectidealonline.org/speechLanguageImpairments.php (assistive technology) http://www.education.com/reference/article/speech-language-impairments/?page=3 (definition/assistive technology) Special Education IEP Speech Language communication process. This includes sign language and various communication boards, both manual and electronic, that are used by individuals with impaired oral motor skills. Cognitive Disability Substantial limitations in ageappropriate intellectual and adaptive behavior. This occurs in a range of severity from mild-severe Hearing Hearing loss that Notetakers, Audiotaped or videotaped class sessions, extended exam time, quiet testing locations, visual instructions, lecture outlines, books on tape, alternative evaluation methods(e.g., portfolio, oral or video presentations), reinforcing directions verbally, breaking large amounts of information or instructions into smaller segments * Set students Digital camera take pictures of signs, people, wheelchairs, walkers, crutches, hearing aids, reading machines, electronic or manual boards, computers equipped with speech output, which highlights and reads, software to enlarge screen images, talking calculators http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/intellectual http://www.partnerstx.org/Resources/Mental_Retardation/FactSheet_NICHCY.htm http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/001523.html?ic=506048 http://greg.quuxuum.org/journal/bryen.html * Personal FM http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/commopt.html Impairment prevents a person from totally receiving sounds through the ear. where they can maintain eye contact, and always face the student, and have optimal natural lighting * Visual aids * Provide an outline in advance of the lesson/activity to the student with expectations * Write assignments on the board * Elimanate background noise * Label materials System * Laptop computers * Visual Alarms * Hearing aids/ Cochlear implants http://www.deaflinx.com/resources/resources-for-parents-with-deafand-hard-of-hearing-children.html http://www.gallaudet.edu/Clerc_Center/Information_and_Resources /Info_to_Go/Resources/Helpful_Books_and_Resources_for_Parents_of_ Children_Who_are_Deaf_or_Hard_of_Hearing.html http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/hearing_orgs.htm Visual Impairment Total blindness is the inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see. Visual impairment or low vision is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and reduces a person's ability to function at certain or all tasks. Legal The most basic classroom modification is keeping pathways clear and objects in their places. For example, any manipulatives kept in the classroom should be consistently kept in one place so that the A large variety of assistive technologies have been developed for individuals with visual impairments. Some of the more low-tech options were mentioned in the classroom modifications section, as were Braille keyboards. Both dedicated Braille keyboards and portable Braille Educating Students with Visual Impairments in Texas: Guidelines and Standards. http://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/EducatingStudentswithVIGuidelinesStandards.pdf ADVISOR Teachers Homepage http://www.e-advisor.us/teachers.php?fontsize=normal&hicontrast= The Electronic Braille Book Library http://www.braille.org/braille_books/ Accommodations to the Physical Environment: Setting up a Classroom for Students With Visual Disabilities http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/v01_clearview/chalcycle.htm Instructional Accommodations: Making the Learning Environment Accessible to Students with Visual Disabilities http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/v02_successsight/chalcycle.htm blindness (which is actually a severe visual impairment) refers to a bestcorrected central vision of 20/200 or worse in the better eye or a visual acuity of better than 20/200 but with a visual field no greater than 20° (e.g., side vision that is so reduced that it appears as if the person is looking through a tunnel). vision-impaired student can easily access them, and other students should not put books, book bags, coats or anything else on the floor. Other modifications make classroom features more accessible to a visually impaired student, such as tactile cues for the student to orient themself to as they navigate around the room – instead of a nametag, a square of sandpaper (for a blind student) or a brightly colored square (for a student with low vision) might be placed over their coathook so that they can identify it. Instructional modifications vary according keyboard covers are available. Other assistive technologies include electronic Braille note takers, tactile symbols and calendar systems, video magnifiers, screen reader software, screen enlarging software, magnification devices, and portable media players for audio resources. A recent development is the paperless Braille display, which is portable and can convert digital text into Braille using screen-reader software, as well as working with digital Braille resources such as The Electronic Braille