National Qualifications - Reproduction (Teacher notes)

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NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT
Human Biology
Unit 2, Part (i) Reproduction
Teacher Notes
[HIGHER]
The Scottish Qualifications Authority regularly reviews
the arrangements for National Qualifications. Users of
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reminded that it is their responsibility to check that the
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Acknowledgement
Learning and Teaching Scotland gratefully acknowledges this contribution to the National
Qualifications support programme for Human Biology.
The publisher gratefully acknowledges permission to use the following sources: image of
menstrual period from http://76.162.156.243/images/cycle_pic.jpg © The Fertility Helper
Website; image of ultrasound from http://office.microsoft.com/enus/images/results.aspx?qu=ultrasound&origin=FX101741979 © 2011 Microsoft Corporation,
Clipart, all rights reserved; diagram, Day of menstrual cycle from http://schoolswikipedia.org/wp/m/Menstrual_cycle.htm © Lyrl, Wikipedia
Every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders but if any have been inadvertently
overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first
opportunity.
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2011
This resource may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes by educational
establishments in Scotland provided that no profit accrues at any stage.
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REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2011
Contents
Reproduction
4
Hormonal control of reproduction
7
The biology of controlling fertility
13
Pre-natal screening
19
Post-natal screening
23
Appendix 1
26
Appendix 2
27
Appendix 3
28
Appendix 4
29
Appendix 5
31
REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
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REPRODUCTION
Reproduction
The reproductive organs, gametes and fertilisation
This section builds on Standard Grade Biology Animal Survival Need for
Reproduction.
Male
Sperm is made in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
Testosterone – one of the male hormones is produced in the interstitial cells .
Sperm duct – tube leading from testes to penis.
Penis – inserted into female vagina during sexual intercourse.
Accessory glands – (a gland is an organ in the body which secretes a liquid)
Prostate gland/seminal vesicles – secrete fluids that maintain the mobility and
viability of sperm and provide them with fructose (sugar) as a source of
energy.
A dictionary for each topic is a good idea so that students have keywords and
definitions they can look back at when revising. This should be created by the
students as they progress through the Unit. This is a valuable ‘end of lesson’
activity.
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REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
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REPRODUCTION
Female
At puberty females start the menstrual cycle.
This cycle continues each month until the menopause o r pregnancy. After the
menopause the cycle ceases completely and following birth, the cycle starts
again.
Ovaries – ova (egg) develops in graafian follicle (protects ova)
ova found at different stages of development
ova released at ovulation
after ovulation the graafian follicle becomes a corpus luteum
Oviduct – where fertilisation takes place.
Uterus – where the embryo will grow.
Cervix – opening at bottom of uterus.
Vagina – where penis is inserted into during sexual intercourse .
Learner activities
1.
2.
Brainstorm previous knowledge.
Co-operative learning.
In co-operative learning students work in small teams (mixed ability) and use
a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.
Each member is responsible for their own l earning and that of others.
Split class into groups of four.
Each person in the group is assigned a letter A, B, C or D .
A
B
C
D
Seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells
Prostate gland and seminal vesicles
Ova, graafian follicle, corpus luteum
Ovary, oviduct and uterus
Each group member is assigned some material to learn and then teach to
his/her group members. To help in the learning students across the class
working on the same section above get together to decide what is important
and how to teach it. Students should use the internet and/or classroom
resources for information.
The original groups then reform and students teach each other. This teaching
can take the form of poster, a PowerPoint or a talk.
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REPRODUCTION
Success criteria
All students will complete a table as follows in their notes.
Structure
Function
Assessment
After completing the table the students should peer-assess their work,
particularly using the ‘experts’ for their section.
Past paper question
SQA Higher Human Biology 2005: Section B, Question 4
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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
Hormonal control of reproduction
Hormones control the onset of puberty, sperm production and the
menstrual cycle.
Hormonal onset of puberty
Hypothalamus – stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone/interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
(LH/ICSH- this is how these hormones are often referred to ).
Hypothalamus – small structure located at the base of the brain, where the
nervous and hormonal systems interact.
