Introductory phrases and reporting verbs

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Jan Frodesen
University of California, Santa Barbara
[email protected]
Developing Paraphrasing Skills
through Vocabulary Knowledge and Control
TESOL, Long Beach, CA
April 2, 2004
 The Pedagogy Of Paraphrase: Practices And Problems





Paraphrasing in the context of academic writing instruction
Referencing source materials: The main “commandments”
Problems L2 writers have in paraphrasing effectively
Characteristics of unsuccessful paraphrases
Using guided vocabulary exercises to develop paraphrasing skills
 Vocabulary Exercises For Developing Paraphrasing Skills
A. Introducing references: Introductory phrases and reporting verbs
Many paraphrase exercises that ask students to rewrite sentences in their own words do not also
ask them to introduce the paraphrase. Some developing writers assume that unless they quote
text, they do not need to introduce the author, so it’s a good idea to spend time showing how to
introduce references before or after paraphrases and helping students understand the meanings
of a range of reporting verbs. Since these verbs are also useful for brief summaries that typically
include paraphrasing, reference is made to summary here as well.
Introducing a paraphrase
The following structures can be used to introduce an author’s ideas that you are going to
paraphrase or summarize.
Task 1: Put a check next to the structures that you have used in your own writing. (The verb
states has been used for the examples, but others could be used as well.)
___a. According to (AUTHOR/ARTICLE),
____c. (AUTHOR) states that _______
___ b. As (AUTHOR) states/has stated/stated,
____d. (AUTHOR) further states that ________
Which of the structures above require commas following them? Circle the commas.
True or false? A comma should not be placed between a verb and the word that which
introduces a paraphrase.
Reporting verbs
The following are verbs for introducing a paraphrase. They are called “reporting verbs” because
you use them to cite another’s ideas, whether as a quote or a paraphrase.
___advise
___argue
___assert
___caution
___claim
___confirm
___contend
___declare
___deny
___emphasize
___indicate
___maintain
___mention
___note
___point out
___propose
___remark
___say
___speculate
___state
___stress
___suggest
___urge
___warn
Task 1: Put an “X” in the blank next to all of the reporting verbs in the list whose meanings you
are familiar with. The words not checked will represent those whose meanings you should look up
in a dictionary.
Task 2: Answer the following questions about reporting verb meanings by circling your choices.
1. Which three of the following verbs could introduce an author’s strong claims?
argue
assert
claim
note
remark
2. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a weak or tentative claim?
confirm
maintain
propose
speculate
suggest
3. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a paraphrase that represents an important
point the author wishes to make?
contend
emphasize
mention
say
stress
3. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a paraphrase that represents a point of
lesser importance?
assert
mention
note
remark
urge
4. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a paraphrase in which the author offers
advice to readers?
caution
deny
indicate
warn
urge
Task 3: Select three sentences or sentence pairs from your assigned reading to paraphrase. To
introduce each paraphrase, choose three different reporting verbs from the list. Choose verbs
that you have not used (or seldom used) before to get practice in using new vocabulary.
Write your paraphrase; then introduce it with the author’s name or source’s title and the reporting
verb.
Note: You can make this exercise more challenging by not telling students how many verbs to
choose or to include six rather than five choices. Also, see Swales & Feak, 199, p.118 and
Hinkel, 2004, p. 234 for other categories of clustering reporting verbs (objective vs. evaluative,
positive/negative/neutral).
B. Distinguishing “unique phrasing” from “shared language”
L2 writers, like other developing writers, sometimes have difficulty determining what words
should be paraphrased. Instruction on paraphrase refers to these words in various ways, as
“character words,” “the author’s distinctive voice,” “unique phrasing” and so on. These exercises
are designed to raise consciousness about the kinds of words that the writer needs to replace
with his or her own words or phrases. Longman’s Language Activator is a good source for
creating word lists.
Task 1: One word in each of the following lists has more of a distinctive character than the others
and, if it were in a text, should most likely be paraphrased and not copied. Find the word and
circle it. Then state in what context the word might be used. Use your dictionary to help you if you
are not sure.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
big
polish off
decrease
odd
hoodwink
cavernous
end
nosedive
strange
fool
large
finish
drop
uncanny
trick
Task 2: Read the following sentences adapted from an article about the rise of Chinese language
learning in Korea. Circle one word in each sentence that you think reflects the author’s distinctive
voice. Then supply a synonym that fits the context.
1. After years of slogging through her English lessons, stumbling over impossible pronunciations
and baffling rules of syntax, Chae Eun came up with a better idea.
2. South Korea is known as one of the United States’ staunchest allies and is host to 37,000 U.S.
Troops.
