1. Catalog Entry
Biology 345. Genetics
Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory (4)
Prerequisite: Biol 121 or Biol 105 and permission of instructor
Examines Mendelian genetics, chromosomal structure and distribution, sex and
inheritance, linkage, allelism and immunity, molecular genetics and gene populations.
2. Detailed Description of Content of Course
I. Basic Mendelian Genetics
A. Mendel's principle of segregation
1. Mendel's experiments
2. terminology and sample crosses
B. Mendel's principle of independent assortment
1. genotypes and phenotypes from dihybrid crosses
2. crosses involving three or more genes
C. Probability
1. sum and product rules
2. conditional binomial probability
D. Variations on Mendel
1. codominance and incomplete dominance
2. epistasis
II. Genes on Chromosomes
A. Evidence for genes on chromosomes
1. history of the question
2. white-eyed flies and sex determination
B. Chromosomal results of mitosis and meiosis
1. events of mitosis and meiosis
2. meiosis and Mendelism
C. Linkage and recombination
1. crossing over
2. determining linkage by somatic cell hybridization
D. Gene mapping
1. recombination frequency and linkage maps
2. the three-point testcross
III. DNA Structure and Replication
A. DNA as the genetic material
1. experimental evidence
2. DNA's properties and gene function
B. DNA replication
1. components of the replication system
2. events in DNA synthesis
C. DNA recombination
1. three different kinds of recombination
2. molecular models of recombination
IV. Gene Structure and Transcriptional Control
A. Mechanics of transcription
1. RNA polymerase and promoters
2. the transcription process
B. Bacterial operons and transcriptional control
1. the lac and trp operons
C. Eukaryotic gene structure
1. organization of chromatin
2. promoters, enhancers, and split genes
D. Control of eukaryotic gene expression
1. RNA polymerases
2. post-transcriptional processing
V. Translation
A. The nature of the genetic code
1. clues from mutants
2. breaking the code
B. Cell components needed for translation
1. tRNAs
2. ribosomes
C. Mechanics of translation
1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination
VI. Mutation
A. Mutation and phenotypic change
1. variable effects of mutations
2. variable sizes of mutations
B. Base changes and repair mechanisms
1. chemical and UV mutagenesis
2. excision and mismatch repair
C. Chromosomal rearrangements
1. changes in chromosomes structure
2. changes in chromosomes number
D. Mutation by transposable elements
1. the nature of spontaneous mutations
2. transpositional mutagenesis in bacteria and eukaryotes
E. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposons
1. transposon structure
2. mechanisms of transposition
VII. Genetics of Bacteria and Phage
A. Phenotypes of bacteria and phage
1. bacterial and phage life cycles
2. types of mutations used in genetics of bacteria and phage
B. Using DNA transfer in gene mapping
1. conjugation mapping
2. mapping using phage-mediate DNA transfer
C. Recombination in phage
1. crossing phage
2. fine structure mapping
VIII. Genetic Engineering
A. Tools used in genetic engineering
1. restriction endonucleases
2. vectors and hosts
B. Obtaining products of cloned genes
1. gene isolation
2. expression of cloned genes
C. Research use of cloned genes
1. cloned genes as probes
2. DNA sequencing
D. Practical applications of biotechnology
1. pharmaceuticals
2. agriculture
3. RFLPs
IX. Developmental Genetics
A. Totipotency and genomic equivalence
1. cloning carrots and frogs
2. sequence studies
B. Gene expression and cell differentiation
1. the nature of differential gene expression
2. controlling gene expression
C. Using mutations to study development
1. using mutations to mark cells
2. studying mutations which affect development
Lab will consist of 11-12 lab periods covering two or more exercise from the following
I. Chromosomes (2-3 exercises, usually from among the following)
A. Artificial chromosomes exercise
B. Spermatogenesis/anther slides
C. Polytene chromosomes
II. Probability (1-2 exercises, usually from among the following)
A. Phenotype prediction exercise
B. Application of the chi square test
III. Transmission Genetics
A. sex-linked genes in Drosophila
B. Linkage and independent assortment in Drosophila
C. Cat lab genetic and analysis exercise
D. Allele segregation in Sordaria
E. Non-Mendelian inheritance in plants
F. Linkage determination in Drosophila
G. Corn pigments and epistasis
IV. Genetics of Bacteria and Phage (2-3 exercises, usually from among the following)
A. rII mapping computer exercise
B. Gene regulation in E. coli
C. Mutagenesis of E. coli
V. Molecular Genetics (2-3 exercises, usually from among the following)
A. DNA isolation
B. DNA sequencing videotapes
C. Plasmid transformation of E. coli and DNA electrophoresis
VI. Genes in Populations (1-3 exercises, usually from among the following)
A. Allele competition in Drosophila
B. Relatedness of different genomes by DNA hybridization
C. Protein polymorphisms in natural populations
3. Detailed Description of Conduct of Course
The lecture portion of the course may be conducted using a variety of techniques and aids
in addition to the traditional lecture style of format. A variety of visual aids including
slides, videos, movies, and computer generated graphics will be used to enhance the
lectures. Class discussion will be encouraged.
The laboratory experience will include a variety of approaches and techniques including
light microscopy, computer simulations and experimental genetic crosses.
4. Goals and Objectives
On completing this course the students should be able to:
1. Use their knowledge of principles of transmission genetics to predict the results of
crosses, using a variety of organisms as examples.
2. Discuss the structure and expression of the genetic material in representative
prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
3. Discuss the theoretical basis for and practical applications of new genetic technologies.
4. Obtain genetic data in the laboratory, analyze the data, and communicate the results in
scientific format.
5. Discuss the ethical dilemmas which arise from the use of modern genetic methods.
5. Assessment Measures
Graded assignments include examinations which evaluate understanding of genetic
concepts through a variety of problems and short essay questions. Knowledge of genetic
terminology is tested through short answer questions. In a graded paper, students respond
more fully to a specific genetic situation which is presented to them. In the laboratory,
students keep laboratory notebooks and write formal, graded reports on experimental
6. Other Course Information
7. Review and Approval
September 2001 Dr. Charles M. Neal, Chair