Heller - Capital Organization of Language Teachers

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Grammar in the
Can Do Curriculum
Rochester Regional
March 7, 2015
Bill Heller
SUNY Geneseo
heller@geneseo.edu
thinchalkline@gmail.com
Grammar for Communication and Proficiency
Activity 1: What are your beliefs about grammar instruction? Respond to the following statements.
AGREE
DISAGREE
1.
Direct instruction in TL grammar is a waste of time.
AGREE
DISAGREE
2.
Grammar instruction should be inductive.
AGREE
DISAGREE
3.
Direct instruction in grammar promotes accuracy in
communication.
AGREE
DISAGREE
4.
Grammar instruction should be done entirely in target language.
AGREE
DISAGREE
5.
Grammar is a tool for communication.
AGREE
DISAGREE
6.
Grammatical accuracy is necessary in attaining advanced levels of
proficiency.
AGREE
DISAGREE
7.
Grammatical structures can be first introduced as lexical items.
AGREE
DISAGREE
8.
Textbook grammar activities do little to promote communicative
proficiency.
AGREE
DISAGREE
9.
An important outcome of L2 study is gaining a greater
understanding of the grammar of L1.
AGREE
DISAGREE
10.
Sufficient comprehensible input is sufficient for acquiring
grammatical structures.
AGREE
DISAGREE
11.
Grammar is a skill that can be taught, practiced and eventually
become automatic.
AGREE
DISAGREE
12.
My own curriculum is driven too much by a sequence of grammar
topics.
AGREE
DISAGREE
13.
Giving students corrective feedback is ineffective and inhibits the
communication of meaning.
AGREE
DISAGREE
14.
I enjoy teaching grammar, but my students find it boring.
AGREE
DISAGREE
15.
My students can produce the correct forms in isolation, but they
make errors on the same forms when producing the language.
2
Grammar and Proficiency
Bill Heller, SUNY Geneseo
I.
The Big Picture
A. The Place of Grammar – I.S.P. Nation (2010) –
1. Devote 30% of instructional time to sound system, grammar, vocabulary and discourse.
2. Language-focused learning can:
a. Speed up learning
b. Help learners overcome barriers to language development
c. Positive effect on meaning-focused learning
B.
Focus on Form - Doughty and Williams (1998)
“Notwithstanding the importance of continuous integration of focus on form, I believe
there is a role for “grammar instruction” that is separate from communicative activities and
yet is integral to the lesson as a whole. For one thing, if there are to be brief and nondisruptive
moments of focus on form within communicative events, there needs to be a shorthand that
will permit the teacher to communicate concerns about formal aspects of the language in ways
that are clear and informative.”
(Patsy Lightbown, 1998, in Doughty and Williams, pp 194)
C. John Demado quotes.
“We are expecting students to deliver in L2, what they are patently unable to deliver in L1” (18)
“Grammar does not render communication. Grammar renders communication accurate.” (24)
“Accuracy is a destination, not a point of departure.” (26)
D. Modern Languages for Communication
“Rather than teaching students vocabulary words or grammatical structures in isolation,
teachers are urged to help students regard and use the modern language as a tool that will
enable them to acomplish a specific communicative purpose (function) in a particular form
and setting (situation) about a particular subject (topic). The focus is always on what the
students can do with the language and how well they can do it (proficiency).” (p. 3)
E.
ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines
1. Novices – Memorized expressions. Responding. Word level discourse
2. Intermediate – Create with language. Ask and answer questions. Sentence discourse.
3. Advanced – Control of time frames. Handle complications. Paragraph discourse.
4. CASLS Study – 2010 Download Question #4 @
https://casls.uoregon.edu/pages/research/tenquestions.php
F.
NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements
Download free at: http://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/ncssflactfl-can-do-statements
3
G.
New York Writing Rubrics
1. Checkpoint A:
Subject/verb agreement, Noun/adjective agreement, Correct word order, Spelling.
2. Checkpoint B:
Subject/verb agreement, Present, past, future ideas, Noun/adjective agreement
Correct word order, Spelling and diacritical marks.
II.
Some Ideas About Grammar Instruction
B.
Guiding Principles
1. Monitor use of class time devoted to grammar topics.
2. Keep accuracy as part of the mix, but in perspective when grading performance tasks.
3. Devote sufficient time to input in addition to output.
4. Proficiency is a goal for all, but don’t sacrifice future proficiency by failing to provide a
solid foundation.
5. Include “Accuracy” as a dimension on presentational and interpersonal rubrics.
6. Learning an L2 is different from how we learned L1. Use that to benefit students by
making connections and comparisons.