3. In what might be a sign of things to come, China is the object of infatuation at the moment.
4. Chinese studies are booming throughout the world.
5. For most students, the motives are strictly mercenary: They believe that command of Chinese
will give them an edge in the job market.
6. “The interest in Chinese does reflect some antipathy to U.S. hegemony and arrogance,” said
Suh Jin Young, an international relations professor at Korea University in Seoul.
(From: Who Needs English? B. Demick, Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2004, Column One)
C. Working with key vocabulary to use in paraphrases
In many cases “key vocabulary” in a text can be considered a subset of the category
“unique phrasing” though sometimes key words might be technical and cannot be paraphrased.
Background: One of the ways to begin paraphrasing a sentence or group of sentences is to
identify key words that are not technical. Then, find a synonym for the key words.
Original: The notion that one can purge one’s emotions by expressing them has been
labeled “the catharsis hypothesis”. Freudian psychologists, of course, applauded this
idea.
Paraphrase: The _________ that one can _________ one’s emotions by expressing
them has been _________ “the catharsis hypothesis”. Freudian psychologists, of course,
__________ this idea.
Task 1: Begin paraphrasing each of the sentences below by finding a synonym for the italicized
words or phrases. NOTE: You can delete words from the original sentence as long as you don’t
change the writer’s intended meaning.
1. In that sense, some merit can be attached to the claim that “violent emotional expressions”
may have some benefits.
2. Repressed emotions such as fear and anger are discharged by laughing and crying.
3. Sometimes an expression of anger helps clear the air; but often, the direct expression of
anger is self-indulgent—it begets more anger and aggression.
4. What is probably important is not whether people express anger or withhold it in a single
instance, but whether they use their anger to change things that upset them in the first place.
5. When frustrated subjects were able to aggress either physically or verbally against the
source of their frustration, their blood pressures and heart rates returned to normal with
surprising rapidity.
6. The victim must get the retaliation deserved, nor more and no less. If one goes overboard,
one may feel guilty later.
7. Other research warns that when people express their angry, aggressive feelings, they often
get themselves so worked up that the situation may become worse than it was before.
(Exercise created by Christine Holten, UCLA TESL/Applied Linguistics)
Task 2: For each of the sentences below about defining intelligence, underline two key words
or phrases. Then write a synonym for each of the words/phrases you selected. Your synonym
could be a word or a phrase.
1. Definitions of intelligence often reflect cultural values.
2. The closest Mandarin equivalent, for instance, is a Chinese character that means good brain
and talented.
3. Chinese people often associate this with traits such as imitation, effort and social
responsibility.
4. Such traits do not constitute important elements of intelligence for most mainstream
Americans.
From: People: Psychology from a Cultural Perspective, David Matsumoto (1994)
Another way to work with key words in pre-paraphrase tasks is to ask students to create word
family charts. Writers can then use different forms of the words to start a paraphrase.
Task 3: The following words are from readings in this unit. Using a dictionary, look up the
meaning of each word. Provide the missing members of each word family. The first has been
done for you. If the word does not have members in one or more classes, write X in the blank.
WORD FAMILIES
Verb
associate
Noun
association
combination
Adjective
associative
Adverb
associatively
Intelligent
imitate
comparison
precisely
D. Paraphrasing descriptive adjectives/adverbs commonly found in academic writing
Vocabulary selected for paraphrase exercises like the following should be relatively contextindependent, using common abstract nouns or, in the second exercise, adjectives. Though
common in academic writing, some of these may not be words in the students’ active vocabulary.
Task 1: For each of the following phrases, underline the adjective that describes each noun.
Then write a word that could replace it in the space provided. The first has been done as an
example.
1. an important finding _significant __
2. potential problems ____________
3. obvious differences ____________
4. pragmatic solution __________
5. a rudimentary step ___________
6. a trivial objection ___________
7. a rational excuse ____________
8. a novel approach _____________
Adapted from an exercise in Hinkel (2004), p. 235
Task 2: Now do the same for the adverbs in the phrases below: Underline the adverb and write a
word that could replace it in the space provided. The first has been done as an example.
1. perpetually changing __constantly___
2. tentatively approved _______________
3. approximately as fast ____________
4. vitally important _______________
5. radically different ___________
6. fundamentally wrong ___________
7. subtly different ____________
8. vastly superior ___________
E. Condensing and expanding vocabulary in original text
In the following pre-paraphrasing tasks, writers practice condensing phrases into one word and,
conversely, expanding words into phrases (i.e., “circumlocution” ).For exercises such as this, you
can extract vocabulary from assigned readings or present general vocabulary that would be
useful for many paraphrasing tasks.
