Addressing Privacy: Matching User Requirements with

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Addressing Privacy: Matching User
Requirements with Implementation Techniques
Evangelia Kavakli1, Christos Kalloniatis1 and Stefanos Gritzalis2
enforced by appropriate technologies and this is the subject
matter of this paper.
The work presented is structured as follows. Firstly, the
basic privacy requirements that should be considered during
system design and development are analysed. Secondly, the
privacy implementation techniques that realize these
requirements are presented. The paper concludes with a
critical analysis of the above techniques. The aim of this
analysis is twofold: (a) to understand the coverage of the
area and (b) to understand the best fit for purpose of
different privacy implementation techniques.
Abstract--The paper considers the basic privacy requirements
namely anonymity, pseudonimity, unlinkability and
unobservability and how these requirements can be linked
with related system implementation techniques thus guiding
design decisions during system development.
Index terms-- privacy, privacy requirements, privacy
enhancing technologies
I. INTRODUCTION
Privacy as a social and legal issue, traditionally, has been
the concern of social scientists, philosophers and lawyers.
However, the extended use of modern IT systems and
communication networks in the context of several daily
activities (e.g. banking, shopping, communicating with
friends, collaborating with government authorities, etc), sets
additional requirements for protecting the electronic privacy
of individuals. Indeed, on the way to a Global Information
Society with different national and international
programmes aiming at the further development of data
highways, there are multiple privacy risks.
In the last decade most of the Internet users have raised a
great concern regarding their privacy since they can sense
and see how easily their personal data can be exposed.
According to a survey presented in Business Week (1998),
privacy and anonymity are the fundamental issues of
concern for most Internet users, ranked above issues like
ease-of-use, spam-mail, security and cost. According to the
same survey, 78 percent of online users would use the
Internet more and 61 percent of non-users would start using
the Internet if privacy policies and practices where
disclosed. It is true that nowadays this specific fact is being
exploited for attracting more Internet users, since according
to a Federated Trade Commission study, only 16 percent of
corresponded sites were found to have had any privacy
statement or policy in 1998, while in 2000 this percentage
has increased to 65.7 percent.
Besides it being a contemporary data highway on which the
global information society may be built, Internet is known
for many security risks. Thus, the vast development of new
information infrastructures might lead to a vulnerable
information society based on insecure technologies.
In the information society, privacy cannot be sufficiently
protected solely by legislation. Privacy should also be
II. DEFINING PRIVACY
Review of current research in the area of user privacy
highlights the path for user privacy protection in terms of
four
privacy
requirements
namely
anonymity,
pseudonymity, unlinkability and unobservability [1,5]. By
addressing these requirements one aims to minimize or
eliminate the collection of user identifiable data. The
following A – D describe the definition of each of the
above privacy requirements as found in relevant literature.
A. Anonymity
J. C. Cannon in [5] expresses anonymity as the state of
being anonymous or virtually invisible; having the ability to
operate online without being tracked. S. Fischer-Hübner in
[1] presents anonymity as the ability of a user to use a
resource or service without disclosing his/her identity. A
formal definition for anonymity is given by A. Pfitzmann in
[7]. Let RU denote the event that an entity U (e.g. a user)
performs a role R during an event E. Let A denote an
attacker and NCA the set of entities that are not cooperating
with A. An entity U is called anonymous in role R for an
event E against an attacker A if for each observation B that
A can make the following relation holds:
U΄  NCA:0 < P(RU΄B) < 1
(1)
The outcome of the above definitions is that anonymity
serves the great purpose of hiding personal identifiable
information when there is no need of revealing them.
Browsing the Internet only for collecting information is one
of many issues that anonymity plays a significant role and
must be attained.
