Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Faculty of Engineering Sciences Department of Biotechnology Engineering Undergraduate & Graduate Courses – Syllabi 201-1-9551 Linear Algebra for Biotechnology Complex numbers, systems of linear equations and matrices, the rank of a matrix. vector spaces, basis and dimension, linear transformations, the kernel and the image of a linear transformation, inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt process, matrix representation of a linear operator and change of basis, detA=0, inverse matrix, characteristic polynom, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonizable matrices, and symmetric matrices. 201-1-9561 Differential and Integral Calculus 1 for Biotechnology Limits and continuity of a function. differentiation, differentiability and the fundamental theorem of differential calculus, extremal values, Rolle's theorem, second derivative, curve tracing, l'Hopital's rule, the differential as a tool for approximated calculations, Taylor's theorem, integral calculus for functions of one variable: definite integrals, integration methods, generalized integrals, ordinary differential equation and solution by variable separation, equations of planes and lines. 201-1-9571 Differential and Integral Calculus 2 for Biotechnology Vectors and parametric representation, 3D coordinates and vectors, algebra of scalars and vectors. Vector analysis: line integrals and surface integrals, velocity and acceleration, normal lines and curvature, representation in polar coordinates. Functions of several variables, basic differential calculus of such functions, partial derivative, the chain rule and the directional derivative, exact derivative, the gradient and its properties, extremal problems, multiple integration: definition, applications and techniques, change of variables., Green's, Stokes' and Gauss' formulas, numerical series, sequences and series of functions, power series, convergence. 201-1-9581 Ordinary Differential Equations for Biotechnology First order differential equations: linear, separable, exact, integrating factors, homogeneous equations, existence and uniqueness theorem (without proof), linear differential equations of order n, systems of linear differential equations, solution with matrix calculus, solution of differential equations by power series, integral transform methods: Laplace and Fourier, Bessel's equation. 201-1-9591 Partial Differential Equations for Biotechnology Categorization of second order PDE’s, canonical forms, existence and uniqueness theorem (without proof), the wave equation (in brief), the heat equation, the Laplace equation, problems of boundary and initial conditions, Green’s functions, solution methods : characteristic lines, variable separation, Fourier series, Green’s and Bessel’s functions. Introduction to asymptotical methods: perturbations for obtaining approximate solution. 369-1-1001 Chemistry Laboratory for Biotechnology Acids and Bases: Titration, hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions, determination of dissociation constant (Ka) of a weak acid, titration curve of a polyprotic acid. Sparingly Soluble Salts: Determination of the solubility-product constant (Ksp), solubility and enthalpy (DH) of the dissolution of a sparingly soluble salt. Oxidation-Reduction Phenomena: General properties, electrochemical cells, determination of thermodynamic constants (DH, DS, DG). Colorimetric Analysis: Determination of the concentration of a solution using a spectrophotometer. Chemical Kinetics: Determination of the reaction rate, the order of reaction and the specific rate constant (k). 369-1-1002 Organic Chemistry Laboratory for Biotechnology Methyl orange synthesis. Caffeine extraction from tea. Chromatography of spinach extract. Oxydation oleic acid with potassium permanganate. Esterification and hydrolysis. Reduction of vanillin with sodium borohydride. 369-1-1003 Biochemistry Laboratory for Biotechnology Purification and isolation of lysozyme from hen egg yolk. Protein analysis - separation by electrophoretic methods. Factors affecting enzymatic activity-Alkaline Phosphatase. Covalent immobilization of phosphatase on Agarose beads. Photophosphorylation in isolated thylakoids. Electronic Biochemical tools (Computers). 369-1-1004 Microbiology Laboratory for Biotechnology Growth inhibition of bacteria by antibiotics. Staining bacteria. Isolation of bacteria on solid media. Growth curve of bacteria and the effect of environmental factors. Enrichment and isolation of soil bacteria (antibiotic producers, chemoheterotrophic bacteria, thermophilic bacteria, nitrogen fixers and bacteria utilizing aromatic compounds as a carbon source). Bacterial aerobic/anaerobic metabolic activities (Glycolysis, fermentation, respiration), biochemical identification tests. Regulation of enzymatic activities (the lactose operon). Life cycle of bacteriophages (lytic and lysogenic cycles. Drug resistance). Induction of penicillinase. 