Paraphrase: what is it and why do we ask students to do it? Carol Bailey Senior Lecturer in EFL University of Wolverhampton [email protected] What is paraphrase? “Paraphrasing involves changing a text so that it is quite different from the source, while retaining the meaning.” Bailey (2006) Paraphrasing involves changing a text so that it is quite different from the source, while retaining the meaning. 0 0 0 1. Paraphrasing means altering a piece of writing so that it is not the same as the original, while keeping the message. 2. In paraphrase, the meaning of the source text is retained while its wording is changed. 3. When you paraphrase, you need to alter the source text completely, without changing the meaning. Paraphrase and plagiarism. “There are two kinds of plagiarism. 1. When you use information from an outside source without citing the source … you are guilty of plagiarism. 2. Even when you cite your source, if your paraphrase is too similar to the original, you are guilty of plagiarism.” Oshima and Hogue (2006) Swales and Feak: where would you draw the line? 0 0 0 0 1. 2. 3. 4. Between 1 and 2 Between 2 and 3 Between 3 and 4 Between 4 and 5 Anorexia essay 0 0 1. Pass 2. Fail Edwin’s essay 0 0 1. Pass 2. Fail Edwin’s changes 1. 2. 3. 4. Reduce gradually, about 25% of your total caffeine consumption every week. For this you can use smaller serving size or can combine decaffeinated beverages with caffeinated ones. Brew coffee or tea for less time while preparing, or choose herbal teas where caffeine is absent. There are chances that unknowingly you might consume more caffeine, to avoid this check the nutritional label on the products for caffeine content before you consume them. Include healthy options like fresh fruit juices, water, milk, flavored seltzer, decaffeinated soda or tea instead of caffeinated beverages, soft drinks, sodas and other caffeine rich drinks. Poona’s paraphrase 0 0 1. Pass 2. Fail What the students say… Understanding new words and transfer the data on your own words … are very difficult for me because the UK study and teaching method is very different as compared to India. In India … ready made notes are available and students need to learn by heart that notes and write in exam its very easy. Indian MSc Biomedical Science student What the students say… For me the biggest problem was paraphrasing original tekst because my essay was about DNA and it was very hard to change vocabulary or grammar. I could not change vocabulary because it was specialist and specyfic and teksts or articles are written by author in passive so it was the most difficult point of my essay. Polish BSc Biochemistry student What the students say… Paraphrasing someone's words was the most difficult part in the assignment, as I need to find different synonyms for some words and make sure how to use them. Another problem was facing me in my writing that I could not speed up; I spent long hours writing my essays due to limited vocabularies. Saudi Arabian MSc Mathematics student What the students say… I don't know how to write and I should change the sentences structure or words so that make sure no plagiarism. After three hours, I only write nearly 100 words. I worried about if I can finish my assignment on time. Chinese BA Business Management student NNES students • • • • IELTS 6.0/6.5 or equivalent Average reading speed 200 wpm Average vocabulary size 4,000 words Little experience of reading/writing long texts in English Schmitt 2007 Why do we ask students to paraphrase? 0 0 0 0 1. To show what they have read 2. To demonstrate that they understand what they have read 3. To avoid overusing quotations 4. To make their text ‘flow’ better What are the alternatives?