Management Tool Options for Recommended Areas in N-146 (MPA Framework) Provided below is a list of management tools or approaches that can be applied in specific places to provide increased protection for coral reef ecosystem resources. Please select at least 1 and as many as 3 management tools for each of the recommended areas for increased protection associated with RMA N-146 that were identified by the community working groups using the OFR marine planner. Insert your selected management tools under each recommended area in the ballot provided. If you select option number 10, “other” as one of your management tools, please describe your recommended management approach for this area in the space provided in the ballot. Management Tool Options: 1. Marine reserve – also known as a “no-take area”. This management approach would prohibit the removal of natural resources such as fish, corals, etc. from the designated area all year long. 2. Temporary closure – this approach would close off the area to identified activities temporarily during specified times such as spawning season for particular reef fish species that are known to aggregate in an area or during times of severe stress such as extreme temperature or coral bleaching events, extreme turbidity events, disease outbreaks or algal blooms. 3. Herbivore protection area – this approach would restrict the removal of herbivorous species such as urchins, parrot fishes, and surgeon fishes in the area to allow for improved algal grazing and ecosystem function. 4. Aquatic Preserve – FDEP is responsible for managing Florida’s aquatic preserves. Aquatic preserves are established to protect submerged lands that have exceptional aesthetic, biological, and scientific values for the enjoyment of future generations. These areas are managed primarily for “the maintenance of essentially natural conditions, the propagation of fish and wildlife, and public recreation” (18-20.0001, F.A.C.). 5. Outstanding Florida Waters – FDEP has authority to control and prohibit pollution of air and water, and to establish rules that provide for a special category of water bodies referred to as Outstanding Florida Waters, which are worthy of special protection because of their natural attributes, and to adopt rules that may include stricter permitting and enforcement provisions within these waters. 6. Critical Wildlife Area – Critical wildlife areas are established by FWC to protect critical habitats for wildlife (primarily birds) that is in danger of extinction and subject to human disturbance. During the designated period, public access is prohibited within critical wildlife areas. No person can take or disturb any wildlife, or enter or operate a vehicle or vessel within the areas 7. Wildlife Management Area - FWC, “with the approval of the Governor, may acquire, in the name of the state, lands and waters suitable for the protection and propagation of game, fish, non-game birds, or fur-bearing animals, or for hunting purposes, game farms, by purchase, lease, gift or otherwise to be known as state game lands” (Florida Statutes 372.12). FWC has the authority to make and enforce regulations to protect, manage, or develop lands and waters owned by the commission for fish or wildlife management purposes, including the right of ingress and egress (Florida Statutes 372.121). 8. State Park – FDEP has the authority to establish state parks. State parks allow recreational activities such as boating, kayaking, surfing, snorkeling, and fishing. However, spearfishing is prohibited in the parks (62D-2.014 (9)(d), F.A.C.). The state parks do not regulate commercial fishing because that authority rests with FWC. Activities prohibited in the parks include oil and gas and mineral extraction, and hunting (except in reserves as authorized by FWC) (62D-2.014 (10), F.A.C.). Building, seabed alteration, and research are activities that are restricted, or require permits, in the parks. These activities are authorized only if they are deemed consistent with park management practices. Many parks restrict boating activities, including prohibiting anchoring and establishing combustible engine exclusion zones or no wake zones. 9. Fisheries Areas – FWC has the authority, under the Constitution of the State of Florida, Article 4, Section 9, to exercise the regulatory and executive powers of the state with respect to wild animal life, fresh water aquatic life, and marine life. Thus, FWC has the authority to establish areas and regulations to protect fisheries resources, and to enforce those regulations. For example, in the Biscayne Bay-Card Sound Spiny Lobster Sanctuary, it is unlawful to molest, take, or trap any spiny lobster. 10. Targeted reduction of LBSP – this approach would apply one or more of a variety of site specific management practices to reduce nutrient and sediment run-off such as: the restoration and preservation of coastal ecosystems (mangroves and seagrasses) that filter and trap sediments and nutrients before reaching reefs, maintenance of vegetation along waterways and on beaches, and adoption of best practices for coastal construction and beach renourishment to minimize sedimentation in specific areas adjacent to important reef resources. 11. User conflict management area – this approach would designate the area for a specific user group and prohibit other uses of the area. For example to reduce conflict between recreational fishing and diving communities areas can be designated as fishing only or diving only areas. 12. Invasive species management area – this approach would enable concentrated effort to remove invasive species such as invasive algae and lionfish that negatively impact native coral reef ecosystem resources. 13. Agency Decision - Allow appropriate resource management agency to select management tool for this area. 14. Don’t know. 15. Do Nothing -No increased protection is needed in this area. 16. Other -- (please describe).