369-1-1005 Laboratory in Genetic Engineering Cloning of a gene into expression vector and following its expression at the protein level. Recombinant DNA technology (DNA isolation, digestion with restriction enzymes, ligation, PCR and analysis in agarose gels) as well as protein separation and immunodetection in Western blots and colony lifts. 369-1-1006 Laboratory in Biotechnology Engineering Flow. Heat and mass transfer. Mixing. Monitoring of biological processes. Batch and continuous reactors. Fermentation. Mammalian bioreactors. Advanced Microscopy (fluorescence). Biosensors. Methods for quantification of macromolecules in Immunology. Enzymatic immobilization. Mammalian cell culture. Microbial Processes. 369-1-1012 Introduction to Statistics for Biotechnology Sampling and normal distribution. The sampling distribution of means. Central limit theorem. Point estimation. Properties and principles of point estimation. Method of maximum likelihood. Interval estimation. Confidence interval for mean for known and unknown variances. T-distribution. Confidence interval for proportion. Confidence interval. Properties of confidence interval. Calculation sample size for given confidence interval. Hypotheses testing. General problem of statistical tests of hypotheses. Hypotheses and tests. Level of significance. Rejection region. P-value. Type of errors, power of test. Hypotheses testing for normal model. Calculation of errors and power. Calculation sample size. Population mean for unknown variance. Population proportion for Bernoulli experiment series. Comparison of two samples. Hypothesis test about difference between two populations means for independent samples. Hypothesis test about difference between two populations means for dependent samples. Analysis of frequencies tables. χ2 – test. Statistical association between two variables. Correlation coefficient. Linear regression. One way analysis of variances (ANOVA). Non-parametric tests. Spearman correlation coefficient. Exact Fisher Test. Test Mc Nemar. 369-1-1073 Laboratory for Separation Processes Separation of biological active materials: centrifugation, ultra filtration (membrane), aqueous two-phase extraction, gel permeation and affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, freeze-drying. 369-1-1081 Control in Biological Systems Mathematical models of biological systems, physical models, control theory, feedback systems, biological receptors, hormone, physiological and neural control, pressure and fluxes, breathing, heat control. 369-1-2011 General Chemistry A for Biotechnology Basic principles in chemistry: atom, molecule, elements, isotopes, the periodic table, valency, chemical reactions, compounds, stoichiometry, radioactivity. Atomic structure through the laws of quantum mechanics, the chemical bond, ideal and real gases, ions, electrochemistry. 369-1-2021 General Chemistry B for Biotechnology Acids and bases, titration, chemical and ionic equilibrium calculations, Le Chatelier’s Principle, pH, buffer solutions, solubility products, chemical kinetics, rates and order of reactions, effect of temperature and catalyst. 369-1-2031 Principles of Organic Chemistry A for Biotechnology Hybridization of carbon, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, isomers, spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, NMR, MS) and chromatography, aromatic compounds, resonance, nucleophylic substitutions and elimination reactions, Grignard Reagent, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, sugars, chemical and enzymatic reactions. 369-1-2041 Principles of Organic Chemistry B for Biotechnology Optical isomerism, carboxylic acids and derivatives (chlorides, esters, amides, polyesters, polyamides), nitrogen containing compounds (amines, amides, nitriles, diazo compounds), amino acids, proteins, natural products, polymers and biopolymers. 369-1-2051 Principles of Biochemistry A for Biotechnology Foundations of Biochemistry in Living Organism, Cells and Biomolecules. Water: Structure and Interactions with Dissolves Biomolecules. Structure of Biomolecules: Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleotides. Enzyme catalysis and application in Biotechnology Biological Membranes and Transport. 369-1-2061 Principles of Biochemistry B for Biotechnology Bioenergetics and Metabolism: thermodynamics of Bioenergetic processes; oxidation- reduction reaction glycolysis and catabolism of hexoses; biochemical cycles; photosynthetic reactions; macromolecule biosynthesis. Integration of this knowledge into Biotechnology and the production of biological materials by microbial fermentation. Biochemistry of Information Pathways: Genes and Chromosomes, DNA and RNA Metabolism; Regulation of Gene Expression; Genetic Engineering; Recombinant DNA Technology; Application in Biotechnology Engineering. 