Bone Lab Addendum Updated 26 March 2009 1. Explain what comprises axial versus appendicular skeleton: axial skeleton = skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum) appendicular skeleton = pectoral and pelvic girdles and their appendages 2. Know these terms: - process - projection of bone, often not a rounded edge; often a place for muscle attachment condyle - smooth, usually at a joint where 2 bones articulate fossa - depression in a bone; muscles often attach here foramen - hole in bone; nerves, blook vessels can go through the bone by going through the foramen sesamoid bones - encased in tendon, e.g., patella 3. In skull, know: diastema differences and positions of incisors, canines, premolars, molars herbivore skull features vs. carnivore skull features 4. Bird skeleton: emphasize sternum, coracoid, furcula (wish bone), fusion of wing bones (e.g., carpometacarpus) and leg bones (e.g., tarsometatarsus). 5 Know how to tell the different kinds of vertebrae apart: cervical - holes on the sides thoracic - large neural spine, articulation points for ribs lumbar - large body axis vs. atlas 6. Remind Donna to explain: epiphysis and diaphysis and bone ossification; explain how biologists can use the degree of epiphyseal closure as a means to age an animal (young animals - either a groove or a line is obvious at the epiphyseal plate; this fades with age so epiphysis and diaphysis portions look like all one continuous bone).