Chapter 2 - Class Notes Citizenship - Constitution

Delegated Powers
Are those powers granted to the federal government, including the
coining of money, running the postal service, regulating interstate and
international trade, providing the nation’s defense, declaring war and
conducting diplomacy?
Elastic Clause
Within the Constitution, found in Article I, Section 8, allows Congress
to stretch its delegated powers to address issues that the nation’s
founders could not have foreseen. Such as newly created technology
(internet, cell phones, and computers)
Reserved Powers
The powers retained by the state governments or by citizens. These
powers include elections, regulating trade within each state, establishing
local governments and regulating education.
Concurrent Powers
It is the shared powers between the federal and state governments. This
includes taxing, borrowing money, enforcement of laws and providing
for the citizens’ welfare.
Representative Democracy
The founders discussed the Legislative branch in Article I of the
Constitution to emphasize that the United States would be a
representative democracy, or government by representatives of the
The number of representatives from each state is based on the U.S.
census, a population count taken every ten years. Congress examines the
changes in the population to determine the appointment, or distribution,
of representatives.
The House of Representatives has the authority to impeach, or bring
charges against, a president suspected of committing a crime or violating
the essential presidential duties. The Senate tries all of the impeachment
cases. (Explain why Andrew Johnson in 1868 and Bill Clinton in 1998
were impeached).
The president has the power to veto, or cancel, legislation. Congress can
override a president’s veto, but it requires a 2/3 majority vote to do so.
Executive Orders
Non-legislative directives that have the force of law. In an emergency
the president may issue an executive order that stretches the definition of
laws enacted by Congress.
The president has the power to grant pardons, or freedom, for persons
convicted of federal crimes or who are facing criminal charges.
Numerous departments carry out most of the work of the Executive
branch. Currently there are 14 executive departments. The heads of
each department is within the cabinet, which advises the president.
Sandra Day O’Connor
Became the first female court justice after her appointment during the
Regan administration in 1981.
Initially drafted by James Madison in 1789, the Bill of Rights was
written at a time when ideological conflict between Federalists and antiFederalists, dating from the Philadelphia Convention in 1787, threatened
the Constitution's ratification. on May 28, 1788, Hamilton argued
against a "Bill of Rights," asserting that ratification of the Constitution
did not mean the American people were surrendering their rights, and
therefore that protections were unnecessary: "Here, in strictness, the
people surrender nothing, and as they retain every thing, they have no
need of particular reservations."
During the debate over the ratification of the Constitution, famous
revolutionary figures such as Patrick Henry came out publicly against
the Constitution.[5] They argued that the strong national government
proposed by the Federalists was a threat to the rights of individuals and
that the President would become a king, and objected to the federal court
system in the proposed Constitution.
Is to make a request upon the government by any American to a
governmental official. The right of Petition enables the Americans to
express their dissatisfaction with current laws or to suggest new ones.
Search Warrant
To conduct a search reasonably, authorities usually must first obtain a
search warrant. This warrant is a judge’s order that authorizes the search
because the property in question seems likely to contain evidence
relating to a crime.
Due Process
No one may be punished for a crime without due process, or the fair
application, of the law.
According to the Fifth Amendment, a court cannot try someone for a
serious crime unless a grand jury decides that enough evidence exists to
formally accuse the person. The Fifth Amendment also protects people
from being forced to testify in their own trial.
Double Jeopardy
Anyone found not guilty in a criminal trial cannot be tried again for the
same crime.
Eminent Domain
The Fifth Amendment also states that no one will be deprived of
property “without due process of the law.” The one exception involves
the government’s power to take personal property to further the public’s
interest. This may be done for a construction of a public road. However,
the government must pay you fair market value for the property.
Have the class take the Citizen Test. Part -1-, questions (1 – 50), Part -2, (51 – 100) the second day at the end of the chapter. Explain what and
why they are taking the test. That this will count as a regular Chapter
Test grade.
A process in which a foreign born person that desires to become a U.S.
citizen. They must under go the process to become a citizen.
The U.S. government has the right to send back to the country of origin
any immigrant that breaks the law or who is in the country illegally.
In some war time situations the federal government has issued the
requirement of military service to meet the need of solders.
Political Action Committees (PAC’s)
Organizations that collect money to distribute to candidates that supports
the same issues as the contributors.