Pituitary gland – gland hanging from the underside of the brain. It secretes
hormones that control many other glands in the body, and is regulated by the
hypothalamus.
Female
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
Lutenising hormone
Ovary
Follicle develops
Stimulates ovulation
Oestrogen
Causes development of
female sexual
characteristics
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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
Male
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
Lutenising hormone
Testes
Seminiferous
tubules
Sperm production
Interstitial
cells
Testosterone stimulates
development of male
sexual characteristics
These flowcharts could be copied and placed in a PowerPoint to show to
students and form the basis of class/group discussion.
Learner activities
1.
Students to discuss in small groups the changes that happen to the body
during puberty.
2.
Students to produce two spider diagrams illustrating the changes that
happen at puberty in both males and females.
3.
Students should note the role of the hypothalamus and the pituitary
gland in puberty (information above).
Success criteria
Students should have completed their spider diagrams correctly.
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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
Assessment
The spider diagrams on the board should be completed using the collaborated
answers from the students.
Past paper question
SQA Higher Human Biology 2004: Question 5; 2006, Question 5.
Hormonal control of sperm production
FSH – promotes sperm production.
ICSH (also called LH) – stimulates testosterone production.( in females LH
triggers ovulation, but in males it ttriggers testosterone production)
Testosterone – stimulates sperm production and activates prostate gland and
seminal vesicles.
Negative feedback control – see Appendix 1.
Learner activities
Students analyse the diagram (Appendix 1) in pairs and explain what is
happening.
Students should devise and complete a table to show hormones and their
functions.
Hormone
Function
Students should make up cards (or use pre-made cards – these could be
laminated to be re-useable) with either the name of a hormone or a function
on them (Appendix 2). Each student has one card and has to find their
‘partner’ (Appendix 2).
Success criteria
All students should have a correctly completed table of hormone/function.
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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
Assessment
The card activity will act as an assessment tool for this activity.
Essay question
Describe the influence of hormones on the testes.
Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle
Students traditionally find this part of the course difficult so take time with
this work.
FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland – pituitary hormones.
Oestrogen produced by ovary tissue – ovarian hormone.
Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum – ovarian hormone.
FSH
Stimulates development of the graafian follicle
Stimulates the ovary to produce oestrogen
Oestrogen
Initiates the repair of the uterus wall
Stimulates the pituitary to produce a sudden upsurge of LH
LH
Stimulates ovulation
Stimulates the graafian follicle to become corpus luteum and
produce progesterone
Progesterone
Encourages development of the uterus lining
Inhibits the pituitary gland (and therefore FSH).
This information can then be used to determine th e fertile period (days 12–
17).
Other factors, such as body temperature (rises by about 0.5°C) and thinning
of cervical mucus, also indicate the fertile period.
These hormones all fit together to make up the menstrual cycle.
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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
The following diagrams could be used as the basis of group discussion about
the menstrual cycle.
Small white boards are a very worthwhile resource. These can be re -used.
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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
Learner activities
This part of the course needs to be explained carefully. The use of simple
charts (see the diagrams above) is effective.
1.
Critical skills activity (Appendix 3).
2.
Complete the blank menstrual cycle chart (2nd page of Appendix 4)
using the information about levels of the four hormones given in
Appendix 4.
3.
Put information about hormone levels and the stages of the menstrual
cycle on a number of whiteboards (or pieces of paper) . Students are
given a board and have to sort themselves into the correct order of
menstrual cycle stages.
4.
Blind Date. Each students is given a card with either the name of a
hormone or information about a hormone on it (Appendix 5). The
students have to find their partner and explain their role .
Success criteria
Students should be able to correctly complete the blank menstrual cycle chart.
Assessment
The Blind Date activity is the assessment activity.
Extension
Essay question
Describe the menstrual cycle under the following headings:
(a)
(b)
The follicular phase (4 marks)
The luteal phase (6 marks)
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THE BIOLOGY OF CONTROLLING FERTILITY
The biology of controlling fertility
Fertile periods
The cycle of fertility in females: one egg released a month, leading to a
fertile period after ovulation. This is shown by low levels of cervical mucus,
a higher body temperature and lasts for three or four days at the time of
ovulation.