Task 1: Rewrite each of the phrases, changing the underlined modifier phases to one word.
The word you choose should not be a word form of the original. Make word order changes as
appropriate. The first has been done as an example.
1. delayed for the time being
temporarily
delayed
2. more or less the same
3. a well thought out plan
4. an outcome that couldn’t be guessed
5. an act that was not cowardly
6. an achievement that no one could
believe
7. an answer that did not beat around the
bush
8. an argument that is beside the point
Note: To make this exercise more challenging, ask students to write a synonym for the word
being modified, e.g. 1) temporarily postponed. Be careful to choose words that can be somewhat
easily replaced (e.g., the same would not be easy to replace in 2.). As illustrated above, making
modifiers negative helps to keep the writer from paraphrasing using words in the phrase. This
would be a good group task since it could draw on students’ knowledge of idioms. The instructor
might need to give some clues if students cannot access a word to substitute for an idiom such as
“beside the point”.
Task 2: Now rewrite each of the phrases below. Changing the underlined adjective to a phrase
that will follow the noun. Write a synonym for the noun. Make other changes as necessary. Use a
dictionary such as Collins Cobuild to help you if necessary. The first has been done as an
example.
1. an expensive mistake
an error that was costly
2. a fortunate encounter
3. a simple solution
4. an inconsistent performance
5. a valid excuse
6. an opposite view
7. a hostile reaction
8. a odd response
F. Transforming sentence structure: Using word form cues to guide rephrasing
To create a sentence transformation exercise like the one that follows, choose sentences from a
text that the students have read carefully. Give students words and phrases to prompt a
restructuring of the sentence. The amount of text you provide will depend on the proficiency
levels of your students. The task below is based on a passage called Bystander Apathy by John
Darley and Bibb Latane. For a detailed lesson plan I wrote that includes this exercise and a few
more sentences for paraphrase with sample answers see the University of Calfornia Diagnostic
Writing Service website.
Task: Rewrite each of the sentences, using the words in parentheses. Look first for the part of the
original sentence that will need to be replaced. Find the subject of any verbs—who is doing
what? Make any other changes you think are needed. Refer to the entire passage to provide
context when needed.
1. People trying to interpret a situation often look at those around them to see how to react. (base
reactions on)
2. There are three things bystanders must do if they are to intervene in an emergency.
(necessary)
3. In a crowd, then, each person is less likely to notice a potential emergency than when alone.
(tends to....less)
4. Even if a person defines an event as an emergency...(decides)
5. ... the presence of other bystanders may still make each person less likely to intervene. (may
feel less inclined)
________________________________________
Sample paraphrases for sentences using the cues:
1. People trying to interpret a situation often base their reactions on those around them.
2. Three things are necessary for bystanders to intervene in an emergency.
3. In a crowd, then, each person tends to notice a potential emergency less than when alone.
4. Even if a person decides that an event is an emergency...
5. ...each person may feel less inclined to intervene in the presence of other bystanders.
G. Paraphrase analysis: Identifying synonyms in original text and paraphrase
The exercise that follows asks students to examine both the original text and paraphrases of the
text to determine how specific words and phrases have been reworded in the paraphrase.
Although this is an analysis and not a production task, it is nevertheless quite challenging as the
paraphrases also include transformed sentence structures.
This exercise can be found on Norbert Berger’s website:
www.ngberger.com/ex/elc2002/materials/paraphasing_task1.htm
H. Paraphrasing practice using text-manipulation software
Finally, methods that illustrate where key words appear and require synonym substitution for
content words using text manipulation software such as Storyboard and Gapmaster can be found,
among other places, on Oregon State University English Language Institute’s website. This
website shows exercises created by Deborah Healy, with ideas from John Whitney.
(http://oregonstate.edu/~healeyd/162/162paraphrase.html; accessed March 8, 2004)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Teacher reference
Hinkel , E. (2004). Teaching Academic ESL Writing: Practical Techniques in Vocabulary and
Grammar. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004). The language of schooling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Schleppegrell, M.J. & Columbi, M.C. (Eds.). (2002 ). Developing advanced literacy in
first and second languages: Meaning with power. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Student textbooks
Brinton, D., Frodesen, J., Holten, C., Jensen, L., Repath-Martos. (1997). Insights 2: A contentbased approach to academic preparation. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Holten, C. and Marasco, J. (1998). Looking ahead: Mastering academic writing: Book 4
J. Reid and P. Byrd, Series Editors. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students: A course for
nonnative speakers of English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
_______. (2000). English in today’s research world: A writing guide. An Arbor:
University of Michigan Press.
