Vertebrate Zoology BIOL 322/Bone Addendum Sheet final 26mar09

Bone Lab Addendum
Updated 26 March 2009
Explain what comprises axial versus appendicular skeleton:
axial skeleton = skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum)
appendicular skeleton = pectoral and pelvic girdles and their appendages
Know these terms:
process - projection of bone, often not a rounded edge; often a place for muscle
condyle - smooth, usually at a joint where 2 bones articulate
fossa - depression in a bone; muscles often attach here
foramen - hole in bone; nerves, blook vessels can go through the bone by going
through the foramen
sesamoid bones - encased in tendon, e.g., patella
In skull, know:
differences and positions of incisors, canines, premolars, molars
herbivore skull features vs. carnivore skull features
Bird skeleton: emphasize sternum, coracoid, furcula (wish bone), fusion of wing bones
(e.g., carpometacarpus) and leg bones (e.g., tarsometatarsus).
Know how to tell the different kinds of vertebrae apart:
cervical - holes on the sides
thoracic - large neural spine, articulation points for ribs
lumbar - large body
axis vs. atlas
Remind Donna to explain:
epiphysis and diaphysis and bone ossification; explain how biologists can use the degree
of epiphyseal closure as a means to age an animal (young animals - either a groove or a line
is obvious at the epiphyseal plate; this fades with age so epiphysis and diaphysis portions
look like all one continuous bone).