369-1-2071 Principles of Chemical Kinetics for Biotechnology Chemical Kinetics: introduction, reaction rate, temperature dependence of reaction rate, stationary state, simultaneous reactions, following reactions, unimolecular reactions, chain reactions, explosions, heterogeneous reactions. Kinetic theory of gases: Botlzmann distribution, velocity distribution, averaged properties, pressure, reduced mass, collision rate, reaction rate, temperature dependence of reaction rate. 369-1-3012 The Cell Historic background. Single cells & multicellular organisms: survival issues. Cell structure: cell wall, cell membrane, organelles, cytoplasm & nucleus. Cellular specializations. Cellular components: atoms, chemical bonds, small molecules: inorganic (water, salts) and organic (sugars, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides). Polymers: proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids. Physical aspects: pH, temperature, light, diffusion of solutes. Transport of solutes & osmoregulation. Extreme environments. Cell division in prokaryotes & eukaryotes, mytosis & meiosis. Intercellular communication. 369-1-3013 The Plant The plant cell, systematics: from Protista to higher plants, structure and function of cells, tissues and organs of the higher plant, growth and development, biotechnological aspects in algae and plants. 369-1-3022 Invertebrates Diversity and classification of invertebrates, body plane, physiology, locomotion, reproduction, nutrition, defense mechanisms and sensory organs, symbiosis, biomechanics and calcification, architecture and function, the kingdom of extreme environments – terrestrial and aquatic strategies, biotechnological applications. 369-1-3023 Vertebrates Characterization of the chordata, phylogenesis and classes of the vertebrata, breathing, transport systems, excretion and reproduction systems, embryonic development, skeletal structure and function, sensory organs. 369-1-3031 Genetics for Biotechnology Mendel’s laws: First law – the existence distinct genes in pairs, independent segregation; Second law – interaction between genes. Genes and Chromosomes: Mitosis – meiosis (Quick repetition); Sex determination; Chromosomal basis of heredity; Crossing over, genetic and molecular; Chromosomal aberrations. Gene Mapping: Gene linkage, linkage to the X chromosome; Recombination; Classic gene mapping. Genes in organelles: Cytoplasmic inheritence; Maternal inheritence; Mitochondrial gene structure (in comparison to nuclear genes). Basic prokaryotic genetics: Chromosome structure; Operons; Gene transfer methods; Molecular basis of dominant and recessive characters. Environmental effects. Genetics of quantitative traits. Population genetics. 369-1-3041 General Microbiology for Biotechnology Historic background. Cell structure & function: eukaryotes & prokaryotes, Cell wall & cell membrane structure, nucleus & cytoplasm, transport mechanisms, osmoregulation, organelles. Chromosome structure & cell division. Transcription & translation in eukaryotes & prokaryotes. Energy metabolism: heterotrophic & chemolithotrophic processes (aerobic & anaerobic), bacterial photosynthesis. Anabolic & catabolic processes. Growth characteristics of microorganisms, batch & continuous cultures. Bacterial habitats and the transformations of organic matter, extreme environments, the archaebacteria. Viruses: structure, systematics, reproductive cycle & lysogeny. Microbiogeochemistry. Genetics of microorganisms & metabolic control mechanisms. Symbiosis & pathogenesis. Biotechnology (industrial syntheses, antibiotics, food fermentations). 369-1-3051 Nucleic Acids for Biotechnology DNA: structure, genetic code, replication, organization. RNA: various types of RNA, structure and function, degradation. Transcription: RNA polymerase, factors involved in transcription. Translation and protein synthesis: ribosome structure and function, stages of protein synthesis. Regulation of gene expression: various levels of regulation. 369-1-3061 Genetic Engineering for Biotechnology This course focuses on studying the principles and applications of genetic engineering techniques. It includes: Production of recombinant DNA, restriction enzymes, plasmids, gene isokation, cDNA library, genomic library, southern blot, northern blot, western blot, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, gene structure and regulation, genetic transformation and gene expression in prokaryotic cells. 