Dictionaries and thesauruses
Biber, D., Leech, G. Johansson, S. Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. (2000) Longman Grammar of
Spoken and Written English. Longman Publications Group
Collins CoBuild New Student’s Dictionary (1997). Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers.
Longman Language Activator: The Worlds’ First Production Dictionary. (1993). Essex:Longman
Websites
www.ngberger.com
http://owl.english.purdue.edu
http://oregonstate.edu/~healyd
www.ucop.edu/dws/lounge/course-materials.htm.
Jan Frodesen
University of California, Santa Barbara
[email protected]
Developing Paraphrasing Skills
through Vocabulary Knowledge and Control
TESOL, Long Beach, CA
April 2, 2004
 The Pedagogy Of Paraphrase: Practices And Problems





Paraphrasing in the context of academic writing instruction
Referencing source materials: The main “commandments”
Problems L2 writers have in paraphrasing effectively
Characteristics of unsuccessful paraphrases
Using guided vocabulary exercises to develop paraphrasing skills
 Vocabulary Exercises For Developing Paraphrasing Skills
A. Introducing references: Introductory phrases and reporting verbs
Many paraphrase exercises that ask students to rewrite sentences in their own words do not also
ask them to introduce the paraphrase. Some developing writers assume that unless they quote
text, they do not need to introduce the author, so it’s a good idea to spend time showing how to
introduce references before or after paraphrases and helping students understand the meanings
of a range of reporting verbs. Since these verbs are also useful for brief summaries that typically
include paraphrasing, reference is made to summary here as well.
A . Introducing a paraphrase
The following structures can be used to introduce an author’s ideas that you are going to
paraphrase or summarize.
Task 1: Put a check next to the structures that you have used in your own writing. (The verb
states has been used for the examples, but others could be used as well.)
___a. According to (AUTHOR/ARTICLE),
____c. (AUTHOR) states that _______
___ b. As (AUTHOR) states/has stated/stated,
____d. (AUTHOR) further states that ________
Which of the structures above require commas following them? Circle the commas.
True or false? A comma should not be placed between a verb and the word that which
introduces a paraphrase.
Reporting verbs
The following are verbs for introducing a paraphrase. They are called “reporting verbs” because
you use them to cite another’s ideas, whether as a quote or a paraphrase.
___advise
___argue
___assert
___caution
___claim
___confirm
___contend
___declare
___deny
___emphasize
___indicate
___maintain
___mention
___note
___point out
___propose
___remark
___say
___speculate
___state
___stress
___suggest
___urge
___warn
Task 1: Put an “X” in the blank next to all of the reporting verbs in the list whose meanings you
are familiar with. The words not checked will represent those whose meanings you should look up
in a dictionary.
Task 2: Answer the following questions about reporting verb meanings by circling your choices.
1. Which three of the following verbs could introduce an author’s strong claims?
argue
assert
claim
note
remark
2. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a weak or tentative claim?
confirm
maintain
propose
speculate
suggest
3. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a paraphrase that represents an important
point the author wishes to make?
contend
emphasize
mention
say
stress
3. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a paraphrase that represents a point of
lesser importance?
assert
mention
note
remark
urge
4. Which three of the following verbs could introduce a paraphrase in which the author offers
advice to readers?
caution
deny
indicate
warn
urge
B. Distinguishing “unique phrasing” from “shared language”
L2 writers, like other developing writers, sometimes have difficulty determining what words
should be paraphrased. Instruction on paraphrase refers to these words in various ways, as
“character words,” “the author’s distinctive voice,” “unique phrasing” and so on. These exercises
are designed to raise consciousness about the kinds of words that the writer needs to replace
with his or her own words or phrases.
Task 1: One word in each of the following lists has more of a distinctive character than the others
and, if it were in a text, should most likely be paraphrased and not copied. Find the word and
circle it. Then state in what context the word might be used. Use your dictionary to help you if you
are not sure.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
big
polish off
decrease
odd
hoodwink
cavernous
end
nosedive
strange
fool
large
finish
drop
uncanny
trick
Task 2: Read the following sentences adapted from an article about the rise of Chinese language
learning in Korea. Circle one word in each sentence that you think reflects the author’s distinctive
voice. Then supply a synonym that fits the context.
1. After years of slogging through her English lessons, stumbling over impossible pronunciations
and baffling rules of syntax, Chae Eun came up with a better idea.
2. South Korea is known as one of the United States’ staunchest allies and is host to 37,000 U.S.
Troops.