Book Library. American Foundation for the Blind: AFB Tech - Objective, comprehensive accessibility evaluations of mainstream and specialized products. http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=53 to student needs. Students who only have moderate low vision may simply need large-font texts, magnification devices, preferential seating close to the instructor and any visual instruction, and use of highvisibility materials. Students with blindness will need more extensive modifications such as Braille texts, a Braille keyboard, oneon-one tactile instruction of concepts, and specialized instruction in concepts which are not easily communicated because they are completely visual, or too large or too small to understand (such as “sky”, “mountain range”, or “microscopic”). Social skills and independent living skills may also be part of the student’s curriculum, since a blind individual cannot learn these skills through observation as sighted children do. Emotional Disturbance severe, pervasive, or chronic emotional/affective condition. It prevents the child from performing every day task. It can be shown by the child not keeping/building relationships with others, pervasive mood of being unhappy or depressed, and some children might have inappropriate behaviors or feelings. • Group Guidance • Modifying the classroom • Token economies • Promote positive behaviors • Behavior think sheets • Develop short and long term goals for the student. In the plan create a reward system to be used. Such as: give student a check mark for every 15 minutes • Pagers- used to send messages to the student • WatchMinderreminds the student about behaviors so they can keep watch of their own behaviors • Computers • Palm pilots • Word processor with voice recognition - some students with emotional disturbance have troubles putting words on paper. http://glossary.adoption.com/emotional-disturbance.html- definition of emotional disturbance http://specialed.about.com/od/StrategesforDifficultBehaviors/Strategies-For-Dealing-With-OrAvoiding-Difficult-Behaviors.htm classroom modifications www.napcse.org/exceptionalchildren/emotionaldisturbance/ classroom modifications http://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc_center- classroom modifications http://www.ehow.com/about_7219566_assistive-technology-students-behavior-disorders.htmlassistive technology behavior is appropriate. When the student receives 8 checks they may have 10 minutes of computer time. Learning Disability Includes any student with difficulty acquiring listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or math skills, due to nervous system dysfunction There are various modifications and instructional strategies that can be used to help students with LDs that vary based upon the area(s) of difficulty and severity of trouble. The key is to find methods that are effective in addressing their specific needs Abbreviation expanders, Alternative keyboards, Audio books and publications, Electronic math work sheets, Freeform database software, Graphic organizers and outlining, Information/data managers, Optical character recognition, Personal FM listening systems, Portable word processors, Proofreading programs Speech-recognition programs, Speech synthesizers/screen readers, Talking calculators Talking spell checkers and electronic dictionaries, http://www.greatschools.org/special-education/assistive-technology/702-assistive-technologyfor-kids-with-learning-disabilities-an-overview.gs http://www.ncld.org/ http://www.ldonline.org/ http://www.dldcec.org/ http://www.teachervision.fen.com/special-education/teacher-resources/6640.html http://seriweb.com/ld.htm Autism Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others. Autism is defined by a certain set of behaviors and is a "spectrum disorder" that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees. -Use concrete examples when possible. -Relate information to the interests of the student. -Present one concept at a time. -Review material. -Provide clear, concise directions. -Minimize distractions. -Pre-teach the material. -Provide a copy of the notes, power-points, etc… ahead of time for the student to review. -Highlight directions on printed materials. -Provide preferential seating. -Pair with a peer “buddy” or place in a group where student Variable-speed tape recorders, Wordprediction programs -Voice Output Communication Aids (devices that can record and communicate information – range from simple tape recorders to more complex devices such as talk pads that can help organize thoughts, stories, etc…) -Timers to keep on task -Computers-can help student to stay focused, on task and organized -Computer software and games – very stimulating and help hold attention -Digital images, videos-help more visually oriented students to be attentive -iPads-more advanced than many of the other devices, and able to serve multiple purposes (for instance, could be used as a communication tool, could view videos http://www.autism-society.org/about-autism/ - Autism Society – Definition http://www.jimrodslz.com/sped/Disability_Info/Making%20Modifications%20Autism.pdf – accommodations and modifications