EE Abstract examples

North Hills Preparatory
Theory of Knowledge
Ms. Biela
Sample Extended Essay Abstracts (Chemistry, History, Language A [English])
Ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, is an essential nutrient that is important due to the
ease with which it gives off two of its hydrogens. Most of its functions stem
from this oxidative property. Ascorbic acid is relatively easy to obtain, but
different reasons such as cooking cause there to be a lack in many societies
across the world.
Ascorbic acid decomposes in the presence of heat, oxygen, and light. Thus, its
concentration will be affected by the way that the food is cooked. To
investigate how to maximize the amount of ascorbic acid intake, then, I
decided to research the question:
“How do different dry cooking styles affect the concentration of vitamin
C in Capsicum annuum (red bell peppers)?”
By using NBS, iodine, and starch, I found the retention percentages in
samples of bell peppers prepared in different ways. Titrations until an
endpoint with a color of dark blue were done using reduction-oxidation
Through preliminary research, I found that cooking method involving water
did not retain much due to vitamin C’s water soluble property, and thus
decided to focus on dry methods of cooking.
In my experiment, I found that microwaving conserved the most amount of
vitamin C, followed by deep-frying, roasting, sautéing, and finally grilling, in
that order. Although there was no direct correlation found between
temperatures and cooking time, the data seemed to hint at a relation between
the contact with oxygen and light in the determination of retention of vitamin
C. Further research could have looked into this.
Word Count: 253
North Hills Preparatory
Theory of Knowledge
Ms. Biela
This extended essay aims to answer the primary factors that contributed to and limited the
proliferation of Castilian during the Reconquista, and to what extent. The investigation is
focused on the external history of Castilian, although some internal history analysis is necessary.
With regards to external history, this investigation refers to the opinions of secondary
sources such as historical analysts and tries to determine which factors were the most important
in Castilian’s proliferation in the Reconquista. With regards to internal history, the investigation
consults linguistic analysts and their studies of the relationships among the Ibero-Romance
languages and Arabic and Latin. The investigation analyzes some primary sources, such as texts
from the Reconquista kings and texts from ordinary people living on the Iberian Peninsula during
the Reconquista, which demonstrate the social factors affecting the development of Castilian.
The conclusion is that Castilian’s religious neutrality, King Alfonso’s push for one
written standard, and Christian nationalism contributed to Castilian’s spread, but that geographic
barriers and the cultural strengths of other Ibero-Romance languages limited the proliferation of
Castilian. Although most historians agree with all these factors, the disagreement lies in which of
these factors contributed the most to Castilian’s proliferation. Historians such as Miller contend
that Castilian became the language of this new Christian empire because it was convenient – it
contained vocabulary from Arabic and Latin – and was religiously neutral; whereas Penny
contends the political prestige and literary contributions that King Alfonso lent the language led
to its propagation. This paper concludes that the primary reason was that Castilian was rooted in
nationalism – that during the Reconquista, Christians in their desire to remove Muslims and Jews
from the Iberian Peninsula, and that because many military heroes of the Reconquista were
Castilian, Castilian literature flourished and was therefore propagated throughout the Peninsula.
Word Count: 297
North Hills Preparatory
Theory of Knowledge
Ms. Biela
I. Abstract
Understanding the growth of the literary vampire through the works Carmilla by Sheridan
LeFanu, Interview with the Vampire by Anne Rice, and Let Me In by John Ajvide Lindqvist.
The purpose of writing this essay was to explore the evolution of the literary vampire over time.
To do this, I studied three works: Carmilla by J. Sheridan LeFanu (1872), Interview with the Vampire by
Anne Rice (1976), and Let Me In by John Ajvide Lindqvist (2004). From each I chose one prominent
feminine vampire of a certain age group, keeping the characters superficially similar to help ensure
proper comparison. The chosen characters were LeFanu’s Carmilla, Rice’s Claudia, and Lindqvist’s Eli. All
fall roughly within the same age category (five to nineteen years, before adulthood sets in) and
demonstrate clear femininity. (Eli of Let Me In is revealed to be a castrated boy in the work, but because
Eli is presented primarily as a girl throughout the work, she is referred to in the feminine in this essay.)
Once the characters were chosen, I studied their descriptions and fates within the works,
focusing on appearance and behavior; methods of capturing prey; weaknesses and internal conflict; and
birth and death. I concluded that the presence of human traits is the key difference among the three
vampires and that the authors’ individual depictions of these characters affect the vampires’ roles as
protagonists or antagonists within their respective works. In my analysis, I referenced in addition to the
works the Bible and the White Stone Journal, both of which are included in my bibliography.
Word Count: 260
North Hills Preparatory
Theory of Knowledge
Ms. Biela
The requirements for the abstract are for it to state clearly the research question that
was investigated, how the investigation was undertaken and the conclusion(s) of the
J: abstract
Achievement level
The abstract exceeds 300 words or one or more of the required elements of an
abstract (listed above) is missing.
The abstract contains the elements listed above but they are not all clearly stated.
The abstract clearly states all the elements listed above.