3. In what might be a sign of things to come, China is the object of infatuation at the moment.
4. Chinese studies are booming throughout the world.
5. For most students, the motives are strictly mercenary: They believe that command of Chinese
will give them an edge in the job market.
6. “The interest in Chinese does reflect some antipathy to U.S. hegemony and arrogance,” said
Suh Jin Young, an international relations professor at Korea University in Seoul.
(From: Who Needs English? B. Demick, Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2004, Column One)
C. Working with key vocabulary to use in paraphrases
In many cases “key vocabulary” in a text can be considered a subset of the category
“unique phrasing” though sometimes key words might be technical and cannot be paraphrased.
Background: One of the ways to begin paraphrasing a sentence or group of sentences is to
identify key words that are not technical. Then, find a synonym for the key words.
Original: The notion that one can purge one’s emotions by expressing them has been
labeled “the catharsis hypothesis”. Freudian psychologists, of course, applauded this
idea.
Paraphrase: The _________ that one can _________ one’s emotions by expressing
them has been _________ “the catharsis hypothesis”. Freudian psychologists, of course,
__________ this idea.
Task 1: Begin paraphrasing each of the sentences below by finding a synonym for the italicized
words or phrases. NOTE: You can delete words from the original sentence as long as you don’t
change the writer’s intended meaning.
8. In that sense, some merit can be attached to the claim that “violent emotional expressions”
may have some benefits.
9. Repressed emotions such as fear and anger are discharged by laughing and crying.
10. Sometimes an expression of anger helps clear the air; but often, the direct expression of
anger is self-indulgent—it begets more anger and aggression.
11. What is probably important is not whether people express anger or withhold it in a single
instance, but whether they use their anger to change things that upset them in the first place.
12. When frustrated subjects were able to aggress either physically or verbally against the
source of their frustration, their blood pressures and heart rates returned to normal with
surprising rapidity.
13. The victim must get the retaliation deserved, nor more and no less. If one goes overboard,
one may feel guilty later.
14. Other research warns that when people express their angry, aggressive feelings, they often
get themselves so worked up that the situation may become worse than it was before.
(Exercise created by Christine Holten, UCLA TESL/Applied Linguistics)
Task 2: For each of the sentences below about defining intelligence, underline two key words
or phrases. Then write a synonym for each of the words/phrases you selected. Your synonym
could be a word or a phrase.
1. Definitions of intelligence often reflect cultural values.
2. The closest Mandarin equivalent, for instance, is a Chinese character that means good brain
and talented.
3. Chinese people often associate this with traits such as imitation, effort and social
responsibility.
4. Such traits do not constitute important elements of intelligence for most mainstream
Americans.
From: People: Psychology from a Cultural Perspective, David Matsumoto (1994)
Another way to work with key words in pre-paraphrase tasks is to ask students to create word
family charts. Writers can then use different forms of the words to start a paraphrase.
Task 3: The following words are from readings in this unit. Using a dictionary, look up the
meaning of each word. Provide the missing members of each word family. The first has been
done for you. If the word does not have members in one or more classes, write X in the blank.
WORD FAMILIES
Verb
associate
Noun
association
combination
Adjective
associative
Adverb
associatively
Intelligent
imitate
comparison
precisely
D. Paraphrasing descriptive adjectives/adverbs commonly found in academic writing
Vocabulary selected for paraphrase exercises like the following should be relatively contextindependent, using common abstract nouns or, in the second exercise, adjectives. Though
common in academic writing, some of these may not be words in the students’ active vocabulary.
Task 1: For each of the following phrases, underline the adjective that describes each noun.
Then write a word that could replace it in the space provided. The first has been done as an
example.
1. an important finding _significant __
2. potential problems ____________
3. obvious differences ____________
4. pragmatic solution __________
5. a rudimentary step ___________
6. a trivial objection ___________
7. a rational excuse ____________
8. a novel approach _____________
Adapted from an exercise in Hinkel (2004), p. 235
Task 2: Now do the same for the adverbs in the phrases below: Underline the adverb and write a
word that could replace it in the space provided. The first has been done as an example.
1. perpetually changing __constantly___
2. tentatively approved _______________
3. approximately as fast ____________
4. vitally important _______________
5. radically different ___________
6. fundamentally wrong ___________
7. subtly different ____________
8. vastly superior ___________
E. Condensing and expanding vocabulary in original text
In the following pre-paraphrasing tasks, writers practice condensing phrases into one word and,
conversely, expanding words into phrases (i.e., “circumlocution” ).For exercises such as this, you
can extract vocabulary from assigned readings or present general vocabulary that would be
useful for many paraphrasing tasks.
Task 1: Rewrite each of the phrases, changing the underlined modifier phases to one word.
