Dario Fauza, M.D., Ph.D., received MD and PhD degrees from the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil. He then moved to the United States, now over 20 years ago, where he completed his training in different clinical and research postdoctoral fellowships in pediatric surgery fetal medicine, and regenerative therapies, at Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School. He has an extensive bibliography and is the recipient of a number of awards in the US and overseas, as well as of a Fellowship by invitation from the Royal College of Surgeons of England. He has pioneered the notion of using fetal cells, particularly of amniotic origin, to engineer a variety of tissues for the treatment of an assortment of structural birth defects and is now widely recognized for having established fetal tissue engineering as a field within regenerative medicine. Presentation Summary: Tissue engineering of pediatric diaphragmatic tendon, spine, and trachea The fetus is an ideal tissue-engineering subject, both as donor and host. The unique characteristics of fetal cells, combined with the developmental and long-term impacts of implanting tissue constructs into a fetus or neonate, add new perspectives to tissue engineering, significantly expanding its reach. Perhaps surprisingly, however, it was only a little over 10 years ago that the concept widely referred to as fetal tissue engineering was first proposed and proven viable experimentally. This notion involves the procurement of fetal cells, followed by their processing in the engineering of tissue constructs in vitro in parallel to the remainder of gestation, so that an infant or a fetus with a prenatally diagnosed birth defect could benefit from having autologous, expanded tissue readily available for surgical implantation in the perinatal period. A variety of prenatally diagnosable birth defects may be amenable to this approach. Considering the data reported thus far, it is reasonable to speculate that fetal tissue engineering may become an alternative for the perinatal treatment of a number of congenital anomalies. Moreover, given the feasibility of minimally invasive fetal cell sources, such as amniotic fluid, placenta, and umbilical cord blood, the promise of fetal tissue engineering should apply to both life-threatening and non life-threatening diseases. Different fetal progenitor cells are progressively becoming relevant, if not indispensable tools in research related to stem cells, tissue engineering, gene therapy, and maternal-fetal medicine. Still, much remains to be learned and a variety of evolutionary paths, including unsuspected ones, are to be pursued in this relatively new branch of regenerative medicine. Fertile experimental work from an ever increasing number of groups is likely to extend fetal tissue engineering beyond both the perinatal period and autologous applications, offering unique therapeutic perspectives for different age groups.