Males have a continuous period of fertility: they continually produce sperm
and are continuously fertile.
Calculation of fertile periods and their use .
Comparison of fertile periods of males and females.
Learner activities
Mindmap on fertility in males and females.
Note-taking exercises
Comparing fertility in males and females in a list form:
Males
Females
Making a list of fertility facts for each using notes from the Higher Human
Biology textbook by James Torrance. Hodder and Stoughton.
Matching exercise
Match up statements with infertile period and fertile period , giving a good set
of notes, as on next page. Use the following website to highlight info/for
research: http://www.pregnancy-period.com/most_fertile_period.html
Success criteria
 Describe fertility in males and females. Males , continuous fertility;
females, cyclical fertility.
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THE BIOLOGY OF CONTROLLING FERTILITY
 Give characteristics of the fertile period and be able to calculate the fertile
period.
Assessment
Past paper question
SQA Higher Human Biology 2010 – essay
Describe the biological basis of contraception . (10 marks)
The fertile period
Match the statement below to the correct period. ( Students can be given the
information from the sheet below or this can be done as a summary as a class
on the board and copied into notes).
Fertile period
Mucus thick
Increase in body temperature
Infertile period
Mucus thin and watery
Normal body temperature
Treatments for infertility
Look at the main causes of infertility and their treatments. Include problems
in sperm production, ovulation, fertile periods and surgical interventions.
Ovulation stimulated by drugs that prevent negative feedback of oestrogen on
FSH secretion. Other drugs mimic the action of FSH and LH. These drugs can
cause super ovulation, which can result in multiple births.
Artificial insemination (AI) – useful when male has a low sperm count.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) – used if sperm are defective. Sperm
are drawn into a needle and injected directly into the egg.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) – removal of eggs after hormone stimulation. Eggs
are mixed with sperm, incubated and then transferred to uterus for
implantation.
In vitro meaning- within glass
In vivo meaning- within the living.
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THE BIOLOGY OF CONTROLLING FERTILITY
Learner activities
Research task
Students use internet to research causes of infertility and their treatments ( see
activity sheet). Presentations given in the form of a PowerPoint, poster, notes
or leaflet to the rest of the class, who will put the details into their own notes
or conclusion table for the given causes of infertility and treatments (see
worksheet on next page).
Pairshare task
Each student is given a coloured card (two colours in total). Students walk
round the class and match up with a different colour. One colour gives the
cause of infertility and the other colour gives a treatment. Swap around until
all causes and treatments covered.
Carousel task
Students in four groups, each with a piece of poster paper. Titles:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Problems in sperm production
Problems in ovulation
Fertile periods
Interventions/treatments
Each group has a different coloured pen. Brainstorm all knowledge in the
form of a mindmap (3 minutes). Swap posters to give all groups a shot at each
poster. Summarise at end on board and allow students to copy summary
notes.
Extension/homework task
Research methods of intervention (ICSI, IVF and AI) using the internet/
Higher Human Biology textbook by James Torrance. Hodder and Stoughton.
Complete the following table:
Method
How it works
Facts
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THE BIOLOGY OF CONTROLLING FERTILITY
Success criteria
 Give causes of infertility in males and females.
 Give treatments for infertility, including IVF, AI, stimulating ovulation
and ICSI, and describe how each of these methods treats infertility.
Assessment
Presentations (class can take notes from these presentations).
Essay on the causes of infertility and their treatments.
Quick quiz.
Intervention in fertility presentations worksheet
Your task
 You are a fertility doctor. A couple who cannot get pregnant have come to
you to ask for advice.
 You have to create a presentation to give to the class (the couple) entitled
Intervention in fertility.
 You have to give information on one of the following causes of infertility
and how to treat it:
- failure to ovulate
- blockage of uterine tubes
- failure of implantation
- low sperm count.
End product
 You have to create a presentation: PowerPoint, leaflet, poster, blog, video,
scientific report to last about 10 minutes to present to the class.
 It must have:
- information on the cause of infertility you have chosen
- facts and statistics about this condition
- treatments and options for this cause of infertility
- notes for the class to take on the topic.