The word you choose should not be a word form of the original. Make word order changes as
appropriate. The first has been done as an example.
1. delayed for the time being
temporarily
delayed
2. more or less the same
3. a well thought out plan
4. an outcome that couldn’t be guessed
5. an act that was not cowardly
6. an achievement that no one could
believe
7. an answer that did not beat around the
bush
8. an argument that is beside the point
F. Transforming sentence structure: Using word form cues to guide rephrasing
Task: Rewrite each of the sentences, using the words in parentheses. Look first for the part of the
original sentence that will need to be replaced. Find the subject of any verbs—who is doing
what? Make any other changes you think are needed. Refer to the entire passage to provide
context when needed.
1. People trying to interpret a situation often look at those around them to see how to react. (base
reactions on)
2. There are three things bystanders must do if they are to intervene in an emergency.
(necessary)
3. In a crowd, then, each person is less likely to notice a potential emergency than when alone.
(tends to....less)
4. Even if a person defines an event as an emergency...(decides)
5. ... the presence of other bystanders may still make each person less likely to intervene. (may
feel less inclined)
H. Paraphrasing practice using text-manipulation software
Finally, methods that illustrate where key words appear and require synonym substitution for
content words using text manipulation software such as Storyboard and Gapmaster can be found,
among other places, on Oregon State University English Language Institute’s website. This
website shows exercises created by Deborah Healy, with ideas from John Whitney.
(http://oregonstate.edu/~healeyd/162/162paraphrase.html; accessed March 8, 2004)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Teacher reference
Hinkel , E. (2004). Teaching Academic ESL Writing: Practical Techniques in Vocabulary and
Grammar. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004). The language of schooling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Schleppegrell, M.J. & Columbi, M.C. (Eds.). (2002 ). Developing advanced literacy in
first and second languages: Meaning with power. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Student textbooks
Brinton, D., Frodesen, J., Holten, C., Jensen, L., Repath-Martos. (1997). Insights 2: A contentbased approach to academic preparation. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Holten, C. and Marasco, J. (1998). Looking ahead: Mastering academic writing: Book 4
J. Reid and P. Byrd, Series Editors. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students: A course for
nonnative speakers of English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
_______. (2000). English in today’s research world: A writing guide. An Arbor:
University of Michigan Press.
Dictionaries and thesauruses
Biber, D., Leech, G. Johansson, S. Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. (2000) Longman Grammar of
Spoken and Written English. Longman Publications Group
Collins CoBuild New Student’s Dictionary (1997). Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers.
Longman Language Activator: The Worlds’ First Production Dictionary. (1993). Essex:Longman
Websites
www.ngberger.com
http://owl.english.purdue.edu
http://oregonstate.edu/~healyd
www.ucop.edu/dws/lounge/course-materials.htm.
Paraphrasing
Steps and Examples
by Deborah Healey http://oregonstate.edu/~healeyd/162/162paraphrase.html
Step 1: Understand what you are reading. If you don't understand it, you can't
paraphrase it correctly. That's guaranteed.
Step 2: Think about the ideas, especially how the ideas may relate to your
specific topic.
Step 3: Not looking at the original, write down the ideas.
Step 4: Look back at the original to see if you have changed the grammar and
vocabulary. If not, change them now.
Sample:
Original:
Named for James Brady, the White House press secretary who was shot
and wounded by John Hinckley Jr. during the attempted assassination of
President Ronald Reagan in March 1981, the Brady Bill establishes a
national waiting period and background check for the purchase of a
handgun. (Bender, 1995: 137)
Phrases to avoid from the original are in bold:
Named for James Brady, the White House press secretary who was
shot and wounded by John Hinckley Jr. during the attempted
assassination of President Ronald Reagan in March 1981, the Brady
Bill establishes a national waiting period and background check for the
purchase of a handgun. (Bender, 1995: 137)
Ideas:
Brady bill = named for White House press secretary James Brady
Brady was shot during an assassination attempt on President Reagan
Brady bill provisions = people who want to buy handguns have a waiting
period and check on their backgrounds
Changing the order of ideas, grammar, and vocabulary:
Bender (1995) explains that people who want to buy handguns in the US
now have a waiting period and a background check as a result of the
Brady Bill. The bill was named after White House press secretary James
Brady, who was wounded during an assassination attempt on President
Reagan. (137).
Notice how the grammar and vocabulary have been changed wherever
possible in the paraphrase.
Exercise
1. Look at the following quotation. On a piece of paper, write down the
phrases that you need to avoid.