B. Pseudonimity
Pseudonymity is the user’s ability to use a resource or
service by acting under one or many pseudonyms, thus
hiding his/her real identity. However, under certain
circumstances the possibility of translating pseudonyms to
real identities exists. Pseudonyms are aliases for a user’s
real identity. Users are allowed to operate under different
1
Department of Cultural Technology and Communication University of
the Aegean, Harilaou Trikoupi & Faonos Str., 81100 Mytilene, Greece
{ kavakli, ch.kalloniatis}@ ct.aegean.gr
2
Information and Communication Systems Security Laboratory,
Department of Information and Communications Systems Engineering,
University of the Aegean, 83200 Samos, Greece
[email protected]
1
aliases. Nevertheless revelation of user’s real identity
occurs when acting unlawfully. Pseudonymity has
characteristics similar to anonymity in that user is not
identifiable but can be tracked through the aliases he/she
uses [5]. Pseudonymity is used for protecting user’s identity
in cases where anonymity cannot be provided (e.g. if the
user has to be held accountable for his/her activities [1]. In
[8] a classification of pseudonyms according to their degree
of protection is presented.
behalf of its users. The main concept introduced by the
Anonymizer tools is the existence of a third-party Web site
[9], which acts as a middle layer between the user and the
site to be visited. When the user wishes to visit a specific
Web page, instead of establishing a direct link to the
required Web server, he/she does so through the
Anonymizer Web site. Having established the connection,
Anonymizer forwards the information received from the
desired Web site back to the user.
Anonymizer is extremely easy to use but it has some
inherent vulnerabilities. The first is that users should trust
the Anonymizer service because the Anonymizer server
monitors all the Web sites visited by the user, thus
collecting information about his/her behaviour. The second
vulnerability is that Anonymizer does not provide any
assurance for the communication between the user’s
machine and the Anonymizer server. Finally, no anonymity
is provided when user invokes “helper applications” like
Real Audio, since these applications by pass the server and
establish their own Net connections.
C. Unlinkability
As J. C. Cannon states in [5], unlinkability expresses the
inability to link related information. In particular,
unlinkability is successfully achieved when an attacker is
unable to link specific information with the user that
processes that information. Also unlinkability can be
successfully achieved between a sender and a recipient. In
that case unlinkability means that though the sender and
recipient can both be identified as participating in some
communication,
they
cannot
be
identified
as
communicating with each other. A. Pfitzmann in [7]
addresses unlinkability in the following formal way. Let
XE,F denote the event that events E and F have a
corresponding characteristic X. Two events E and F are
unlinkable in regard of a characteristic X for an attacker A,
if for each observation B that A can make, the probability
that E and F are corresponding in regard of X given B is
greater than zero and less than one:
B. Crowds
Crowds is an anonymity agent based on the idea that people
can be anonymous when they blend into the crowd. Crowds
enables the retrieval of information over the Web without
revealing so much potentially private information to several
parties. The goal of Crowds is to make browsing
anonymous, so that information about either the user or
what information he/she retrieves is hidden from Web
servers and other parties [11].
Specifically, Crowds concentrates Web users into a
geographically diverse group, called “crowd” that performs
Web transactions on behalf of its members. Each user is
represented in the crowd through a process running on
his/her local machine called “jondo”. According to [10]
jondos interfere between the Crowds users and a Web
server. When a user starts his/her jondo an automatic
procedure is triggered through which the local jondo is
informed about the current members of the crowd and viceversa. If this “negotiation” procedure is successful and the
jondo is accepted as a member of the crowd, it can issue
requests to Web servers ensuring that its identity is neither
revealed to the Web servers nor to any other crowd member
[6].
0 < P(XE,FB) < 1 (2)
The ability to link transactions could give a stalker an idea
of your daily habits or an insurance company an idea of
how much alcohol your family consumes over a month.
Ensuring unlinkability is vital for protecting user’s privacy.
D. Unobservability
Unobservability protects users from being observed or
tracked while browsing the Internet or accessing a service.
Unobservability is similar to unlinkability in the sense that
the attacker aims to reveal users identifiable information by
observing rather than linking the information he/she
retrieves. In [7] a formal representation of unobservability
is stated as follows. An event E is unobservable for an
attacker A if for each observation B that A can make, the
probability of E given B is greater than zero and less than 1.
0 < P(EB) < 1
C. Onion Routing
Onion Routing is a general-purpose infrastructure for
private communications over a public network. It provides
anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both
eavesdropping and traffic analysis [12, 13]. Onion Routing
consists of two parts: the network infrastructure that
accommodates the anonymous connections and a proxy
interface that links these connections to unmodified
applications.
The network contains a set of onion routers. Each router is a
store and forward device that accepts a number of fixedlength messages from numerous sources, performs
cryptographic transformations on the messages and
forwards them to the next destination in a random order.