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THE BIOLOGY OF CONTROLLING FERTILITY
Timescales
 Rest of the period to research using the internet, textboo ks and any other
resources you have access to- 30 minutes.
 One period to create your presentation- 1 hour
 In the next lesson you will have 10 minutes to organise your presentation
and present it to the class, allowing them to make notes.
Contraception
Look at the biological basis of physical methods of contraception, such as
barrier methods, avoiding fertile periods, intrauterine devices and sterilisation
procedures.
Chemical contraceptives – based on combinations of synthetic hormones .
Mimic negative feedback, prevent release of LH/FSH, prevent implantation or
cause thickening of cervical mucus.
Learner activities
Carousel task
Set up stations with notes on each method of biological and chemical
contraception. Students make notes at each station on the method and how it
prevents conception. Students provide feedback to the rest of the class on
each method.
Method
How it prevents conception
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THE BIOLOGY OF CONTROLLING FERTILITY
Use the Higher Human Biology textbook by James Torrance. Hodder and
Stoughton and the following website for information:
http://www.nhs.uk/livewell/contraception/pages/contraception -hub.aspx.
Pairshare task
Students are each given a different method of contraception and told to match
up with other students with other methods randomly. They should each give a
fact about their method and how their method works to each other.
Success criteria
 Describe methods of contraception.
 Describe physical methods of contraception, including barrier methods,
avoiding fertile periods, intrauterine devices and sterilisation procedures.
 Describe chemical contraceptives based on using synthetic hormones, such
as the morning-after pill and the mini pill.
Assessment/homework task
Past paper question
SQA Higher Human Biology
Essay on methods of contraception. (10 marks)
2010, Question 5 – Question looking at how milk production is established.
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PRE-NATAL SCREENING
Pre-natal screening
A variety of techniques are used to monitor
the health of a mother and her developing
foetus. Pre-natal screening identifies any
risk of a problem so further testing can be
carried out.
Pre-natal care – examples of general health
checks carried out, eg blood type and
general health checks.
Ultrasound imaging:
 dating scan at 8–14 weeks determines the stage of pregnancy and due date
 anomaly scan at 18–20 weeks detects any serious physical problems.
Biochemical tests – can detect the normal physiological changes of
pregnancy. Medical conditions detected by a range of marker chemi cals that
indicate a problem.
Diagnostic testing – further tests offered as a result of routine screening or
for individuals in high-risk categories. The element of risk must be assessed
as well as the decisions to be made if test is positive. Cells from
amniocentesis can be used to make a karyotype.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) can be carried out earlier than
amniocentesis. It has a higher risk of miscarriage but CVS karyotyping can be
performed on foetal cells immediately.
Monitoring of maternal blood pressure is required.
Rhesus antibody testing – Mothers generally show immune tolerance to their
foetus, although sensitivity to rhesus positive antigens can occur. Anti rhesus-positive antibodies are given to rhesus -negative mothers after a
potentially sensitising event after birth. A sensitising event could be a
trauma during birth causing maternal and foetal blood to mix or a blood
transfusion. The rhesus negative mother may be exposed to rhesus
antigen and produce IgG antibodies, which can cross the placental
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PRE-NATAL SCREENING
barrier. During subsequent pregnancies these antibodies may target
foetal red blood cells. Rhesus negative mothers can be given Rh imuune
globulin (which binds foetal RBCs carrying the rhesus antigen and
prevents the mother producing antibodies against it).
Learner activities
View ultrasound images: http://www.ultrasound-images.com/.
Pre-natal care carousel task
Students collect pre-natal care information (see the table on the next page)
from four stations set up with information on the following topics:
ultrasound imaging (http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=genus )
biochemical tests
(http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/29/2/48/52/ )
diagnostic testing (http://www.mothers35plus.co.uk/tests3.htm)
rhesus antibody testing (http://www.babycenter.com/0_blood-test-for-rhstatus-and-antibody-screen_1480.bc).
Each small group of three to four students should spend 5 minutes at each
station collecting the information required. This information should be fed
back to the class from each group. Each student should have a full set of
notes for each section.