Downlut believes the Brady bill trespasses on the rights of law-abiding
citizens, and is therefore inconsistent with the Constitution, because it
imposes a waiting period on exercising the right to own guns. (Bender,
1995: 137)
2. Now on your piece of paper list the ideas that you will include.
3. Next, cover up the original and write a paraphrase.
4. Check for the underlined words, ideas, and a change in vocabulary and
grammar.
5. Check your work with the model. How did you do?
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_paraphr.html
Learn to borrow from a source without plagiarizing. For more
information on paraphrasing, as well as other ways to integrate
sources into your paper, see the Purdue OWL handout Quoting
Paraphrasing, and Summarizing. For more information about writing
research papers, see our workshop on this subject. Purdue students
will want to make sure that they are familiar with Purdue's official
academic dishonesty policy as well as any additional policies that their
instructor has implemented. Another good resource for understanding
plagiarism is the WPA Statement on Plagiarism.
A paraphrase is...

your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed
by someone else, presented in a new form.


one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate
documentation) to borrow from a source.
a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses
concisely on a single main idea.
Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...



it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished
passage.
it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps
you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later
how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write
a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your
version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new
form.
5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you
have borrowed exactly from the source.
6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that
you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into
your paper.
Some examples to compare
The original passage:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a
result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably
only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly
quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of
exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester,
James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
A legitimate paraphrase:
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep
quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually
originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material
recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
An acceptable summary:
Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources
to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper
(Lester 46-47).
A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes,
resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact,
probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly
quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source
material copied while taking notes.
After reviewing this handout, try an exercise on paraphrasing.
On a separate piece of paper, write a paraphrase of each of the
following passages. Try not to look back at the original passage.
1. "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the
sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our
climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water
around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the
tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our
atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now
threatened by human activity." From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon
(May 1990):17.
2. The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law, and
the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar where
liquor could be had. They were the years when organized crime ruled
the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do anything against it.
Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land,
and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, and Count Basie
became the heroes of the young. The flapper was born in the twenties,
and with her bobbed hair and short skirts, she symbolized, perhaps
more than anyone or anything else, America's break with the past.
From Kathleen Yancey, English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25.
3. Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are
caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children.
One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of
head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the
shock and cushions the head. From "Bike Helmets: Unused
Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348.
4. Matisse is the best painter ever at putting the viewer at the scene.
He's the most realistic of all modern artists, if you admit the feel of the
breeze as necessary to a landscape and the smell of oranges as
essential to a still life. "The Casbah Gate" depicts the well-known
gateway Bab el Aassa, which pierces the southern wall of the city near
the sultan's palace. With scrubby coats of ivory, aqua, blue, and rose
delicately fenced by the liveliest gray outline in art history, Matisse
gets the essence of a Tangier afternoon, including the subtle presence
of the bowaab, the sentry who sits and surveys those who pass
through the gate. From Peter Plagens, "Bright Lights." Newsweek (26
March 1990): 50.
5. While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in
skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and
engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building.
The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer
William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile
high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel
claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building.
From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.
Practice In Paraphrasing: Possible Exercise Answers
Brought to you by the Purdue University Online Writing Lab
For information on paraphrasing sources, see the Purdue OWL handout
Paraphrasing. For information on other ways to cite sources, see the
Purdue OWL handout Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.
1. According to Jacques Cousteau, the activity of people in Antarctica
is jeopardizing a delicate natural mechanism that controls the earth's
climate. He fears that human activity could interfere with the balance
between the sun, the source of the earth's heat, and the important
source of cold from Antarctic waters that flow north and cool the
oceans and atmosphere ("Captain Cousteau" 17).
2. During the twenties lawlessness and social nonconformity prevailed.
In cities organized crime flourished without police interference, and in
spite of nationwide prohibition of liquor sales, anyone who wished to
buy a drink knew where to get one. Musicians like Louis Armstrong
become favorites, particularly among young people, as many turned
away from highly respectable classical music to jazz. One of the best
examples of the anti-traditional trend was the proliferation of young
"flappers," women who rebelled against custom by cutting off their
hair and shortening their skirts (Yancey 25).
3. The use of a helmet is the key to reducing bicycling fatalities, which
are due to head injuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the head upon
impact, a helmet can reduce accidental injury by as much as 85%,
saving the lives of hundreds of victims annually, half of whom are
school children ("Bike Helmets" 348).
4. Matisse paintings are remarkable in giving the viewer the distinct
sensory impressions of one experiencing the scene first hand. For
instance, "The Casbah Gate" takes one to the walled city of Tangier
and the Bab el Aassa gateway near the Sultan's palace, where one can
imagine standing on an afternoon, absorbing the splash of colors and
the fine outlines. Even the sentry, the bowaab vaguely eyeing those
who come and go through the gate, blends into the scene as though
real (Plagens 50).