7. Design and scaffold Interpersonal and Presentational tasks to promote student success.
8. When the horse has died, dismount.
C.
Instructional Implications
1. Memorized lexical items to pre-introduce.
2. “Best shot” lessons”
3. Teach some structures as vocabularly instead of as grammar. (Demontrative adjectives)
4. Reinforce general patterns and high frequency irregular forms. De-emphaize
exceptions.
5. Wait for a teachable moment. (por/para; conocer/saber)
6. Teach phrases instead of isolated words. (por/para)
7. Keep in mind expectations of current proficiency level and scaffold for the next level.
8. Use “advanced” structures that you haven’t yet taught naturally and in context.
9. Use simple vocabulary when introducing new structures.
10. Repeat high frequency verbs with each new structure introduced. (Master verb list)
11. If th topic is important, it should naturally recurr in subsequent units.
12. Don’t “force it” – teach key patterns well and back reference to them. (Ex. –go vebs,
(stem changes, etc.)
13. Make sure to connect mnemonics to meaning!
14. Consider eliminating or delaying some lower frequency structures (present
progressive) – teach for recognition in interpretive tasks, not necessarily for production.
15. Flipped Classroom:
a. Increase use of TL in class while offering supports and scaffolding in L1.
b. Students view videos or PowerPoint with study guide at home.
c. Check comprehension to begin class. Differentiate activities based on results.
4
16. Avoid creating problems with (bad) oversimplifications. (Ex. use of estar, subject
pronouns)
III. An Inductive Approach to Grammar
A. Criteria for Effective Inductive Lessons (Based on Donato and Adair-Houck.
1. A clear and interesting context
2. A purpose for the grammar in communication
3. Shows the grammar pattern clearly, frequently and naturally in context
4. Keeps meaning and communication in focus (not just the form)
5. Lesson moves from comprehension to production
6. Requires learner to communicate using the new grammar structure
B.
Structured Input – Lee and VanPatten (1995)
1. Binary Operations (Like/Dislike; Yes/No)
2. Matching
3. Sentence completions (with structures given – students fill in vocabulary)
4. Multiple Choice Alternatives
5. Surveys
6. Ranking and Ordering
IV. Instructional Activities
A. Uno, Dos, Tres
B. Surveys
C. Index card mixers
D. Whiteboard Activities
E. Websites like Conjuguemos or Study Spanish for drill and practice out of class work, sub
days, or “half-the-class-is-missing” days.
F. Use skits to provide context. (El ángel y el diablo) (Imperfect Story)
G. TPR to teach commands, verbs, prepositions of place
H. Think-Draw-Speak
I. Adapt textbook activities to connect meaning to structures
J. Framed Paragraph (mini-books)
K. “La mentira” – “The Lie”
L. Bell Ringers and “Scrolls”
J. “Frases malas”
K. Signature Searches
L. Timelines (preterite)
M. Advice Columns & Editorials
N. Manipulative cards ( verbs like gustar, direct object pronouns, double object pronouns)
O. Scaffold with color-coded reference sheets
P. Menus
5
V.
Summary
1. Know the Can Do proficiency tasks appropriate to the level you are teaching.
2. Select high the frequency structures and patterns necessary to carry out those
communicative tasks.
3. Teach high frequency structures and patterns directly in multiple ways and modalities.
4. Repeat those structures in subsequent units with new topics as new structures are added.
Reference back to show previously taught patterns.
VI. Contexts for Grammar Instruction
A. The Present Narrations of every day and customary activities.
Pen pal letters or introduction
B. Commands Advice letters
The Angel and the Devil
Advertisements
Recipes
Giving Directions to a lost tourist
C. The Past
Timelines of events
D. The Imperfect
Narrations of childhood experiences.
Geneation Gap Interviews with elders contrasting life in the “old days”
E. Past/Imp
Past tense narrations
News Stories
Culturally authentic Folktales
Sequence story events (pair or group activity)
F. Perfect
Have you ever…..?
G. The Future
Making predictions - 5 /10/20/100 years in the future.
H. Dir. Obj. Pron. Shopping for gifts.
Packing a suitcase (Travel) or a backpack (Leisure)
I. Indir. Obj. Pron. Giving gifts.
Telling secrets.
J. Subjunctive
Expressing opinions about current events.
Hypotheticals with If clauses + conditional
VII Opportunities for Grammar Instruction
A. Grammar and the Topics
1.
Shopping – Direct Objects
2.
Travel – Preterite / Imperfect
3.