369-1-4001 Introduction to Probability for Biotechnology Descriptive statistics. Population and sample. Classification of variables. Data presenting: statistical tables, frequencies, frequencies types, graphical representation. Measures of central tendency. Mode, Median, Mean. Measures of dispersion. Range, Variance, Standard Deviation. Basic terms of Theory of Probability. Random experiment, sample space, events, events operations, complementary events. Definition of probability of event for symmetric sample space. Basic formulas for calculation probabilities of events. Conditional probability, Bayes’ rule. Independent events. Random variables. Definitions, discrete and continuous random variables, distribution of random variables, mean and variance of random variable. Special types of random variables. Main properties of special distributions. 369-1-4031 Principles of Thermodynamics for Biotechnology Introduction: basic concepts : system, surroundings, system boundaries, temperature, pressure, heat, work, energy (kinetic, potential, internal), units (intensive and extensive) state, state function, process, reversibility, reversible work, properties of pure substances. The First Law: conservation of energy, nonflow and steady flow equations, liquid, vapor, gas, diagrams (P-V, P-T, T-V), equations of state, ideal gas equation, non- ideal gas (van der Waals equation, virial equation of state, cubic equation of state), reversible non – flow processes- constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic Irreversible processes, reversible flow processes, non – steady flow processes. The Second Law: entropy, entropy of the universe, entropy changes for ideal gases, heat engine, reversible processes on the T-s diagram, entropy and irreversibility, availability, heat engine cycles- Carnot, Joule, “Tds” relations, phase equilibrium, mixtures, chemical potential. The third Law: temperature dependence of S, S for phase transition, Gibbs free energy, temperature dependence of G. Kinetic Theory of Gases: postulates, temperature, pressure, effusion, diffusion, velocity distribution, equations of state. 369-1-4041 Mechanics of Fluids for Biotechnology Flow phenomena and physical properties of fluid, viscosity, dimensional analysis and similarity. Laminar and turbulent flow. Friction and drag, Darcy law. Macroscopic balance, mass, momentum and energy conservation, Bernoulli equation, applications. Microscopic balance, continuity, stress tensor, NavierStockes equations and boundary conditions. Poiseuille flow. Flow in pipes. Boundary layer and jets/ Flow in porous media. 369-1-4051 Principles of Heat and Mass Transfer for Biotechnology Energy conservation for non- isothermal systems, heat capacity. Mechanism ot heat transfer, conduction and convection. One dimensional systems, boundary conditions, thermal resistance, fins. Two- dimensional systems. Unsteady- state conduction. Convective heat transfer, dimensional analysis, boundary layer, forced and netural convection. Radiative heat transfer. 369-1-4061 Introduction to Materials Engineering for Biotechnology Mechanical properties; mechanical fractures; plasticity; stess-strain curves; Young modulus; Poison ratio. Types of materials: metals; ceramics; polymers; composites. Crystalline and amorphous materials. Basics of crystallography; x-ray and electron diffraction. Natural biological materials: biopolymers, biominerals. Advanced materials. 369-1-4071 & 369-1-4072 Senior Project A & B Annual Engineering project conducted in the senior year. The project is about 250 hours. Various topics will be offered by faculty members as well as R&D personnel from industry. 369-1-4081 Bioreactors Heat and mass balances. Batch and continuously stirred reactors. Residence time distribution. Biotechnological processes. Kinetics of microbial growth. Product and medium utilization. Transfer phenomena in microbial systems. Non-Newtonian flow. Desgin and analysis of biological reactors. Analysis of complex microbial populations. Stability f bioreactor operation with complex population. 369-1-4091 Personal Computer Introduction to computer system and overview of the NT operating system. Working with Electronic mail and the Internet. Working with Word processor Word 2000 and the Electronic sheets - Excel 2000. Using the Presentation software Power Point. Creating Simple drawings, photos manipulation and using compression software. Connecting via Telnet and ftp to Unix OS. 369-1-4141 Bioinformatics Genome sequence analysis (homology searching, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, genome mapping and assembly). Functional genomics : array technology & uses (gene discovery, disease diagnosis, drug discovery, toxicological research); data analysis (error analysis, clustering-PCA, decision trees, correlations, SOM). Gene networks- logic based models, qualitative methods quantitative methods. Metabolic pathways- measurements and analysis. The genomics and proteomics projects, data basis on the web. 369-1-4151 Dynamics of Biological Systems Introduction to statistical thermodynamics. Introduction to complex fluids: polymers, surfactant and phospholipid solutions, and more. Mathematical-physical modeling of biological systems. The relation between active and passive behavior. Architecture and function of biological membranes and the cytoskeleton. Actin and microtubule networks. Kinetics and stability of polymerization of microtubules and actin filaments. Dynamics of DNA. Kinetics of reactions in DNA. Cell adhesion. Biological model systems. 