Westward Expansion Study Guide This unit will establish background knowledge about a changing and expanding nation to provide context on growing internal conflict which will eventually lead us into the Civil War Period. We have also examined the positive and negative effects of the nation’s growth from differing perspectives (Native Americans vs. settlers, slave states vs. Free States, progress vs. decline.) Essential Questions: These questions will require you to think about and apply the information you have in your notes from class and from your homework assignments. 1. What factors led to Westward Expansion? 2. What was the impact of Westward Expansion on the development of the United States? 3. How did technology, innovation and culture influence regional differences in Pre-Civil War America? (Think about Pioneers, NC Gold Rush, California Gold Rush, Manifest Destiny, War of 1812, etc) Key People: Thomas Jefferson Cherokee Pioneers Andrew Jackson War Hawks Lewis and Clark Z. Pike Concepts to know: Louisiana Purchase: 1803 President Thomas Jefferson buys the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million. This purchase doubles the size of the United States and provides a large area to the west of the country for expansion. (NC is worried about the new territory becoming Free States) Goals and Outcomes of the Lewis and Clark / Pike Expeditions o Lewis & Clark: 1805 Explorers commissioned to map out areas of the Louisiana Purchase and find routes to the Pacific Oceans o Explore the Northern territory of the Louisiana Purchase o Z. Pike- Explores the Southern territory of the Louisiana Purchase & river ways for trade routes. US Embargo Act of 1807 President Thomas Jefferson prohibits US trade with foreign countries with hopes of American neutrality from the war between France & England Impressments- British kidnapping of US sailors in response to US trade with France Causes for War of 1812 (Know who was involved and why US declared war) o British blockades of foreign trade routes o British Impressments of US sailors and sea violations o British involvement with Native American violence towards US settlers in the Northwest Territory o War Hawks cry for declaration of war against Britain Effects of the War of 1812 o US economy is negatively impacted o US manufacturing increases due to Embargo Act of 1807 (We have to create factories in our country) o Nation sense of pride increases; patriotism Trail of Tears – 1838 The Cherokee Nation is forced to march from the east coast to Oklahoma. Many thousands die along the way (From America the Story of US) Manifest Destiny- 1845 Journalist John O’Sullivan uses the term “Manifest Destiny” to describe the westward expansion of the United States o It was America’s destiny to spread and grow across the continent Oregon Trail- 1841 People begin to travel west in wagon trains on the Oregon Trail. About 300,000 pioneers take route on the trail for the next 20 years. NC & CA Gold Rusho NC- 1799 discovery of a 17 pound gold nugget in Cabarrus County marks the beginning of the NC gold rush (THE FIRST GOLD RUSH IN AMERICA) o California: 1848 people start moving west to California to strike it rich. The gold rush is over after five years.