Supplementary Table 5 | Studies of vitamin D in OA Publication (year) Uitterlinden et al.S46 (1997) Lane et al.S47 (1999) Study design Exposure or variable analysed DNA polymorphisms Outcome Main finding OA Kellgren score Baseline serum 25(OH)D level DNA polymorphisms Incident radiographic hip OA Radiographic OA Retrospective cohort study in 142 men with OA DNA polymorphism (Taq1 in VDR) MRI-detected OA of the lumbar spine Solovieva et al.S50 (2006) Cross-sectional study in 295 dentists and 248 teachers Apa1 and Taq1 polymorphism at VDR Radiographic hand OA Felson et al.S51 (2007) 2 prospective cohort studies; 715 (Framingham) and 277 (Boston) individuals with OA Prospective/cross-sectional cohort study; 880 patients with OA at baseline, 353 of whom were studied again 2.9 years later Prospective cohort study; 728 women and 520 men with OA Baseline serum 25(OH)D level Progression of radiographic knee OA over 9 years MRI–detected and radiographic knee OA One VDR haplotype overrepresented in OA osteophytes Low serum 25(OH)D associated with increased JSN No association between VDR polymorphisms and OA at hand, hip or knee Prevalence of disc bulges and osteophytes lower for tt genotype than TT genotype Carriers of the t allele or At haplotype reduced odds hand OA compared with carriers of the T allele or non-At haplotype No association between 25(OH)D and OA progression Huang et al.S48 (2000) Videman et al.S49 (2001) Cross-sectional study; 270 female patients with OA Prospective cohort study; 1,104 elderly men with OA Baseline serum 25(OH)D level Radiographic knee OA at baseline and 6.5 year followup Radiographic hip OA Cross-sectional study; 787 individuals with knee pain and radiographic OA Polymorphism in VDR and serum 25(OH)D level Knee pain and radiographic OA Ding et al.S52 (2009) Bergink et al.S53 (2009) Chaganti et al.S54 (2010) Muraki et al.S55 (2011) arcOGEN consortiumS56 (2012) Population-based cohort study; 846 individuals with OA Prospective cohort study; 237 individuals Baseline serum 25(OH)D level Baseline dietary vitamin D intake Continuous inverse association between baseline 25(OH)D level and cartilage volume and loss Inverse association between 25(OH)D level and progression of knee OA Inverse association between 25(OH)D level and hip OA Weak inverse association between 25(OH)D level and knee pain 5 loci vitamin-Dassociated related to OA identified Case–control study; 7,410 Genome-wide Severe OA patients with severe OA and association study 11,009 control individuals from the UK. Replication study in 7,473 cases and 42,938 controls from Europe Abbreviations: 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; JSN, joint-space narrowing; OA, osteoarthritis. S46. Uitterlinden, A. G. et al. Vitamin D receptor genotype is associated with radiographic osteoarthritis at the knee. J. Clin. Invest. 100, 259–263 (1997). S47. Lane, N. E. et al. Serum vitamin D levels and incident changes of radiographic hip osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Arthritis Rheum. 42, 854–860 (1999). S48. Huang, J., Ushiyama, T., Inoue, K., Kawasaki, T. & Hukuda, S. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee: a case–control study in Japan. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39, 79–84 (2000). S49. Videman, T. et al. The relative roles of intragenic polymorphisms of the vitamin d receptor gene in lumbar spine degeneration and bone density. Spine (Phila. Pa. 1976) 26, E7–E12 (2001). S50. Solovieva, S. et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of hand osteoarthritis in Finnish women. Arthritis Res. Ther. 8, R20 (2006). S51. Felson, D. T. et al. Low levels of vitamin D and worsening of knee osteoarthritis: results of two longitudinal studies. Arthritis Rheum. 56, 129–136 (2007). S52. Ding, C. et al. Serum levels of vitamin D, sunlight exposure, and knee cartilage loss in older adults: the Tasmanian older adult cohort study. Arthritis Rheum. 60, 1381–1389 (2009). S53. Bergink, A. P. et al. Vitamin D status, bone mineral density, and the development of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee: the Rotterdam Study. J. Clin. Rheumatol. 15, 230–237 (2009). S54. Chaganti, R. K. et al. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with prevalent osteoarthritis of the hip in elderly men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study. Arthritis Rheum. 62, 511–514 (2010). S55. Muraki, S. et al. Association of vitamin D status with knee pain and radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19, 1301–1306 (2011). S56. arcOGEN Constorium and arcOGEN Collaborators. Identification of new susceptibility loci for osteoarthritis (arcOGEN): a genome-wide association study. Lancet 380, 815–823 (2012).