Walkabout/talkabout
Students walk around class in pairs discussing a given method of screening
and how it works with a partner.
Screening and risks
Examine data on the risks associated with testing for conditions such as
Down’s syndrome (http://www.womens-health.co.uk/downs.asp).
In small groups of pupils discuss the advantages and disadvantages, and
engage the class in a debate/discussion on this. After the groups have
discussed the teacher will split the class into two sides and have each side
argue one side of the debate.
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PRE-NATAL SCREENING
Examine karyotypes of foetal material showing a variety of disorders such as
Down’s trisomy, Edwards trisomy, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s
syndrome, fragile X, cri-du-chat
(http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/predictdisorder/ ).
Success criteria
 Describe the methods of pre-natal screening – monitoring blood pressure,
blood type and routine blood and urine tests.
 Describe the method of ultrasound imaging: scans at 8–14 weeks to
determine stage of pregnancy and at 18–20 weeks to pick up on physical
problems.
 The health of mother and baby is monitored by biochemical tests.
 Medical conditions can be detected by marker chemicals that indicate a
condition.
 Describe the variety of genetic disorders that can arise and give examples.
 Individuals at high risk can be offered further screening ; this can involve a
high risk.
 Describe how a karyotype can be obtained.
 Describe CVS and its risks.
 Describe the process of rhesus antibody testi ng and how it works.
Homework
Further research on given disorders to feedback to class. Students can be
given a specific disorder and asked to make an information leaflet about it.
Assessment
Quick quiz – using whiteboards.
Make up flash cards – on one side method of screening, on the other side a
description of this method. Students to test each other using these.
Pre-natal care - methods
During pregnancy a variety of techniques can be used to monitor the heal th of
the mother and foetus. Pre-natal screening identifies the risk of a disorder so
that further tests can be carried out and a diagnosis made.
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PRE-NATAL SCREENING
Using the information sheets at each station, each station has information for
a different technique, fill out the following table for each method o f pre-natal
screening.
Method
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How it works
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Fact on how it helps
diagnosis.
POST NATAL SCREENING
Post-natal screening
Diagnostic testing for metabolic disorders
Metabolic disorders, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), are screened for shortly
after birth.
Enzyme A
phenylalanine
tyrosine
Enzyme B
metabolic
pathway
melanin
enzyme C
phenylpyruvic acid
Without enzyme A phenylalanine accumulates in the blood and some of it is
converted into phenylpyruvic acid. The excess of both these compounds
disrupts the normal development of organs , including the brain. Children
suffering from PKU are given a low phenylalanine diet.
There are other diseases that can be screened for , eg galactosaemia and
congenital hypothyroidism.
Learner activities
Use the diagram above to explain the pathway that leads to phenylketonuria.
Students should write their own notes, using the following que stions as the
basis of the notes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Which enzyme is missing in a person with PKU?
What are the consequences of a build up of phenylpyruvic acid?
Why can people with PKU eat phenylalanine when they are grown up?
Why are people with PKU still able to produce melanin?
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POST NATAL SCREENING
Homework
Students can research other metabolic diseases (galactosaemia and congenital
hypothyroidism) and find out:




what causes the condition
how is it tested for
what effect it will have on the individual
can it be treated/minimised.
Success criteria
Students should have a comprehensive set of notes on each of the above three
disorders.
Peer assessment of the homework should take place.
Genetic screening and counselling
Students should be able to interpret pedigree charts over three generations.
The pattern of inheritance using pedigree analysis should be known for:




autosomal recessive genes
autosomal dominant genes
incomplete dominance genes
sex-linked genes.
The types of inheritance can be investigated in the following conditions :






albinism
Huntington’s chorea
sickle cell anaemia
thalassaemia
haemophilia
muscular dystrophy.
There is an excellent PowerPoint at www.biology-resources.com/geneticsCD.html that illustrates genetics.
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POST NATAL SCREENING
Learner activities
1.
Students can work through these games:
www.societyofbiology.org/education/educationalresources/genetics/geneticons
www.societyofbiology.org/education/educationalresources/genetics/happy-families
2.
www.genejury.biology.ed.ac.uk also has a range of activities for
students to work through.