Leisure Time – Preterite (Completed Past)
4.
Health and Welfare – Polite Commands
5.
House and Home – Familiar Commands
6.
Current Events – Present and Past subjunctive
7.
Personal Identification – Present Tense, Present Perfect
8.
Earning a Living – Future
9.
Family – Indirect Objects – Double Objects (Give and Tell)
10. Physical Environment – Present Subjunctive
6
11.
12.
13.
14.
Meal Taking – Commands (Recipies);
Community Neighborhood – Polite Commands
Education – Infinitive constructions
Services – Passive Voice
VIII. Suggested Grammar Syllabus
A. Checkpoint A
1. High-frequency present tense verbs
2. Gender and number of nouns and
adjectives
3. Subject/Verb and Noun/Adjective
Agreement
4. Question formation
5. Sound / symbol relationships
Optional:
6. Reflexive Verbs
7. Familiar Commands
D. Level IV
1. Review Level III structures in new
topics
2. Preterite/Imperfect
3. Present Subjunctive
4. Past and Future Perfect
5. Conditional
6. Double Object Pronouns
Optional Topics
7. Progressive Tenses
E.
1.
Level V
Review Level IV structures in new
topics
2. Reintroduce present subjunctive
3. Past Subjunctive
4. Compound tenses
5. If clauses with conditional
6. Progressive tenses and Gerunds
7. Passive Voice
Optional Topics
8. Compound tenses in subjunctive
B
1.
Level II
Review Checkpoint A Structures in
new topics
2. Reflexive verbs
3. Familiar Commands
4. Preterite
5. Imperfect
6. Direct Object pronouns
Optional:
7. Polite Commands
8. Future Tense
C.
1.
Level III
Review Level II structures in new
topics
2. Preterite / Imperfect
3. Polite Commands
4. Present perfect
5. Future
6. Indirect Object Pronouns
Optional
7. Conditional
8. Double Object Pronouns
7
References:
Demado, John. (1993). From Mastery to Proficiency: Shifting the Paradigm. Sisyphus Press
Doughty, Catherine and Jessica Williams. (1998). Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language
Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (2003). Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Heinle
 Lee, James F. and Bill VanPatten. (1995). Making Communicative Language Teaching Happen. McGraw
Hill, ISBN 0-07-037693-X
 Lightbown, Pasty and Nina Spada (2013). How Languages are Learned, Fourth Edition. Oxford
Nation, I.S.P., (2011) Language Curriculum Design. Oxford
Shrum, Judith L. and Eileen Glisan. (2005). Teacher’s Handbook: Contextualized Language Learning, Third
Edition. Heinle and Heinle Chapter 7 ISBN 1-4130-046-8
 Highly recommended for inclusion in your professional library.
8
Structured Input Activity – Level II
I.
Contesta las siguientes preguntas.
1.
¿Te gusta jugar al fútbol?
Me encanta.
2,
¿Te gustan las papas fritas?
3.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
¿Te gusta mirar la television ?
Me encanta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
4.
¿Te gustan los exámenes?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
5.
¿Te gusta la tarea?
Me encanta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
6.
¿Te gustan las fiestas?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
7.
¿Te gusta jugar videojuegos?
Me encanta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
8.
¿Te gusta correr?
Me encanta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
9.
¿Te gusta leer?
Me encanta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
10.
¿Te gustan las verduras?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
11.
¿Te gustan los bailes?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
12.
¿Te gusta comer en la cafetería?
Me encanta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
13.
¿Te gustan las películas de horror? Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
14.
¿Te gustan los perros?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
15.
¿Te gustan los gatos?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
16.
¿Te gusta la música «rap»?
Me encanta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
17,
¿Te gusta ir de compras?
Me encanta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
18.
¿Te gusta andar en patineta?
Me encanta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
19.
¿Te gustan los regalos?
Me encantan. Me gustan.
No me gustan.
Me chocan.
20.
¿Te gusta hablar por teléfono?
Me encanta.
No me gusta.
Me choca.
II.
You will be assigned one question. Ask other classmates your question. Keep track of their
answers in the chart below.
Question
Me encanta(n)
Me gusta(n)
Me gusta.
Me gusta.
Me gusta.
Me gusta.
Me gusta.
No me gusta(n)
9
Me choca(n)
Structured Input – Level II
¿Qué hiciste ? Indica las actividades que tú hiciste.
ayer
la semana
pasada
el verano
pasado
1.
Nadé en la piscina.
_________
_________
_________
2.
Salí con amigos.
_________
_________
_________
3.
Fui de compras.
