The word blood refers to a highly complex mixture of cells, enzymes

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Chapter 12 – Part 1
DNA is the abbreviation for ________________________________ and
is_____________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
The word blood refers to a highly complex mixture of _______, _______, _______, and
_______ substances.
Plasma______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Suspended in the plasma are solid materials consisting chiefly of several types of cells.
_________ _________ _______ also called ___________
_________ _________ _______ also called ___________
_____________________
The solid portion of blood accounts for _________ of its content.
Blood clots when a protein in the plasma known as _________ traps and enmeshes the
_________ _________ _______. If the clotted material were removed, a pale yellowish liquid
known as __________ would be left.
The blood components that are directly pertinent to the forensic aspects of blood identification are
the _________ _________ _______ and the _________ _________ .
Red blood cells transport _______ ________ ________ ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ and
remove _______ ________ ________ ______ ______ _____ _____ _________ _______ ______
______ , where it is exhaled. On the surface of each cell are millions of characteristic chemical
structures called __________. Antigens impart specific characteristics to _________ ________
________.
Antigen______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Antibodies______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
p.329
Blood antigens are grouped into systems depending on their relationship to one another. More
than ______blood antigen systems have been identified to date; of these, the ____ , ____, ____
and ______ systems are the most important.
If an individual is type A, this simply indicates that each rbc has ____ ______ on its surface. All
type ____ individuals have B antigens, and rbc of type AB individuals contain both ____ _____
_____ antigens. Type O individuals have _______A nor B antigens on their cells. Therefore,
the presence or absence of A and B antigens on the rbc determines _____ ______ _____ _____
_____ _____ ____ _____ _____ ______..
Another important blood antigen has been designated as the Rh factor, or ___ ________. Those
people having the D antigen are said to be ___ __________, those without this antigen are ___
__________. In routine blood banking, the presence or absence of the three ______ ______
_______ _____ _____must be determined in testing compatibility of the donor and recipient.
The fundamental principal of blood typing is that ______ _______ ______ ______ _____ _____
_____ ______. Each antibody symbol contains the prefix anti- followed by the ______ ______
______ ______ ______ ______ _____ ______ _______. Anti-A is specific only for ____
_______, anti-B for __ _____, and ______ ____ for D antigen. The serum-containing antibody is
referred to as the ___________, meaning a serum that reacts against something (antigens).
Antiserum-__________________________________________. Pg. 330
p. 330 An antibody reacts only with its ________ _________ and no other. Thus, if serum
containing ____________ is added to red blood cells carrying the B-antigen, the two will
___________, causing the antibody to ___________ ______ ______ _____ _____. Antibodies
are normally __________-they have two reactive sites. This means that each antibody can
____________ be __________ to _____________ located on _________ different red blood
cells. This creates a vast network of _________-________ _____ usually seen as clumping or
_________________.
Agglutination-________________________________________________________.
p.330 In normal blood, __________ on red blood cells and ______________ coexist without
destroying each other because the ____________ present are not _________ toward any of the
_____________. However, suppose a foreign serum added to the blood introduces a new
__________. This results in a _________ ______-_______ reaction that immediately causes the
_______ _______ _____ to _______ ___________ or agglutinate. The serum of _______-____
______ contains anti-B and no anti-A. Similarly, type B blood contains only ______-___, type____ blood has both anti-A and anti-B, and type AB blood contains ___________ ______-___
nor ______-___.
Blood type
A
B
AB
O
P330
Antigens on RBC
Antibodies in Serum
Anti-B
B
Neither A nor B
Serology- Pg. 331
______________________________________________________________________
The most widespread application of serology is ______ ______ _______ _____ _____ ____ ____
___-____-___ _________. In determining the A_B_O blood type, only two antiserums are
needed-______-____ and _____-___ _______. P331
To determine the identity of each of the four blood groups—
1. Type A blood is agglutinated by ________serum; type B blood is agglutinated by
________serum; type AB blood is agglutinated by both ________and ________; and
type O blood is ________ agglutinated by either the anti-A or anti-B serum.
2. the identification of natural antibodies present in blood offers another way to determine
blood type. Testing the blood for the presence of anti-A and anti-B requires using ____
________ cells that have known ________. (Commercially available) When A cells are
added to a blood specimen, ____________ occurs only in the presence of ________.
Similarly, B cells agglutinate only in the presence of ________. All four A_B_O types
can be identified in this manner by testing blood with known ________ and
________cells.
The population distribution of blood types varies with location and race throughout the world.
Pg. 332
O
A
B
AB
_____%
_____%
_____%
_____%
Immunoassay Techniques – pg. 333
The concept of specific antigen-antibody reaction is one that is finding application in other areas
unrelated to blood typing. This approach has been extended to the ___________ of ________ in
blood and ___________. Antibodies that are capable of reacting with drugs do ________
_____________ exist; however they can be _____________ in ____________ such as
______________.
______________-__________ __________ __________ (EMIT) has gained widespread
popularity among toxicologists because of its ______ and high ___________ for detecting drugs
in __________.
One of the most frequent uses of the EMIT technique in forensic laboratories has been for
screening the __________ of suspected _______________ _____________.
The greatest problem associated with marijuana’s detection in urine is _________________.
While smoking marijuana will result in the detection of _________ metabolite, it is very difficult
to determine _________ the individual actually used the marijuana. In frequent smokers
detection can be determined within _______ to ________ days after last use. However some
individuals may yield positive results up to ______ days.
What is an RIA?
Why must analysts be careful when using immunoassay techniques to identify drugs? (pg. 334)
Polyclonal Antibodies______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Monoclonal Antibodies______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains – pg. 336
The criminalist must be prepared to answer the following questions when examining dried blood:
1. _____ _____ __________?
2. ________________________________________________________________________
______________?
3. If the blood is human, how closely can it be _____________ ____ __ _______________
_____________?
Define hemoglobin –
List five tests used for the determination of blood:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Which of the above is a known carcinogen and its use is generally discontinued?
Which of the above four are based on the fact that blood hemoglobin possesses peroxidase-like
activity?
Name two other substances that can turn Kastle-Meyer test pink besides blood?
Which of the above tests is designed as a urine dipstick test for blood? What color does the
dipstick turn in the presence of blood?
Which of the above tests results in a production of light when mixed with blood?
Pg. 337 The _______________ test is extremely sensitive. It is capable of detecting blood
stains up to ______________ times. Luminol will also _________ _____________ with any
subsequent DNA testing.
In order to determine if the stain is human or animal, the standard test used is the
_____________________ test.
How does the precipitin test work?
Historically, forensic scientists used ___________________ to individualize bloodstains. They
were particularly interested in enzymes that exist in different forms, or
__________________________. The advent of DNA has reduced this approach for
characterizing biological stains to one of historical interest only.
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