3.
Each member of a group should be responsible for finding out how each
pattern of inheritance is passed on from one generation to the next.
They should then share this with the rest of the group and the group
should present their findings to the rest of the class.
This presentation could be a poster, PowerPoint or leaflet.
4.
Students can research each of the genetic conditions mentioned above
and find out:




what causes it
what is its frequency
what are the effects of the condition
is there a treatment
5.
A number of worksheets on genetic disorders can be found at
http://www.lessonplansinc.com/science.php/biology/lessonplans/C99/
There are a large number of worksheets that could be completed as
homework or assessment.
6.
Students research genome screening in small groups. This is an activity
that can be covered using co-operative learning.
The groups would find out about the following:




what carriers can be screened for
inheritance of conditions influenced by multiple alleles
use of DNA probes and microarrays
use of haemoglobin electrophoresis to detect blood disorders .
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APPENDICES
Appendix 1
Diagram for explaining male hormone functions.
= stimulates
= inhibits
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APPENDICES
Appendix 2
Pick a card and read it.
You need to find the person who has the card that fits with yours.
Repeat with another card.
Seminiferous tubules
Interstitial cells
Sperm
Testosterone
Prostate gland
Seminal vesicles
Negative feedback
Produce sperm
Produce testosterone
FSH
Stimulate sperm
production
Pituitary gland
Stimulate sperm
production
ICSH
Provide sperm with
sugar
Process to control
hormone levels
Stimulate testosterone
production
Stimulate sperm to
swim
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APPENDICES
Appendix 3
Critical skills activity
Your task is to find out about the role of the four female hormones and
present this information in a form that others c an learn from. This could be a
poster, a PowerPoint presentation, a leaflet or another presentation form.
You should include:
 accurate information
 labelled diagrams if appropriate
 information about the four female hormones:
- their roles in the menstrual cycle
- where they are produced
- what order they occur in in each menstrual cycle.
Each person in your group should be able to explain the role and function of
each hormone.
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APPENDICES
Appendix 4
The blank menstrual cycle chart should be completed using the following
information.
Table of hormone levels
Levels of hormones in serum during a normal menstrual cycle
Day in
menstrual
cycle
0
FSH
(IV/litre)
LH
(IV/litre)
Progesterone
(nmol/litre)
Oestrogen
(pmol/litre)
14
12
1
200
2
17
14
1
250
4
19
15
1
300
6
17
16
1
400
8
14
18
1
500
10
12
20
1
1000
12
12
24
1
2000
14
14
76
3
1500
16
23
24
5
600
18
12
18
10
600
20
10
16
20
700
22
8
14
30
2000
24
8
13
25
2000
26
10
12
18
800
28
14
12
2
200
Thickness of endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle
Day of
cycle
Thickness
(mm)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
5
1
2
2.5
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2011
29
APPENDICES
3000
2000
1000
80
35
70
30
60
25
50
20
40
15
30
10
20
10
5
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
Thickness of Endometrium (mm)
Day
30
8
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2011
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
Progesterone (nmol/litre)
4000
LH and FSH Levels (U/litre)
Oestrogen (pmol/litre)
The Human Menstrual Cycle
APPENDICES
Appendix 5
FSH
LH
OESTROGEN
PROGESTERONE
GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE
CAUSES OVULATION
STIMULATES DEVELOPMENT
OF GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE
STIMULATES OESTROGEN
RELEASE
STIMULATES LH RELEASE
REPAIRS UTERUS WALL
THICKENING OF UTERUS
WALL
INHIBITS PITUITARY GLAND
CONTAINS DEVELOPING EGG
CORPUS LUTEUM
REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2011
31
APPENDICES
PRODUCES PROGESTERONE
STIMULATES GRAAFIAN
FOLLICLE TO BECOME
CORPUS LUTEUM
CAUSES OVULATION
EGG
FEMALE SEX CELL
OVULATION
RELEASE OF AN EGG
OVARY TISSUE
RELEASES OESTROGEN
32
REPRODUCTION (H, HUMAN BIOLOGY)
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2011
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