Proxies act as interfaces between the applications and the
(3)
III. PRIVACY ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES
This section provides an overview of the software
mechanisms, tools, protocols and services that have been
designed for protecting user’s privacy. An extended
comparison of these architectures can be found in [6].
A. Anonymizer
One of the best-known Web anonymity tools is the
Anonymizer, a service that submits HTTP requests on
2
network infrastructure. The functions of a proxy can be split
into two: the part that links the initiator to the anonymous
connection and the part that links the anonymous
connection to the responder.
After the initiator contacts his/her proxy, Onion Routing
proceeds with the following steps: define the route,
construct the anonymous connection, moves data through
the anonymous connection, destroy the anonymous
connection.
characteristics as Crowds (see 3.2.2) the functionality of
these two is significantly different [6].
Hordes has been designed for gathering many participants
in the same reception group. This is succeeded because
Hordes takes advantage of the anonymity characteristics
and performance benefits inherent in the IP multicast
routing. Multicast addresses are not associated with any
particular device attached to the network. They are just
labels that refer to the receivers of the group as a whole.
The number of hosts acting as receivers of a multicast
routing tree, as well as, their status, is dynamic and
unknown to routers and hosts. Hordes utilises multicast
communication for the reverse path of anonymous
connections, achieving not only anonymity but also sender
unlinkability and unobservability. A detailed description of
Hordes is given in [18].
D. DC-Nets
A DC-Net (Dining Cryptographers Network) proposed in
[14,15] allows participants to send and receive messages
anonymously in an arbitrary network. It can be used to
provide perfect sender anonymity.
DC-Net is based on binary superposed sending. Each user
station generates at least one key bit for each message bit
and sends each key bit to exactly one other user station over
a secure channel. For each single sending step, every user
station adds modulo 2 (superposes) all the key bits it shares
and its message bit, if there is one. Stations that do not wish
to transmit messages send zeros by outputting the sums of
their key bits (without any inversions). The sums are sent
over the net and added up modulo 2. The result is
distributed to all user stations. The result is the sum of all
sent message bits, because every key bit was added twice. If
a participant transmits a message, the message is
successfully delivered as the result of the global sum to
each participant.
G. GAP
GNUnet’s Anonymity Protocol GAP [19] is a recently
presented protocol claiming to achieve anonymous data
transfers. GNUnet is a peer-to-peer network and its
framework provides peer discovery, link encryption and
message batching. GAP has been designed for securing
GNUnet. It aims to hide the identity of an initiator and a
responder from all other entities, including GNUnet routers,
active and passive adversaries and the responder or initiator
respectively [6]. The communication between all network
nodes is confidential; no host outside the network can
observe the actual data travelling across the network. Data
types are not identifiable since all packets are padded in
order to have identical size.
The most significant difference between GAP and prior
mix-based protocols is that traditional mix-based protocols
always perform source rewriting at each hope. GAP mixes
can specify a return-to-address other than their own,
thereby allowing the network to route replies more
efficiently. However, GAP’s greater vulnerability is that it
has been customised to the functionality of a peer-to-peer
network.
E. Mix-Nets
The technique of Mix network, originally introduced in [16]
and further discussed in [17] realises unlinkability of sender
and recipient as well as sender anonymity against recipient
and optionally recipient anonymity [1]. A mix is a network
station, which collects a number of messages of equal
length from the senders, discards repeats, changes their
encodings, and forwards the messages to the recipients in a
different order. By using only one mix, malicious users
cannot identify the relation between sender and recipient
but the mix and the sender can. A chain of independent mix
stations is used for improving security.
Using a chain of mixes a global attacker, who has access to
all communication lines, can only trace a message through
the mix network, if he/she has the cooperation of all mix
nodes on the path or if he/she can break the cryptographic
operations that mix stations use. Ensuring the
trustworthiness of at least one mix, unlinkability of sender
and recipient is ensured.
H. Tor
Tor, presented in [20], is an architecture based on the Onion
Routing architecture described above. However, Tor has
many improvements over the original Onion Routing.
Firstly, Tor satisfies perfect forward secrecy by using an
incremental path-building design, where the initiator
negotiates session keys with each successive hop in the
circuit. Once these keys are deleted, subsequently
compromised nodes cannot decrypt old traffic. Secondly,
Tor uses a standard SOCKS proxy interface allowing users
to support most TCP-based programs without modification.