369-1-4161 Dynamics and Control Introduction to process control. Modeling: mathematical description of processes, modeling considerations for control purposes. Dynamic analysis: numerical solutions and linearization, Laplace transform and its use for solution of differential equations, transfer function, dynamic behavior of firstand second- order systems and of higher order systems. Feedback control: dynamic behavior of feedback controlled systems and their stability, design of feedback controllers and troubleshooting, frequency response analysis and its use for design of feedback control. Advanced control: systems with "dead time" or "inverse response", multiple loops. There will be many examples from biotechnological processes. 369-1-5011 & 369-1-5021 Engineering Analysis of Biological Systems A & B Mathematical models of biological systems. Various models. Stochastic and deterministic approaches. Elements of construction biological models. Statistical methods for determination of parameters in biological models. 369-1-5041 Microbial Biotechnology A Introduction to applied and industrial microbiology. Regulation mechanisms in microorganisms and their role in the production of primary and secondary metabolites. Introduction to fermentations. Alcoholic fermentations and the production of beer, Wine and distilled spirituous liquors. Lactic acid fermentations and its application in dairy products. Microbial processes for the production of energy from agricultural Waste. Production of chemical solvents by microorganisms – the acetol- butanol fermentation. Production of biochemical from microalgae. 369-1-5051 Microbial Biotechnology B Antibiotics – Discovery, activity, biosynthetic and semi-synthetic production and biochemical regulation of production processes. Production of therapeutic metabolites by microorganism: hormones, interferon. Microbial production of vitamins, polysaccharides, enzymes and amino acid. Microbial antagonism and its use for biological control of plant diseases – production of biopesticides. Biological Warfare. Patents and proprietary rights in biotechnology. 369-1-5071 Food Biotechnology New concepts in food biotechnology; functional foods, genetically modified foods. Functional foods: special dietary foods: dietary supplement; infant formulas, medical foods and weight control foods. Dairy ingredients as a source of functional foods. Pre- and Pro biotics. Fats, oils and there effects on health and disease. The soybean as a source of bioactive molecules. Dietary fiber and its physiological effects. Antioxidants and their effect on health. Genetically modified foods: aspects need to consider. Regulations. 369-1-6011 Molecular Aspects of Biomaterials Main groups of biological materials of structural significance Supramolecular structures: cellulose, chitin, collagen, lignin etc. Hierarchical structures biological composites. Biological mineralized composites. Bones, teeth, sea-shells etc. Characterization: microscopy methods, elements of spectroscopy. Biomimetics materials. Biocomatability. 369-1-6041 Bioelectronics This course is an introduction to some newer fields in biotechnology, namely biosensors, biochips and nanobiotechnology. Biosensors include a study on biospecific entities, transducers (optical fibers (chemiluminescent, fluorescent and bioluminescent), piezoelectric crystals, micro- and ultra-electrodes), chemical immobilization of sensor surfaces and their analysis. Examples studied will be immunosensors, whole-cell bioreporter sensors, amperometric enzyme biosensing and mass acoustic sensing. Micro-array and biochip technologies will be studied in the context of gene discovery, bioinformatics, proteomics and drug discovery. Nanobiotechnology, will include atomic force microscopy, DNA-scaffolds, polymer nano-electronics and nano-colloids. 369-1-7011 Environmental Microbiology Basic ecological principles of aquatic and terrestriel habitats and their effects on microbial communities. Positive and negative interactions among microbial communities. Water microbiology and public health. Methods for measurements of microbial numbers, biomass and activity in natural habitats. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Effects of abiotic factors and extreme habitats on microorganisms. Microbial interaction with xenobiotics and pollutants. Microbial treatments of liquid and solid wastes. Plant-microbe interactions: symbiosis, plant diseases. Microbial pesticides and biological control of plant pathogens. 369-1-7031 Introduction to Water Pollution Control Water sources: groundwater and surface water; Water quality parameters and standards; Water consumption and supply; Water treatment: gravitational sedimentation, flocculation, filtration; Wastewater characterization; Collection and disposal of wastewater; Mass balance of oxygen and organic matter in a river; Wastewater treatment: Primary treatment, biological treatment; the Activated Sludge system. 369-2-5361 Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis Classification of enzymes. Method of production/isolation of enzymes. Enzymes as Catalysis in water and organic solvents. Immobilization of enzymes and/or Microorganisms. Reaction engineering for enzyme-catalyzed biotransformations. Study of processes catalyzed by hydrolyses, oxidoreductaces, glycosidases, tranferases and lyases. Design of new catalysts by site-selective modification, catalytic antibodies. 369-2-6411 Plant Secondary Metabolite Production The course imparts comprehensive know-how in basic and applied aspects of secondary metabolite production in plants by biotechnological means. Topics covered are role and variation of secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom; preparation of cell and root cultures and their growth in bioreactors; effect of physical and nutritional factors on growth of cells and roots and on the production of secondary metabolites; production in a two-phase system; biotransformation. 369-2-6421 Plant Breeding in Tissue Culture The course imparts comprehensive know-how in basic and applied aspects of plant breeding using tissue culture methodologies. Topics covered are organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis as essential tools in in vitro breeding; protoplast production and somatic hybridization; embryo rescue and in vitro fertilization; cell culture and somaclonal variation; haploid and triploid plants; methodologies for genetic transformation. 369-2-6481 Statistical Thermodynamics of Biological Model Systems Equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanics of complex fluids: polymers, surfactant and phospholipid solutions, colloidal dispersions, and more. Wetting of Interfaces. Interactions between rigid interfaces. Flexible interfaces. The connection to biological systems. Biological model systems: vesicles and liposomes, membranes, actin and microtubule networks, folding and packing of DNA, adhesion of cell-like vesicles. The emphasis will be on the use of statistical thermodynamics to describe the above systems. 369-2-6521 Tissue and Cell Culture Animal Cell. Growth of attachment – dependant and suspended cells. Cell lines Identification of biological materials by cells. Introduction of genes. Hybridoma preparation. Plant cells. Growth methods. Medium composition. Production of secondary metabolites. Regeneration and differentiation. Somatic embrio cultures. Clonal propagation. Virus-free plant. Selection. 369-2-6541 Proteins: Structure, Purification and Modification Protein structure and dynamics. Determination of protein structure. Protein purification. Fractionation of crude extracts. Separation of protein by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Separation of protein by gel filtration, ion-exchange, hydrophobic, covalent, affinity and HPL- chromatography. Large scale purification. Chemical modification of protein. Modification by oligonucelotide-directed mutagenesis. Post-transnational modification of protein. Application of enzymes in biotechnology. 369-2-6561 Advanced Protein and Cell Separation Technology Protein recovery. Protein separation. Precipitation (salting out). Coagulation and floculaton. Sedimentation. Filrtation chromatography (adsorption, ion-exchange, gel filtration, affinity electrophoresis). Two-phase aqueous separation. Reverse micellar extraction of proteins. Principles and development of novel methods for protein separation. Cell separation and sorting. Scaling up of separation processes. 369-2-6601 Surfactants, Interfacial Phenomena, and Application in Biotechnology Characteristic features of surfactants. Adsorption of surface-active agents at interfaces (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, and liquid- liquid). Micelle formation by surfactants. Solubilization of surfactants and organic media. Reduction of surface tension by surfactants. Wetting and effects of surfactants on wetting of solid surfaces. Foaming of aqueous media by surfactants. Structured liquids: emulsions, microemulsions, miniemulsions and liposomes. Application of surface-active agents in Biotechnology. 