ZOO 1010 Study Guide Chapter 4 Chapter 4 – Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals 1. What is the study of systematics and how does taxonomy relate? 2. What are the hierarchical taxonomic categories and how do they relate and contrast with one another? 3. How do we name species by using binomial nomenclature? 4. How do we define a species? What are the prevalent ways to determine species? 5. How is reconstruction of phylogeny accomplished by building an evolutionary tree or cladograms? 6. What is the difference between a clade and a grade? 7. Distinguish between monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly. 8. What is the significance of phylogenetic systematics? 9. What are the major divisions of life at the domain level? Key Terms – taxonomy, systematics, morphology, hierarchical system, taxa, taxon, binomial nomenclature, genus, species epithet, common descent, biological species concept, niche, evolutionary species concept, phylogenetic species concept, phylogeny, characters, homology, homoplasy, ancestral character state, derived character state, outgroup, clade, nested hierarchy, cladogram, phylogenetic tree, monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly, evolutionary taxonomy, adaptive zone, grade, phylogenetic systematics, cladistics, sister taxa, hominid, domains, Protostomia, Deuterostomia Note: This study guide may not be all inclusive of material covered. The student is responsible for learning all material covered in lecture and as expected as part of this course.