_________
_________
_________
4.
Estudié.
_________
_________
_________
5.
Jugué al baloncesto.
_________
_________
_________
6.
Jugué a los videojuegos.
_________
_________
_________
7.
Hablé por teléfono.
_________
_________
_________
8.
Miré la televisión.
_________
_________
_________
9.
Cociné.
_________
_________
_________
10. Recibí un regalo.
_________
_________
_________
11. Asistí a una fiesta.
_________
_________
_________
12. Comí en un restaurante.
_________
_________
_________
13. Bebí un refresco.
_________
_________
_________
14. Hice mi tarea.
_________
_________
_________
15. Escribí una carta por
correo electrónico.
_________
_________
_________
16. Toqué un instrumento.
_________
_________
_________
17. Vi una película.
_________
_________
_________
18. Trabajé.
_________
_________
_________
19. Ayudé en casa.
_________
_________
_________
20. Cuidé a los niños.
_________
_________
_________
21. Leí un libro.
_________
_________
_________
22. Hice un viaje.
_________
_________
_________
23. Dormí hasta tarde.
_________
_________
_________
24. Conocí a un nuevo amigo.
_________
_________
_________
25. Lavé la ropa.
_________
_________
_________
10
Structured Input/Output Signature Search
Pregúntales a tus compañeros de clase preguntas sobre sus quehaceres en casa..
Modelo:
Tú
Tu compañero:
Tú:
Tu compañero:
Tú:
¿Necesitas hacer la
cama?
¿Tienes que pasar la aspiradora?
No, no tengo que pasar la aspiradora.
¿Debes sacar la basura?
Sí, debo sacar la basura.
Firma aquí, por favor.
Necesitas barrer el
piso en tu cocina?
¿Tienes que poner la
mesa todos los días?
¿Debes sacudir el
polvo de los muebles?
¿Tienes que cortar el ¿Quieres ir de compras
césped?
el sábado?
¿Debes lavar los
platos?
¿Tienes que limpiar el
baño?
¿Necesitas regar las
plantas?
¿Debes sacar la
basura?
¿Tienes que arreglar tu
dormitorio?
¿Tienes que pasar la
aspiradora?
11
Example of Framed Paragraph
Nombre __________________________________________
Hora __________
Fecha
Español III Mini-libro
___________________________
Instrucciones:
Escribe una narrativa original en primera persona. Usa el pretérito y el imperfecto.
Érase una vez (yo) ___________________________________________________.
Tenía ___________ años. Era(n) la(s) ________________________________________ .
Vivía en ________________. Hacía ___________________ y ________________________.
(No) había ____________________________________ . Quería _____________________
pero no podía porque ________________________________________________________.
De repente, tuve una idea. Primero, ________________________________________.
Entonces, __________________________________________________________________.
Después ___________________________________________________________________.
Por fin, _____________________________________________________________.
Estaba ___________________ por que ______________________________________.
Tenía que ________________________ por ___________________ para
______________________________________.
Da tu cuento un título: _____________________________________________
12
Introduction to the Imperfect
Cuando era niño, vivía en Niagara Falls.
Vivía en una calle muy corta.
En la calle había tres casas.
En la casa de la derecha, vivía la familia –ABA.
Papá -ABA nunca estaba
porque Papá –ABA trabajaba.
Papá –ABA siempre estaba
porque Mamá –ABA en casa cocinaba.
[Q & A]
Al otro lado vivía la familia –ÍA.
Mamá –ÍA era muy inteligente
porque , Mamá –ÍA mucho leía.
También, a veces, ella escribía.
No sabía qué hacía Papá –ÍA.
Durante el día, Papá –ÍA salía.
Y por la noche, Papá –ÍA dormía.
[Q & A] [Repeat story.]
Nombre ________________________________________
Hora _____________
Dictado – Cap. 7
Cuando _____________________ niño, _____________________ en Niagara Falls.
_____________________ en una calle muy corta. En la calle _____________________ tres casas.
En la casa de la derecha, _____________________ la familia –ABA. Papá -ABA nunca
_____________________ porque Papá –ABA _____________________.
Mamá –ABA siempre
_____________________ porque Mamá –ABA en casa _____________________.
Al otro lado _____________________ la familia –ÍA. Mamá –ÍA _____________________ muy
inteligente porque , Mamá –ÍA mucho _____________________. También, a veces, ella
13
_____________________. No _____________________ qué _____________________ Papá –ÍA. Durante
el día, Papá –ÍA _____________________. Y por la noche, Papá –ÍA _____________________.
14
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