http://www.specialed.us/autism/assist/asst10.htm - assistive technology http://www.wati.org/content/supports/free/pdf/ASDManual-1.pdf - assistive technology will be assured success. -Have a one on one aide. -Be consistent and stick to routines as much as possible. -Help organize student with a notebook organizer or planner. -Allow student to get up and move around when overstimulated. -Have a quiet area where the student can go when overstimulated. -Provide a physical outlet such as a stress ball. -Daily communications with parents via a communication notebook. -Inform student of changes to the routine or transitions before they occur. and images, do activities and games, could work on assignments, etc… Orthopedic Impairment Orthopedic impairment is defined as a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures). Many students with orthopedic impairments have no cognitive, learning, perceptual, language, or sensory issues. However, individuals with neuromotor impairments have a higher incidence Provide study outline, more frequent feedback from teacher, allow the students to use alternate form of responses to answer questions such as orally to demonstrate their knowledge, or use the voice recognition software so they don't have to type a lengthy response, modified tests for the same curriculum (i.e. multiple choice instead of writing an essay), provide material in lower grade reading level, alternate curriculum materials, extra set of books at home, preferential seating so they have access to materials within Devices for Positioning and Mobility: These assistive technology devices focus on helping the student participate in educational activities. These devices include: canes, walkers, crutches, wheelchairs, specialized exercise equipment, specialized chairs, desks and tables for proper posture development. Students may also need adaptive equipment to participate in sport and other physical activities. They may need modifications for self-care routines, such as counters and sinks that have adjustable heights in the school bathrooms. Lifts can allow these students to use the toilet independently, or changing tables may be required. Adaptive silverware and cups may help them feed Orthopedic Impairments: http://www.projectidealonline.org/orthopedicImpairments.php Educational Resources – Supporting Special Education: http://web.ku.edu/~spedres/cat_accommodations.html Classroom Modification Checklist: http://education.gsu.edu/physicaldis/mclass2.htm United Cerebral Palsy Associations, Inc.: http://www.ucp.org/ Center for Disability and Development: http://cdd.tamu.edu/ American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine: http://www.aacpdm.org/index?service=page/Home Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ National Institutes of Health: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/ Families of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA): http://www.fsma.org/Home/ Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation: http://www.oif.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AboutOI Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy: http://www.parentprojectmd.org/site/PageServer?pagename=nws_index Spina Bifida Association: http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org Arthritis Foundation: http://www.arthritis.org/ of additional impairments, especially when there has been brain involvement. For most students with orthopedic impairments, the impact on learning is focused on accommodations necessary for students to have access to academic instruction. classroom, allow for extended time to respond to questions, pair up with peer and provide constant feedback. Depending on the special needs of the students, several modifications can be made. These are just a few examples of modifications that can be made for students with orthopedic impairment. themselves in the lunch room. They may also require a ramp, or access to an elevator for mobility between classes. The students may need additional time to transition between classes, so the proximity of the classrooms need to be considered. The student should be able to freely move around the room, use materials and supplies, and pull up to tables and desks. Workstations and desks that can adjust their height with the push of a button may help. Devices to Access Information: These assistive technology devices focus on aiding the student to access the educational material. These devices include: speech recognition software, larger keyboards, onscreen keyboards, screen reading software, augmentative and alternate communication devices such as communication boards, touch screens (touch PC), eye controlled input devices or other electronic input devices, joysticks, text-to-speech or speech synthesizers, and other academic software packages for students with disabilities. They may also need modified instruments for scientific laboratory experiments, such as electronic bulbs instead of pipette bulbs. Students may need access to a computer to record data and write their laboratory reports, using assistive technology such as altered keyboards, eye-controlled input systems or trackballs.