Investigating Cells – What you need to know

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Animal Survival – What you need to know
The numbers refer to pages in ‘Leckie & Leckie Success Guide’
The need for food (p32-39)
G
Explain why animals need food
C
State the chemical elements present in carbohydrates, proteins
and fat
C
Describe the structure of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in
terms of simple sugars (glucose), amino acids, fatty acids and
glycerol
G
State that digestion is the breakdown of large food particles into
smaller food particles to allow absorption into the blood through
the intestine wall
C
Explain that digestion involves the breakdown of insoluble food
substances into soluble ones
G
Describe the role of different types of teeth in herbivores,
carnivores and omnivores
G
Identify the main parts of the alimentary canal and associated
organs (mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas,
liver, gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine, appendix,
rectum, anus)
C
State the names of the main digestive juices and where they are
produced
C
Explain the mechanism of peristalsis
C
Explain how stomach contractions help the chemical breakdown of
food
C
Give an example of an amylase, a protease and a lipase and state
their substrates and products
G
Explain how the structure of the small intestine is related to its
function
C
Explain how the structure of a villus (including lacteal and blood
capillaries) is related to the absorption and transport of food
G
Describe the role of the large intestine in water absorption and
elimination
Reproduction (p40-43)
G
Describe the structure of sperm and egg cells
G
State what is meant by internal and external fertilisation
C
Explain the importance of internal fertilisation to land-living
animals
G
Describe the process of fertilisation
G
State that sperm cells are produced in testes
G
State that eggs are produced in ovaries, and released into oviducts
where fertilisation happens
G
State that in fish, eggs are protected by a flexible membrane
covering
G
State that fish embryos obtain food from yolk in the egg and,
after hatching from yolk in the yolk sac
G
Describe how the mammal embryo develops in the uterus
surrounded by fluid in the amniotic sac
C
Describe the structure and purpose of the placenta
C
Explain the relationship between the number of eggs or young
produced and the amount of protection they receive
G
State that young fish can look after themselves after hatching
G
State that, after birth, young mammals depend on the adults for
care and protection
Water and waste (p44-45)
G
State the ways in which a mammal gains and loses water
G
State that the kidneys are the main organs for regulating the
water content in a mammal
C
Explain how ADH regulates the water balance of the blood
G
Identify the positions and explain the functions of the kidney,
renal arteries and veins, ureter and bladder
G
State that kidneys filter the blood and reabsorb useful materials
such as glucose
C
Explain the structure of a nephron, including Bowman’s capsule,
glomerulus, blood capillaries and collecting duct
C
Explain how urine is produced in a nephron
G
State that urea is a waste product removed in the urine
C
State that urea is formed in the body from the breakdown of
surplus amino acids, and is carried to the kidneys in the blood
G
Explain the dangers of damage to the kidneys by accidents or
disease
C
Describe the benefits and limitations of ‘artificial’ kidneys and
kidney transplants
Responding to the environment (p46-47)
G
Give examples of environmental factors which affect animal
behaviour (e.g. light, chemicals, humidity)
C
Explain the significance for animals’ lives of their responses to
environmental factors
G
Describe the response of an animal to change in one environmental
factor e.g. woodlice in shade and light
G
Describe two examples of rhythmical behaviour and identify the
trigger stimulus in each case
C
Explain the significance of two examples of rhythmical behaviour
to the animals concerned
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