5. How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than the
present world marvel, the Sears Tower, is unknown. However, the
design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect,
Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a
skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15).
Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
Brought to you by the Purdue University Online Writing Lab at
http://owl.english.purdue.edu
Also, see our handout on paraphrasing at
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_paraphr.html.
This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of
and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. The first part
of the handout compares and contrasts the terms, while the second part offers
a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.
What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing
differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.



Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of
the source. They must match the source document word for word and
must be attributed to the original author.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your
own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source.
Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking
a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words,
including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute
summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly
shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source
material.
Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?
Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use
them to . . .




provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
give examples of several points of view on a subject
call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with



highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting
the original
distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers
that the words are not your own
expand the breadth or depth of your writing
Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part
of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include
paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or
suggestive phrases as in the following example:
In his famous and influential work On the Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund
Freud
argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page),
expressing in
coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as
the
"dream work" (page). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires
are
censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation
and
displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself
(pages).
How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries
Practice summarizing the following essay, using paraphrases and quotations as
you go. It might be helpful to follow these steps:




Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.
Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.
Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should
be quoted directly.
There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a short
quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer quotations can
stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure
that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to
do so. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our
documentation guide pages. We have one guide for the format recommended
by the Modern Language Association (MLA) for papers in the humanities (at
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html) and another for
the format recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) for
papers in the social sciences (at
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html).
Sample essay for summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting
So That Nobody Has To Go To School If They Don't Want To
by Roger Sipher
A decline in standardized test scores is but the most recent indicator
that American education is in trouble.
One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws
force many to attend school who have no wish to be there. Such
children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school
that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the
quality education that is the birthright of every American.
The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-attendance
laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an education
to attend.
This will not end public education. Contrary to conventional belief,
legislators enacted compulsory-attendance laws to legalize what
already existed. William Landes and Lewis Solomon, economists,
found little evidence that mandatory-attendance laws increased the
number of children in school. They found, too, that school systems
have never effectively enforced such laws, usually because of the
expense involved.
There is no contradiction between the assertion that compulsory
attendance has had little effect on the number of children attending
school and the argument that repeal would be a positive step toward
improving education. Most parents want a high school education for
their children. Unfortunately, compulsory attendance hampers the
ability of public school officials to enforce legitimate educational and
disciplinary policies and thereby make the education a good one.
Private schools have no such problem. They can fail or dismiss
students, knowing such students can attend public school. Without
compulsory attendance, public schools would be freer to oust students
whose academic or personal behavior undermines the educational
mission of the institution.
Has not the noble experiment of a formal education for everyone
failed? While we pay homage to the homily, "You can lead a horse to
water but you can't make him drink," we have pretended it is not true
in education.
Ask high school teachers if recalcitrant students learn anything of
value. Ask teachers if these students do any homework. Quite the
contrary, these students know they will be passed from grade to
grade until they are old enough to quit or until, as is more likely, they
receive a high school diploma. At the point when students could
legally quit, most choose to remain since they know they are likely to
be allowed to graduate whether they do acceptable work or not.
Abolition of archaic attendance laws would produce enormous
dividends.
First, it would alert everyone that school is a serious place where one
goes to learn. Schools are neither day-care centers nor indoor street
corners. Young people who resist learning should stay away; indeed,
an end to compulsory schooling would require them to stay away.
Second, students opposed to learning would not be able to pollute the
educational atmosphere for those who want to learn. Teachers could
stop policing recalcitrant students and start educating.
Third, grades would show what they are supposed to: how well a
student is learning. Parents could again read report cards and know if
their children were making progress.
Fourth, public esteem for schools would increase. People would stop
regarding them as way stations for adolescents and start thinking of
them as institutions for educating America's youth.
Fifth, elementary schools would change because students would find
out early they had better learn something or risk flunking out later.
Elementary teachers would no longer have to pass their failures on to
junior high and high school.
Sixth, the cost of enforcing compulsory education would be
eliminated. Despite enforcement efforts, nearly 15 percent of the
school-age children in our largest cities are almost permanently
absent from school.
Communities could use these savings to support institutions to deal
with young people not in school. If, in the long run, these institutions
prove more costly, at least we would not confuse their mission with
that of schools.
Schools should be for education. At present, they are only tangentially
so. They have attempted to serve an all-encompassing social function,
trying to be all things to all people. In the process they have failed
miserably at what they were originally formed to accomplish.
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