English 240

English 240
Significant Anglo-Saxon Words in the Norton
Anthology “Beowulf”
p. 72 [Beowulf] Thu eart maegenes strang ond
on mod frod, / Wis word-cwida (1844-45):
“You are strong in body and mature in mind,
impressive in speech.”
p. 33 [Scyld] beaga bryttan (35): “ring-giver.”
p. 36 [Heorot] gif-stol (gift-throne; 168):
p. 45 [Hrothgar] sinces brytta (607): “treasuregiver.”
p. 45 [Hrothgar] folces hyrde (610): “keeper of
his people.”
p. 71 [Hygelac] geong sy, folces hyrde (1832):
“young to rule a nation.”
p. 86 [Beowulf] frod folces weard (2513):
“king of the people.”
p. 49 [Heorot] gif healle (838): “gift-hall.”
p. 53 [Hrothgar] sinc-gyfan (1012): “ringgiver.”
p. 54 [Hrothgar] hord-weard (1047): “guard of
coffer and strongroom.”
p. 72 [Beowulf] hord-weard (1852): “king and
p. 55 [Finn] beag-gyfan (1102): “their own
p. 64 [Beowulf] gold-wine gumena (1476):
“gold-friend to retainers.”
p. 65 [Beowulf] beaga bryttan (1487): “I found
a ring-giver of rare magnificence.”
p. 68 [Heorot] gold-sele (1639): “bright hall.”
p. 74 [Hygelac] hringas daelan (1970):
“dispensing rings inside his bawn.”
p. 75 [Heorot] hring-sele (2010): “proceeded
to the ring hall.”
See Lay of the Last Survivor (2247-66)
p. 36 [Grendel] “pay the death-price”: fea
thingian (156).
p. 42 [Hrothgar] “finally I healed the feud by
paying”: feo thingode (470).
p. 40 [Wulfgar] “exchange of words”: wordum
wrixlan (366)
p. 50 [Hrothgar’s scop] “entwining his words”:
wordum wrixlan (874)
p. 38 [Beowulf] “unlocked his word-hoard”:
word-hord onleac (259)
p. 69 [Heremod] “he grew bloodthirsty”:
breost-hord blood reow (1719)
p. 91 [Beowulf] “an utterance heaved up from
the coffers”: wordes ord / breost-hord
thurhbraec (this word’s point broke through
his breast-hoard; 2791-2)
p. 54 [Hrothgar] “bestowed…both sets of
gifts”: heatho-raesas geald (1047)
p. 61 “The bargain was hard”: ne waes thaet
gewrixle til (1304)
p. 66 [Grendel’s mother] “she…retaliated”:
hand-lean forgeald (repaid him his gift; 1540)
p. 66 [Beowulf] “now settled that score”: He
him thaes lean forgeald (1584)
p. 69 [God]: “the Almighty…for retribution”:
him thaes ende-lean…Waldend sealde (made
them a last payment; 1692-3)
p. 77 [Beowulf]: “I repaid the terror of the
land”: hond-lean forgeald (2094)
p. 44 [Beowulf] “I don’t boast”: no ic thaes
fela gylpe (586)
p. 45 [Beowulf] “the formal boast by
Beowulf”: gilp-cwide Geates (640)
p. 46 [Beowulf] “proudly asserted”: gilpworda sum (675)
p. 48 [Beowulf] “his bedtime speech”: aefen
spraece (759)
p. 49 [Beowulf] “fulfilled his boast”: gilp
gelaested (829)
p. 46 [Hrothgar] “keep in mind your fame”:
gemyne maertho (659)
p. 50 [Beowulf] “doings were praised”:
maertho maened (857)
p. 63 [Beowulf] “glory before death”: domes
aer deathe (1388)
p. 65 [Beowulf] “I shall get glory or die”: dom
gewyrce othe mec death nimeth (1491)
p. 65 [Beowulf] “kept thinking about his name
and fame”: maertha gemyndig (1530)
p. 66 [Beowulf] “enduring glory”: longsumne
lof (1536)
p. 86 [Beowulf] “the glory of winning”:
maerthu fremman (perform a deed of fame;
p. 86 [Beowulf] “I scorn further words”: gylp
ofersitte (2528)
p. 89 [Beowulf] “inspired…by the thought of
glory”: maertha gemunde (2678)
p. 99 [Beowulf] “keenest to win fame”: lofgeornost (3182)
p. 47 [Grendel] “the captain of evil”: fyrena
hyrde (750)
p. 48 [Grendel] “his caller”: cwealm-cuman
(killer-guest; 792)
p. 50 [Sigemund’s dragon] “guardian of the
hoard”: hordes hyrde (887)
p. 60 “hell-brute” [Grendel]: helle-gast
(possibly hall-guest; 1274)
p. 60 [Grendel’s mother] “hell-bride”: agleacwif (1259)
p. 65 [Beowulf] “some hellish turn-hole”: nithsele nat-hwylcum (1513)
p. 66 [Beowulf] “she pounced upon him”:
sele-gyst (1545)
p. 69 [Heremod]: “he grew bloodthirsty, gave
no more rings to honor the Danes”: breosthord blod-reow; nallas beagas geaf / Denum
aefter dome (1719-20)
p. 78 [Narrator]: “plotting and planning in
secret”: nealles inwit-net othrum bregdon /
dyrnum craefte (2167-68; cf. MilT, NAEL
103.92; I.3200)
p. 81 [Dragon] “the hoard-guardian”: hordweard (2293)
p. 87 [Dragon] “the mound-keeper”: beorges
weard (2580)
p. 98 [Dragon] “the treasure-minder”: fraetwa
hyrde (3133)
See Hrothgar’s speech (1725-84)
p. 34 [Heorot]: “The hall towered, its gables
awaiting…a barbarous burning”: Sele
hlifade…heatho-wylma bad (81-82)
p. 44 [Beowulf] “Often, for undaunted
courage, Fate spares the man it has not already
marked”: Wyrd oft nereth unfaegne eorl,
thonne his ellen deah (572-73)
p. 81 [Narrator]: “So may a man not marked
by fate easily escape exile and woe by the
grace of God”: Swa maeg unfange eathe
gedigan / wean ond wraec-sith, se the
Waldendes / hyldo gehealdeth (2291-93)
p. 50 [Grendel] “with his death upon him”:
death-faege (850)
p. 56 [Finn’s men] “the gashed corpses”:
wundum awyrded (1113)
p. 60 [Hrothgar’s men] “How could they know
their fate, the grim shape of things to come”:
wyrd ne cuthon, geosceaft grimme (1233-34)
p. 85 [Hygelac’s ring]: “Hygelac…had worn
this neck-ring on his last raid…. Geat corpses
covered the field. [But for now] applause filled
the hall”: Geata leode / hrea-wic heoldon. Heal
swege onfeng. (1202-14)
p. 84 [Beowulf] “his fate hovered near”: wyrd
ungemete neah (2420)
p. 46 [Beowulf] “The King of Heaven had
posted a sentry”: Kyning-wuldor…sele-weard
aseted (665-67)
p. 46 [Beowulf] “The Lord’s favor”: Metodes
hyldo (670)
p. 46 [Narrator] “The Lord was weaving a
victory on his war-loom”: Dryhten
forgeaf…feond heora / thurh anes craeft ealle
ofercomon (The Lord permitted that the fiend
through the strength of one be wholly
overthrown; 696-700)
p. 51 [Hrothgar] “with the Lord’s assistance”:
thurh Drihtnes miht (940)
p. 69 [Beowulf] “if God had not helped me
me”: nymthe mec God scylde (1658)