North Hills Preparatory Theory of Knowledge Ms. Biela Sample Extended Essay Abstracts (Chemistry, History, Language A [English]) ABSTRACT Ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, is an essential nutrient that is important due to the ease with which it gives off two of its hydrogens. Most of its functions stem from this oxidative property. Ascorbic acid is relatively easy to obtain, but different reasons such as cooking cause there to be a lack in many societies across the world. Ascorbic acid decomposes in the presence of heat, oxygen, and light. Thus, its concentration will be affected by the way that the food is cooked. To investigate how to maximize the amount of ascorbic acid intake, then, I decided to research the question: “How do different dry cooking styles affect the concentration of vitamin C in Capsicum annuum (red bell peppers)?” By using NBS, iodine, and starch, I found the retention percentages in samples of bell peppers prepared in different ways. Titrations until an endpoint with a color of dark blue were done using reduction-oxidation reactions. Through preliminary research, I found that cooking method involving water did not retain much due to vitamin C’s water soluble property, and thus decided to focus on dry methods of cooking. In my experiment, I found that microwaving conserved the most amount of vitamin C, followed by deep-frying, roasting, sautéing, and finally grilling, in that order. Although there was no direct correlation found between temperatures and cooking time, the data seemed to hint at a relation between the contact with oxygen and light in the determination of retention of vitamin C. Further research could have looked into this. Word Count: 253 North Hills Preparatory Theory of Knowledge Ms. Biela Abstract This extended essay aims to answer the primary factors that contributed to and limited the proliferation of Castilian during the Reconquista, and to what extent. The investigation is focused on the external history of Castilian, although some internal history analysis is necessary. With regards to external history, this investigation refers to the opinions of secondary sources such as historical analysts and tries to determine which factors were the most important in Castilian’s proliferation in the Reconquista. With regards to internal history, the investigation consults linguistic analysts and their studies of the relationships among the Ibero-Romance languages and Arabic and Latin. The investigation analyzes some primary sources, such as texts from the Reconquista kings and texts from ordinary people living on the Iberian Peninsula during the Reconquista, which demonstrate the social factors affecting the development of Castilian. The conclusion is that Castilian’s religious neutrality, King Alfonso’s push for one written standard, and Christian nationalism contributed to Castilian’s spread, but that geographic barriers and the cultural strengths of other Ibero-Romance languages limited the proliferation of Castilian. Although most historians agree with all these factors, the disagreement lies in which of these factors contributed the most to Castilian’s proliferation. Historians such as Miller contend that Castilian became the language of this new Christian empire because it was convenient – it contained vocabulary from Arabic and Latin – and was religiously neutral; whereas Penny contends the political prestige and literary contributions that King Alfonso lent the language led to its propagation. This paper concludes that the primary reason was that Castilian was rooted in nationalism – that during the Reconquista, Christians in their desire to remove Muslims and Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, and that because many military heroes of the Reconquista were Castilian, Castilian literature flourished and was therefore propagated throughout the Peninsula. Word Count: 297 North Hills Preparatory Theory of Knowledge Ms. Biela I. Abstract Understanding the growth of the literary vampire through the works Carmilla by Sheridan LeFanu, Interview with the Vampire by Anne Rice, and Let Me In by John Ajvide Lindqvist. The purpose of writing this essay was to explore the evolution of the literary vampire over time. To do this, I studied three works: Carmilla by J. Sheridan LeFanu (1872), Interview with the Vampire by Anne Rice (1976), and Let Me In by John Ajvide Lindqvist (2004). From each I chose one prominent feminine vampire of a certain age group, keeping the characters superficially similar to help ensure proper comparison. The chosen characters were LeFanu’s Carmilla, Rice’s Claudia, and Lindqvist’s Eli. All fall roughly within the same age category (five to nineteen years, before adulthood sets in) and demonstrate clear femininity. (Eli of Let Me In is revealed to be a castrated boy in the work, but because Eli is presented primarily as a girl throughout the work, she is referred to in the feminine in this essay.) Once the characters were chosen, I studied their descriptions and fates within the works, focusing on appearance and behavior; methods of capturing prey; weaknesses and internal conflict; and birth and death. I concluded that the presence of human traits is the key difference among the three vampires and that the authors’ individual depictions of these characters affect the vampires’ roles as protagonists or antagonists within their respective works. In my analysis, I referenced in addition to the works the Bible and the White Stone Journal, both of which are included in my bibliography. Word Count: 260 North Hills Preparatory Theory of Knowledge Ms. Biela The requirements for the abstract are for it to state clearly the research question that was investigated, how the investigation was undertaken and the conclusion(s) of the essay. J: abstract Achievement level 0 1 2 Comments Descriptor The abstract exceeds 300 words or one or more of the required elements of an abstract (listed above) is missing. The abstract contains the elements listed above but they are not all clearly stated. The abstract clearly states all the elements listed above.