Name: ________________________________ Period:_________ Local Government What are the different types of local government? You should be able to answer: 1) 2) 3) 4) What is the origin and purpose of counties and townships? How do citizens play a role in the running of towns in New England? What is the purpose of a special District? How do mayor-council and council-manager plans of city government compare? ________________________________________________ and only have the powers given to them by the state- NOT the federal government. Our daily lives are closely connected to our local government as we come in contact with people who work for our local government: _________________________ _____________________________________and others. We also depend on local services: _______________________________ and water/sewer. Counties and Townships Our oldest unit of local government is the ____________________. The concept originated in England and brought to North America by the Colonists. The original colonies were _____________________________________________________. The business of the county is done at a place called the “________________________________” and is located in the ________________ _____________ of the county, so that every person could reach it within a day’s wagon journey. Every county still has a county seat that acts as the capital of the county. What is the county seat of Stark County? Answer: _________________ Most counties help states ______________________________(sheriff offices) and offer other services (road departments, water and sewage treatment plants, etc) Most counties are __________________________________________. The board is a group of people who manage the business of an organization—in this case it is the county. The board is usually made up of ______________________________ ____________________. They are responsible for setting up county programs and ___________________ _____________________________ (local laws). In most cases the board ____________________________________________ which run hospitals, libraries, and other programs. Stark County Commissioners: ________________________________ _________________________________ ___________________________ The best known elected county official is the _____________________. The concept has its roots in __________________and was brought over with the colonists. The Sheriff along with “Deputy Sheriffs” _________________________ _______________________________________________ in rural areas not covered by city or state police departments. Stark County Sheriff: _________________________ Other county officials include: ________________ (determines the value of property) The Treasurer (_____________________________________) ______________________ (keeps official records such as marriage certificates) TOWNSHIPS As a result of the ______________________________________________, the future Middle Atlantic States and in the Midwest (starting in Ohio) counties are divided into townships. Each township is ________________________________ (6 miles North to South and 6 miles East to West). They were intended to carry out duties (running schools and repairing roads) in rural areas far away from the county seat. NEW ENGLAND TOWNS A second form of rural government started in the New England colonies- _______________. Settlers would construct a village comprising of ___________________________________________________________. When it was combined with nearby farmland, a town was established. In early New England towns citizens took an active role in local government. Voters met once a year at town meetings to ________________________ _____________________________________. The meetings still take place in some small New England towns and represent the closest thing to a __________________________________________. The citizens would elect a board of 3 to 5 members to carry out the town business during the year. Other officials such as school board members, the assessor, clerk, and treasurer were selected _______________________________________ to carry out specific duties. Currently, citizens in large towns choose representatives to attend town meetings and many have hired ____________________ to be in charge of the town’s business. SPECIAL DISTRICTS A special district is a _________________________________________________. It usually serves one community, but can cover one or parts of several communities. For example, a dry region (such as in the south western US) communities ask the state to create a special water district to supply water to the region and cities have special districts to run subways. Every community has one special district- ________________________________. This and other special districts are run by board of citizens. CITIES Urban areas are typically referred to as a___________________________. Larger urban centers are commonly called cities while municipalities that serve _______ ________________________ are often called towns or villages. Today, a mid-sized American city has between ___________________________ ____________________________ citizens. Several cities have millions of people. Governments of today’s cities are responsible for many programs, including pollution control and public safety. 2010 Census: ________________________: 73,011 2009: _____________________________: 32,734 The powers and boundaries of a municipality (a city, town, or village) are _______ ______________ and governed by one of three methods: mayor-council, council- manager, or commission. MAYOR-COUNCIL PLAN Mayor: _______________________________ Council: _______________________________ About ____________________ in the United States use the mayor-council plan. The specific duties and responsibilities of the city officials depend on if the city uses a “________________________” or “______________________________”. Weak Mayor The weak mayor system originated in English colonies as the early settlers did not trust the English government and did not ________________________________ ________________________________________________. The mayor does ___________________________________________—most of the power rests with the council. The council is elected by the people and acts _____________________________ ___________________________________. The council can choose a mayor from its members as well as other officials, make ordinances, and decide how money should be spent. Early on, most cities in the US used this system, but as cities grew so did the demands and need for _________________________________- resulting in a strong mayor Strong Mayor The relationship between the mayor and council resembles _________________ ___________________________. The council makes ordinances, but an elected mayor is in charge of the _____________________________________________ _____________________. COUNCIL MANAGER PLAN As a result of government corruption and favoritism in the early 1900’s the council-manager plan was developed ________________________________ _______________________________. The council is made up of citizens __________________________ and is created through an election. The council makes ordinances and ___________________ ___________________________to hire the day to day business. It is the manager’s responsibility to prepare the budget and is in charge of people who work for the city. The manager is not elected to __________________________________________ ______________________.It is used in over 2 thousand cities today. COMMISSION PLAN The commission plan originated in _____________________________. In 1900, a hurricane destroyed the city, and the weak mayor government in place at the time could not manage the rebuilding. The citizens convinced the state to approve a new form of government, called the commission plan. This plan includes: - Voters choose several commissioners who __________________________ _____________________________________. - Each commissioner __________________________________________ (example: finance, or public assistance) - ______________________ for a single leader in control of the budget and make the departments work together. It ____________________ rebuild Galveston and as a result hundreds of other cities decided to implement it. However, many have since decided not to use it anymore. No matter what type of government, the success of a city, town, or village ___________________________________. Ideas, concerns, and potential solutions can be heard in city hall.