Tor improves efficiency and anonymity by multiplexing
multiple TCP streams along each circuit whereas Onion
Routing builds a separate circuit for every application-level
request. This technology addresses traffic bottleneck, while
none of the well-known methodologies do, by allowing the
nodes at the edges of the network to detect congestion or
flooding and send less data until the congestion subsides.
Another improvement is Tor’s end-to-end integrity
checking. Any node in the network has the ability to alter
F. Hordes
Hordes is a protocol that engages multiple proxies for
routing a packet to a responder in an anonymous way while
it uses multicast services for routing the reply to the
initiator again in an anonymous way. Hordes architecture is
based on several proxies called jondos, which are logically
positioned between a Hordes user and a Web server. Each
user’s request is forwarded, through a number of jondos, to
the destination Web server. While Hordes has the same
3
data before sending them to the next one. Onion Routing
did no integrity checking on data. Tor verifies data integrity
before leaving the network by performing an end-to-end
integrity checking. Finally, Tor provides an integrated
mechanism for responder anonymity via location-protected
servers. Clients negotiate rendezvous points to connect with
hidden servers. While Onion Routing included “reply
onions” that could be used to built circuits to a hidden
server, these onions did not provide forward security and
became useless if any node in the path went down or
rotated its keys. In Tor’s architecture reply onions are no
longer required.
more reliable and robust way. Designers and developers
should first decide what kind of services their enterprise
will offer and how it will be offered and then choose the
appropriate implementation technique.
It should be noted that pseudonimity is not included in table
1 since as it is mentioned previously pseudonymity is
provided mainly when anonymity is not allowed and most
of the afore-mentioned techniques provide services for
anonymity. Of course techniques that provide anonymity
can easily provide pseudonimity as well. Additional
techniques that are widely used for providing user
pseudonimity, include:





IV. MATCHING PRIVACY REQUIREMENTS WITH
IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES
Table 1 presents a summary of the basic privacy
requirements and the relative implementation techniques
that satisfy these requirements.
It is obvious that all of the techniques mentioned in section
III have as a primary concern the satisfaction of sender’s
anonymity. Most of these techniques aim to satisfy users
that often communicate over insecure public networks and
the Internet. The majority of Internet users wish to browse
web sites anonymously and only when it is important (i.e ebanking services) to sacrifice their anonymity for using the
services offered.
Of course, there are always enterprises that decide to take
the next step and offer, on a venerable degree, services that
offer not only anonymity but also unlinkability and
unobservability to users. Nowadays, many intruders learn
perfectly how to use new technologies against unsuspected
users especially when the latter try to realize a bank
transaction over the Internet. Users’ trust for using eservices rises when enterprises provide not only perfect
anonymity but also untraceability, unlinkability and
unobservability services. Technologies and protocols like
Onion Routing, Tor, Hordes, GAP and Mix-Nets promise
such services.
Anonymizer
Crowds
Onion Routing
DC-Nets
Mix-Nets
Hordes
GAP
Tor
Anonymity
Unlinkability
Unobservability
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Hash Functions
Biometrics
Public Encryption Keys
Certificates
Trusted Third Parties
V. CONCLUSIONS
This paper presents the basic privacy requirements
necessary for protecting users’ privacy, as well as the
existing implementation techniques that satisfy these
requirements. Analysis of the above techniques shows that
most of the implementation techniques aim on satisfying
anonymity and pseudonimity requirements whereas only
three of the discussed techniques consider all basic privacy
requirements.
Nowadays, in a fully networked society, privacy is
seriously endangered and cannot be sufficiently protected
by privacy legislation or privacy codes of conduct alone.
Data protection commissioners are therefore demanding
that privacy requirements should also be technically
enforced and that privacy should be a design criterion for
information systems.
[1]
[2]
Y: Yes / N: No
Table 1. Matching Privacy Requirements with
Implementation Techniques
[3]
Despite the fact that most of the above techniques satisfy
the majority of user privacy requirements another criterion
must also be considered from the designers and the
developers when selecting the most suitable implementation
technique. The cost criterion. Providing anonymity through
Crowds is a lot cheaper that providing it through Tor. Of
course the Tor architecture provides more services and in a
[4]
4
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