369-2-6611 Biosensors Definitions, history and market needs. Target analytes. Sensors based on: enzymes, affinity and wholecells. Transducers: electrodes, photometric and acoustic. Immobilizations techniques: thin films, micro & nano-structures. Invasive, non- invasive, and disjointed sensors . Continuous vs. discontinuous monitoring . Pitfalls. Quality control. Signal processing. Case studies: immunosensors. Novel transducers and synthetic receptors. Clinical, environmental, industrial and military applications. Future prospects. Patents issues. Commercialization. (create your own biosensor). 369-2-6621 Nanobiotechnology Nano-biotechnology is the manipulation of matter at the molecular level to create new products with atom by – atom precision. This technological revolution will be described in the context of biotechnology. The course will describe the principles of scanning probe microscopy: molecular resolution of bio/inorganic materials, chemical imaging by scanning force microscopy, the quantification of adhesion forces between molecules, positioning signal atoms using proximal probes and finally either destructive or constructive molecular manipulations. We will elaborate on the problems and constraints of nanobiotechnology and discuss how these effect the future of molecular lithography. Molecular sensors, molecular manufacturing, biochips and bioelectronics. 369-2-6641 Microchip Array Technology This course will summarized all existing state-of-art microarray technologies as well as introduce new ideas on the subject. This technology has roots in rapid and efficient diagnostic as well as molecular recognition such as DNA hybridization and sequencing analyses. The course will include: molecular probes, surface functionalization, two-dimentional addressing, molecular recognition, optoelectronic fingerprint detection, genetic analysis and sequencing, diagnostics, combinatorial technologies, amplifications technology, automation strategies, microfluidics. 369-2-6661 Biological Structures Materials Materials properties, elements of crystallography, elements of spectroscopy. Main groups of biological materials of structural significance. Supramolecular structures: cellulose, chitin, collagen, lignin etc. Biological mineralizes composites. Technological aspects. 369-2-6681 Marine Biotechnology A The aquatic environment and main oceanic recourses and processes - oceanic medium, motion and circulation, marine habitats and biodiversity. Long-term patterns of human usage of marine resources, aquaculture, biomineralization - the appreciative aspects, extreme environments, marine natural and pharmacologically-active products, gene pulls and genetic manipulation of marine organisms, biofilms and biofouling, human impacts, pollution and bioremediation. 369-2-6691 Marine Biotechnology B The basis of algal classification, algal reproduction, life cycles and evolution, carbon metabolism, extreme environments and adaptation mechanisms, production of bioactive materials, mass culturing, exploitation and biotechnology. 470-1-3606 General Physiology A for Biotechnology Introduction to human Physiology – Regulation of metabolism, growth, and energy balance. Membrane transport mechanisms (1). Membrane transport mechanisms (2). Membrane transport (3). Plasma composition, fluid balance, concentration-dilution. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Renal failure – hemodialysis and Kidney transplantation. Exocytosis. Endocrine regulation (1). Endocrine regulation (2). The autonomic nervous system (1). Structure and function. Secretion and Absorption. Neural regulation of the GI tract. Blood cells- structure and function. Gas transport. Lungs – structure and function, elastic and non-elastic properties. Pressure – volume relationship, Work of breathing. Ventilation – perfusion. Asthma. Reproduction (1). Reproduction (2). Channels in membranes. The action potential. Cable theory – passive and active properties of membranes. 470-1-3616 General Physiology B for Biotechnology The skeletal muscle – contraction. The smooth muscle. Introduction and terms. The electrical activity of the heart. The contractile activity of the heart (1). The contractile activity of the heart (2). Artificial pacemaking. Organization and terms, cellular components. Electrical activity of the nerve cells. Synaptic release (1). Synaptic release (2). Postsynaptic mechanisms – excitation and inhibition modulation. Integration of synaptic inputs. Sensory transduction (1). Sensory transduction (2). Vision – General organization, optics, ocular dominance. Receptive field properties, associative areas. Question in audition. Spinal reflexes. Movement planning and generation. Motor pathologies – tremor, paralysis ect. Synaptic plasticity’ learning and memory. Cortical plasticity, possible mechanisms. Brain rhythms, sleep and epilepsy.